Sioux Falls, South Dakota
Sioux Falls is the most populous city in the U. S. state of South Dakota and the 143rd-most populous city in the United States. It is the county seat of Minnehaha County and extends into Lincoln County to the south, proximate with the Minnesota state line, it is the 47th-fastest-growing city in the United States and the fastest-growing metro area in South Dakota, with a population increase of 22% between 2000 and 2010. As of 2019, Sioux Falls had an estimated population of 187,200; the metropolitan population of 259,094 accounts for 29% of South Dakota's population. It is the primary city of the Sioux Falls-Sioux City Designated Market Area, a larger media market region that covers parts of four states and has a population of 1,043,450. Chartered in 1856 on the banks of the Big Sioux River, the city is situated in the rolling hills at the junction of Interstate 90 and Interstate 29; the history of Sioux Falls revolves around the cascades of the Big Sioux River. The falls were created about 14,000 years ago during the last ice age.
The lure of the falls has been a powerful influence. Ho-Chunk, Otoe, Omaha, Kansa, Arikira and Cheyenne people inhabited and settled the region previous to Europeans and European descendants. Numerous burial mounds still exist on the high bluffs near the river and are spread throughout the general vicinity. Indigenous people maintained an agricultural society with fortified villages, the arrivals rebuilt on many of the same sites that were settled. Lakota populate urban and reservation communities in the contemporary state and many Lakota and numerous other Indigenous Americans reside in Sioux Falls today. French voyagers/explorers visited the area in the early 18th century; the first documented visit by an American was by Philander Prescott, who camped overnight at the falls in December 1832. Captain James Allen led a military expedition out of Fort Des Moines in 1844. Jacob Ferris described the Falls in his 1856 book "The States and Territories of the Great West". Two separate groups, the Dakota Land Company of St. Paul and the Western Town Company of Dubuque, Iowa organized in 1856 to claim the land around the falls, considered a promising townsite for its beauty and water power.
Each worked together for mutual protection. They built a temporary barricade of turf which they dubbed "Fort Sod", in response to hostilities threatened by native tribes. Seventeen men spent "the first winter" in Sioux Falls; the following year the population grew to near 40. Although conflicts in Minnehaha County between Native Americans and white settlers were few, the Dakota War of 1862 engulfed nearby southwestern Minnesota; the town was evacuated in August of that year when two local settlers were killed as a result of the conflict. The settlers and soldiers stationed here traveled to Yankton in late August 1862; the abandoned townsite was burned. Fort Dakota, a military reservation established in present-day downtown, was established in May 1865. Many former settlers returned and a new wave of settlers arrived in the following years; the population grew to 593 by 1873, a building boom was underway in that year. The Village of Sioux Falls, consisting of 1,200 acres, was incorporated in 1876 and was granted a city charter by the Dakota Territorial legislature on March 3, 1883.
The arrival of the railroads ushered in the great Dakota Boom decade of the 1880s. The population of Sioux Falls mushroomed from 2,164 in 1880 to 10,167 at the close of the decade; the growth transformed the city. A severe plague of grasshoppers and a national depression halted the boom by the early 1890s; the city grew by only 89 people from 1890 to 1900. But prosperity returned with the opening of the John Morrell meat packing plant in 1909, the establishment of an airbase and a military radio and communications training school in 1942, the completion of the interstate highways in the early 1960s. Much of the growth in the first part of the 20th century was fueled by agriculturally based industry, such as the Morrell plant and the nearby stockyards. In 1955 the city decided to consolidate the neighboring incorporated city of South Sioux Falls. At the time South Sioux Falls had a population of nearly 1,600 inhabitants, according to the 1950 census, it was third largest city in the county after Sioux Dell Rapids.
By October 18, 1955 South Sioux Falls residents voted 704 in favor and 227 against to consolidate with Sioux Falls. On the same issue, Sioux Falls residents voted on November 15 by the vote 2,714 in favor and 450 against. In 1981, to take advantage of relaxed state usury laws, Citibank relocated its primary credit card center from New York City to Sioux Falls; some claim that this event was the primary impetus for the increased population and job growth rates that Sioux Falls has experienced over the past quarter century. Others point out that Citibank's relocation was only part of a more general transformation of the city's economy from an industrially based one to an economy centered on health care and retail trade. Sioux Falls has grown at a rapid pace since the late 1970s, with the city's population increasing from 81,000 in 1980 to 183,200 in 2018. Sioux Falls is located at 43°32'11" North, 96°43'54" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.47 square miles, of which 72.96 square miles is land and 0.51 square miles is water.
The city is in extreme eastern South Dakota, about 15 miles west of the Minnesota border. Sioux Falls has been assigned
Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming. Standards vary worldwide, but organic farming features practices that cycle resources, promote ecological balance, conserve biodiversity. Organizations regulating organic products may restrict the use of certain pesticides and fertilizers in the farming methods used to produce such products. Organic foods are not processed using irradiation, industrial solvents, or synthetic food additives. In the 21st century, the European Union, the United States, Mexico and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification to market their food as organic. Although the produce of kitchen gardens may be organic, selling food with an organic label is regulated by governmental food safety authorities, such as the National Organic Program of the US Department of Agriculture or European Commission. From an environmental perspective, fertilizing and the use of pesticides in conventional farming may negatively affect ecosystems, biodiversity and drinking water supplies.
These environmental and health issues are intended to be avoided in organic farming. However, the outcome of farming organically may not produce such benefits because organic agriculture has higher production costs and lower yields, higher labor costs, higher consumer prices. Demand for organic foods is driven by consumer concerns for personal health and the environment. From the perspective of science and consumers, there is insufficient evidence in the scientific and medical literature to support claims that organic food is either safer or healthier to eat than conventional food. While there may be some differences in the nutrient and antinutrient contents of organically and conventionally produced food, the variable nature of food production, shipping and handling makes it difficult to generalize results. Claims that "organic food tastes better" are not supported by tests. For the vast majority of its history, agriculture can be described as having been organic; the organic farming movement arose in the 1940s in response to the industrialization of agriculture.
In 1939, Lord Northbourne coined the term organic farming in his book Look to the Land, out of his conception of "the farm as organism," to describe a holistic, ecologically balanced approach to farming—in contrast to what he called chemical farming, which relied on "imported fertility" and "cannot be self-sufficient nor an organic whole." Early soil scientists described the differences in soil composition when animal manures were used as "organic", because they contain carbon compounds where superphosphates and haber process nitrogen do not. Their respective use affects humus content of soil; this is different from the scientific use of the term "organic" in chemistry, which refers to a class of molecules that contain carbon those involved in the chemistry of life. This class of molecules includes everything to be considered edible, include most pesticides and toxins too, therefore the term "organic" and the term "inorganic" as they apply to organic chemistry is an equivocation fallacy when applied to farming, the production of food, to foodstuffs themselves.
Properly used in this agricultural science context, "organic" refers to the methods grown and processed, not the chemical composition of the food. Ideas that organic food could be healthier and better for the environment originated in the early days of the organic movement as a result of publications like the 1943 book The Living Soil and Farming and Gardening for Health or Disease. In the industrial era, organic gardening reached a modest level of popularity in the United States in the 1950s. In the 1960s, environmentalists and the counterculture championed organic food, but it was only in the 1970s that a national marketplace for organic foods developed. Early consumers interested in organic food would look for non-chemically treated, non-use of unapproved pesticides, fresh or minimally processed food, they had to buy directly from growers. "Know your farmer, know your food" became the motto of a new initiative instituted by the USDA in September 2009. Personal definitions of what constituted "organic" were developed through firsthand experience: by talking to farmers, seeing farm conditions, farming activities.
Small farms grew vegetables using organic farming practices, with or without certification, the individual consumer monitored. Small specialty health food stores and co-operatives were instrumental to bringing organic food to a wider audience; as demand for organic foods continued to increase, high volume sales through mass outlets such as supermarkets replaced the direct farmer connection. Today, many large corporate farms have an organic division. However, for supermarket consumers, food production is not observable, product labeling, like "certified organic," is relied upon. Government regulations and third-party inspectors are looked to for assurance. In the 1970s, interest in organic food grew with the rise of the environmental movement, was spurred by food-related health scares like the concerns about Alar that arose in the mid-1980s. Organic food production is a self-regulated industry with government oversight in some countries, distinct from private gardening; the European Union, the United States, Canada and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification based on government-defined standards in order to marke
Philanthropy means the love of humanity. A conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life", which combines an original humanistic tradition with a social scientific aspect developed in the 20th century; the definition serves to contrast philanthropy with business endeavors, which are private initiatives for private good, e.g. focusing on material gain, with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, e.g. focusing on provision of public services. A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist. Philanthropy has distinguishing characteristics separate from charity. A difference cited is that charity aims to relieve the pain of a particular social problem, whereas philanthropy attempts to address the root cause of the problem—the difference between the proverbial gift of a fish to a hungry person, versus teaching them how to fish. In the second century CE, Plutarch used the Greek concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior human beings.
During the Roman Catholic Middle Ages, philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love, valued for salvation and escape from purgatory. Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1600s, credited with preventing the word from being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be synonymous with "goodness", correlated with the Aristotelian conception of virtue, as consciously instilled habits of good behaviour. Samuel Johnson defined philanthropy as "love of mankind; this definition still survives today and is cited more gender-neutrally as the "love of humanity." In London prior to the 18th century and civic charities were established by bequests and operated by local church parishes or guilds. During the 18th century, however, "a more activist and explicitly Protestant tradition of direct charitable engagement during life" took hold, exemplified by the creation of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and Societies for the Reformation of Manners.
In 1739, Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, received a royal charter to establish the Foundling Hospital to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This was "the first children's charity in the country, one that'set the pattern for incorporated associational charities' in general." The hospital "marked the first great milestone in the creation of these new-style charities."Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763, the society had recruited over 10,000 men and it was incorporated in 1772. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard—some charities received state recognition in the form of the Royal Charter.
Philanthropists, such as anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce, began to adopt active campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded in ending the slave trade throughout the Empire starting in 1807. Although there were no slaves allowed in Britain itself, many rich men owned sugar plantations in the West Indies, resisted the movement to buy them out until it succeeded in 1833. Financial donations to organized charities became fashionable among the middle-class in the 19th century. By 1869 there were over 200 London charities with an annual income, all together, of about £2 million. By 1885, rapid growth had produced with an income of about £ 4.5 million. They included a wide range of religious and secular goals, with the American import, the YMCA as one of the largest, many small ones such as the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association.
In addition to making annual donations wealthy industrialists and financiers left generous sums in their wills. A sample of 466 wills in the 1890s revealed a total wealth of £76 million, of which £20 million was bequeathed to charities. By 1900 London charities enjoyed an annual income of about £8.5 million. Led by the energetic Lord Shaftesbury, philanthropists organized themselves. In 1869 they set up the Charity Organisation Society, it was a federation of one in each of the 42 Poor Law divisions. Its central office had experts in coordination and guidance, thereby maximizing the impact of charitable giving to the poor. Many of the charities were designed to alleviate the harsh living conditions in the slums; such as the Labourer's Friend Society founded in 1830. This included the promotion of allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement, in 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company—an organization that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, while at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment.
This was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavor that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century, brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust, t
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to changing farming practices. Organic farming continues to be developed by various organic agriculture organizations today, it relies on fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure, green manure, bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. Biological pest control, mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. In general, organic standards are designed to allow the use of occurring substances while prohibiting or limiting synthetic substances. For instance occurring pesticides such as pyrethrin and rotenone are permitted, while synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are prohibited. Synthetic substances that are allowed include, for example, copper sulfate, elemental sulfur and Ivermectin. Genetically modified organisms, human sewage sludge, plant growth regulators and antibiotic use in livestock husbandry are prohibited.
Reasons for advocation of organic farming include advantages in sustainability, self-sufficiency, autonomy/independence, food security, food safety. Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and enforced by many nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements, an international umbrella organization for organic farming organizations established in 1972. Organic agriculture can be defined as: an integrated farming system that strives for sustainability, the enhancement of soil fertility and biological diversity whilst, with rare exceptions, prohibiting synthetic pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, growth hormones. Since 1990 the market for organic food and other products has grown reaching $63 billion worldwide in 2012; this demand has driven a similar increase in organically managed farmland that grew from 2001 to 2011 at a compounding rate of 8.9% per annum. As of 2019 70,000,000 hectares worldwide were farmed organically, representing 1.4 percent of total world farmland.
Agriculture was practiced for thousands of years without the use of artificial chemicals. Artificial fertilizers were first created during the mid-19th century; these early fertilizers were cheap and easy to transport in bulk. Similar advances occurred in chemical pesticides in the 1940s, leading to the decade being referred to as the'pesticide era'; these new agricultural techniques, while beneficial in the short term, had serious longer term side effects such as soil compaction and declines in overall soil fertility, along with health concerns about toxic chemicals entering the food supply. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, soil biology scientists began to seek ways to remedy these side effects while still maintaining higher production. Biodynamic agriculture was the first modern system of agriculture to focus on organic methods, its development began in 1924 with a series of eight lectures on agriculture given by Rudolf Steiner. These lectures, the first known presentation of what came to be known as organic agriculture, were held in response to a request by farmers who noticed degraded soil conditions and a deterioration in the health and quality of crops and livestock resulting from the use of chemical fertilizers.
The one hundred eleven attendees, less than half of whom were farmers, came from six countries Germany and Poland. The lectures were published in November 1924. In 1921, Albert Howard and his wife Gabrielle Howard, accomplished botanists, founded an Institute of Plant Industry to improve traditional farming methods in India. Among other things, they brought improved implements and improved animal husbandry methods from their scientific training. Stimulated by these experiences of traditional farming, when Albert Howard returned to Britain in the early 1930s he began to promulgate a system of natural agriculture. In July 1939, Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, the author of the standard work on biodynamic agriculture, came to the UK at the invitation of Walter James, 4th Baron Northbourne as a presenter at the Betteshanger Summer School and Conference on Biodynamic Farming at Northbourne's farm in Kent. One of the chief purposes of the conference was to bring together the proponents of various approaches to organic agriculture in order that they might cooperate within a larger movement.
Howard attended the conference. In the following year, Northbourne published his manifesto of organic farming, Look to the Land, in which he coined the term "organic farming." The Betteshanger conference has been described as the'missing link' between biodynamic agriculture and other forms of organic farming. In 1940 Howard published his An Agricultural Testament. In this book he adopted Northbourne's terminology of "organic farming." Howard's work spread and he became known as the "father of organic farming" for his work in applying scientific knowledge and principles to various traditional and natural methods. In the United States J. I. Rodale, keenly interested both in Howard's ideas and in biodynamics, founded in the 1940s both a working organic farm for trials and experimentation, The Rodale Institute, the Rodale Press to teach and advocate organic methods to the wider public; these became important influences on the spread of organic agriculture
Vanishing of the Bees
Vanishing of the Bees is a 2009 documentary film by Hive Mentality Films & Hipfuel Films, directed by George Langworthy and Maryam Henein and released in the United Kingdom in October 2009. The story is centered on the sudden disappearance of honey bees from beehives around the world, caused by the poorly understood phenomenon known as Colony Collapse Disorder or CCD. Although the film does not draw any firm scientific conclusions as to the precise cause or causes of CCD, it does suggest a link between neonicotinoid pesticides and CCD; the UK cinema release of the film was supported by The Co-operative Group. David Hackenberg as himself Michael Pollan as himself Simon Buxton as himself Ellen Page as narrator Emilia Fox as narrator The film was first released in the UK with a British narration by Emilia Fox and received mixed reviews from critics, achieving a rating of 62 percent on Rotten Tomatoes based on 13 reviews, with an average rating of 5.3/10. Filmstar called Vanishing of the Bees “The most important documentary film since An Inconvenient Truth.”
And Stuart McGurk of The Sunday Times wrote that while the "subject is serious", this film was "well intentioned and urgent", it was "let down by hammy narration, a made-for-TV budget". Philip French of The Observer called it a "serious, rather rambling documentary features some good, decent people", he added that "The blame falls principally on pesticides, genetic engineering and the world's changing landscape. Governments, the film charges, are listening more to the producers of chemicals than to beekeepers."The film was re-released in the US with a new edit and narration by Ellen Page. The film went on to win best documentary from the Idyllwild International Festival of Cinema and the Cosmic Cine Film Festival Vanishing of the Bees on IMDb Official website at the Wayback Machine Review of Vanishing of the Bees at Empireonline.com Retrieved 22 July 2010 Review of Vanishing of the Bees at www.guardian.co.uk Retrieved 22 July 2010
University of Kansas
The University of Kansas referred to as KU, is a public research university with its main campus in Lawrence and several satellite campuses and educational centers, medical centers, classes across the state of Kansas. Two branch campuses are in the Kansas City metropolitan area on the Kansas side: the university's medical school and hospital in Kansas City, the Edwards Campus in Overland Park, a hospital and research center in the state's capital of Topeka. There are educational and research sites in Garden City, Leavenworth and Topeka, branches of the medical school in Salina and Wichita; the university is one of the 62 members of the Association of American Universities. Founded March 21, 1865, the university was opened in 1866, under a charter granted by the Kansas State Legislature in 1864 following enabling legislation passed in 1863 under the State Constitution, adopted two years after the 1861 admission of the former Kansas Territory as the 34th state into the Union following an internal civil war known as "Bleeding Kansas" during the 1850s.
Enrollment at the Lawrence and Edwards campuses was 28,401 students in 2016. The university overall employed 2,814 faculty members in fall 2015. On February 20, 1863, Kansas Governor Thomas Carney signed into law a bill creating the state university in Lawrence; the law was conditioned upon a gift from Lawrence of a $15,000 endowment fund and a site for the university, in or near the town, of not less than forty acres of land. If Lawrence failed to meet these conditions, Emporia instead of Lawrence would get the university; the site selected for the university was a hill known as Mount Oread, donated by Charles L. Robinson, Republican governor of the state of Kansas from 1861 to 1863, one of the original settlers of Lawrence, Kansas. Robinson and his wife Sara bestowed the 40-acre site to the State of Kansas in exchange for land elsewhere; the philanthropist Amos Adams Lawrence donated $10,000 of the necessary endowment fund, the citizens of Lawrence raised the remaining money themselves via private donations.
On November 2, 1863, Governor Carney announced Lawrence had met the conditions to get the state university, the following year the university was organized. The school's Board of Regents held its first meeting in March 1865, the event that KU dates its founding from. Work on the first college building began that year; the university opened for classes on September 12, 1866, the first class graduated in 1873. According to William L. Burdick, the first degree awarded by the university was a Doctor of Divinity, bestowed upon noted abolitionist preacher Richard Cordley. During World War II, Kansas was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. KU is home to the Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics, the Beach Center on Disability, Lied Center of Kansas and radio stations KJHK, 90.7 FM, KANU, 91.5 FM. The university is host to several museums including the University of Kansas Natural History Museum and the Spencer Museum of Art.
The libraries of the University include Watson Library, Kenneth Spencer Research Library, the Murphy Art and Architecture Library, Thomas Gorton Music & Dance Library, Anschutz Library. Of athletic note, the university is home to Allen Fieldhouse, heralded as one of the greatest basketball arenas in the world, David Booth Kansas Memorial Stadium; the University of Kansas is a state-sponsored university with five campuses. KU is a member of the Association of American Universities and it is classified among "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. KU features the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, which includes the School of the Arts and the School of Public Affairs & Administration; the university offers more than 345 degree programs. In its 2018 list, U. S. News & World Report ranked KU as tied for 115th place among National Universities and 53rd place among public universities; the city management and urban policy program was ranked first in the nation, the special education program second, by U.
S. News & World Report's 2016 rankings. USN&WR ranked several programs in the top 25 among U. S. universities. The University of Kansas School of Architecture and Design, with its main building being Marvin Hall, traces its architectural roots to the creation of the architectural engineering degree program in KU's School of Engineering in 1912; the Bachelor of Architecture degree was added in 1920. In 1969 the School of Architecture and Urban Design was formed with three programs: architecture, architectural engineering, urban planning. In 2001 architectural engineering merged with environmental engineering; the design programs from the discontinued School of Fine Arts were merged into the school in 2009 forming the School of Architecture and Planning with three departments. In 2017, the Urban Planning department merged into KU's School of Public Affairs and Administration. Accordingly, the SADP was renamed to the School of Design. According to the journal DesignIntelligence, which annually publishes "America's Best Architecture and Design Schools," the School of Architecture and Design at the University of Kansas was named the best in the Midwest and ranked 11t