E. P. "Tom" Sawyer State Park
E. P. Tom Sawyer State Park is a 550-acre Kentucky state park located in the Freys Hill area of Louisville, Kentucky, on former land of Kentuckys Central State Hospital. Sawyer was the father of journalist Diane Sawyer, the parks amenities include an activities center with a gymnasium that has indoor courts for badminton and volleyball as well as an Olympic-sized swimming pool and weight room. The park is the site of the Louisville Astronomical Societys Urban Astronomy Center, in 2010, the state took over Otter Creek Park in a separate deal and it reopened in 2011 as an outdoor recreation area operated by the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources. List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area List of parks in the Louisville metropolitan area Kleber, John E. et al
Greenbo Lake State Resort Park
Greenbo Lake State Resort Park in Kentucky is a resort park in the northeastern part of the commonwealth, close to the town of Greenup, Kentucky in Greenup County on Kentucky State Route 1. The lodge contains a 232-seat dining room and it is centered on the 300-acre Greenbo Lake that features a boat dock and marina. There are over 25 miles of hiking and horseback trails, the park hosts a variety of community events each year including a quilt show, murder mystery dinner theaters, and a 5K race. Greenbo Lake State Resort Park Kentucky Department of Parks Greenbo Lake State Resort Park American Byways
George Washington and Jefferson National Forests
The George Washington and Jefferson National Forests are U. S. National Forests that combine to form one of the largest areas of public land in the Eastern United States. They cover 1.8 million acres of land in the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, West Virginia, approximately 1 million acres of the forest are remote and undeveloped and 139,461 acres have been designated as wilderness areas, which eliminates future development. George Washington National Forest was established on May 16,1918 as the Shenandoah National Forest, the forest was renamed after the first President on June 28,1932. Natural Bridge National Forest was added on July 22,1933, Jefferson National Forest was formed on April 21,1936 by combining portions of the Unaka and George Washington National Forests with other land. In 1995, the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests were administratively combined, the border between the two forests roughly follows the James River. The combined forest is administered from its headquarters in Roanoke, the northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway, which is separately administered by the National Park Service, runs through the Forest.
Over 2,000 miles of hiking trails, including segments of the Appalachian Trail, virginias highest point, Mount Rogers, is located in the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area that is part of the forest. Other notable mountains include Elliott Knob, which has one of the last remaining fire towers in the eastern U. S. Approximately 230,000 acres of old-growth forests, the deepest gorge east of the Mississippi River, Breaks Interstate Park, is located in the forest. Roaring Run Furnace is the site on the National Register of Historic Places owned by the Jefferson National Forest. The Forests vast and mountainous terrain harbors a variety of plant life—over 50 species of trees and over 2,000 species of shrubs. The Forests contain some 230,000 acres of old growth forests, the Ramseys Draft and Kimberling Creek Wildernesses in particular are mostly old-growth. The black bear is relatively common, enough so there is a short hunting season to prevent overpopulation. White-tailed deer, bald eagles, otter, the forests are popular hiking, mountain biking, and hunting destinations.
The Appalachian Trail extends for 330 miles from the end of Shenandoah National Park through the forest. The forest is within a two-hour drive for over ten people and thus receives large numbers of visitors. The George Washington National Forest is a destination for trail runners. It is the location for several Ultramarathons, including the Massanutten Mountain Trails 100 miler, the Old Dominion 100 miler, George Washington Forest is the venue for Nature Camp, a natural science education-oriented summer camp for youth
Harlan is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Harlan County, United States. The population was 1,745 at the 2010 census, Harlan is one of three Kentucky county seats to share its name with its county, the others being Greenup and Henderson. Harlan was first settled by Samuel and Chloe Howard in 1796, upon the founding of Harlan County in 1819, the Howards donated 12 acres of land to serve as the county seat. The community there was known as Mount Pleasant, apparently owing to a nearby Indian mound. A post office was established on September 19,1828, during the Civil War, Confederate raiders under Gen. The citys terms of incorporation were amended to change the name to Harlan on March 13,1912, one year before, the L&N had arrived in Harlan and prompted massive growth. The city had expanded east along Clover Fork, after World War II. Harlan is the site of a case in which a man. A flood in 1977 prompted federal aid that diverted Clover Fork into man-made tunnels under Ivy Hill in 1989, in the 1990s, a flood wall was completed on the citys west side along the four-lane bypass U. S.
Route 421. Harlan is located at 36°50′29″N 83°19′12″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.8 square miles, all land. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers, according to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Harlan has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated Cfa on climate maps. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,081 people,926 households, the population density was 1,187.4 people per square mile. There were 1,060 housing units at a density of 604.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91. 01% White,7. 02% Black or African American,0. 29% Native American,0. 86% Asian, hispanics or Latinos of any race were 0. 62% of the population. 39. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 19. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population was out with 21. 3% under the age of 18,8. 1% from 18 to 24,25. 8% from 25 to 44,25. 1% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 42 years, for every 100 females there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.8 males, the median income for a household in the city was $17,270, and the median income for a family was $29,135
Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area
The Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located in Kentucky and Tennessee between Lake Barkley and Kentucky Lake. The area was designated a recreation area by President John F. Kennedy in 1963. The recreation area was managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority. It was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere reserve in 1991, the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers flow very close to each other in the northwestern corner of Middle Tennessee and Western Kentucky, separated by a rather narrow and mostly low ridge. The area of land separates the two bodies of water by only a few miles became known as Between the Rivers since at least the 1830s or 1840s. After the Cumberland River was impounded in the 1960s and a canal was constructed between the two lakes, Land Between the Lakes became the largest inland peninsula in the United States. Downstream from this area, the courses of the two rivers diverge again, with the mouth of the Cumberland emptying into the Ohio River approximately 4 mi from that of the Tennessee, the site of the last dam downstream on the Tennessee was to be Gilbertsville, Kentucky.
This was very unpopular with some of those affected, while others seemed happy to get an opportunity to sell their land and this would considerably lessen the shipping distances for goods going to ports on the Gulf of Mexico for products leaving the Cumberland Valley. This was completed in the 1960s and the impoundment was referred to as Lake Barkley, after Alben W. Barkley. The plan called for a new dam and the evacuation of the entire former Between the Rivers area, the area was to become Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area – a TVA experiment designed to show a multiple-use approach to recreational lands. Unlike a national park, there were to be areas where hunting would be allowed, the road through the Tennessee portion was renamed from State Route 49 to The Trace, which is what many roads and paths were called in pioneer times. Many area residents resented the condemnation of their lands, especially when it was explained to them that most of the area was not to be flooded, the former settlements of Tharpe, Model and Golden Pond, were forcibly abandoned.
The remains of an iron furnace, manned in the 1850s by slave labor, are about all that remains of Model. Golden Pond was replaced by the headquarters of the area and retained as the address for it. There is a museum, a planetarium, and an education area there. The area has miles of hiking trails, many boat ramps, an off-road vehicle area, many campgrounds, and group lodges. The area was burned and reseeded with grasses, and elk. In 1996 the Elk & Bison Prairie was officially inaugurated and is now open to driving tours where visitors see a typical 18th century landscape, in the 1990s, the directors of the TVA decided to get out of most activities requiring direct taxpayer funding
Pine Mountain (Appalachian Mountains)
Pine Mountain is a ridge in the Appalachian Mountains running through Kentucky and Tennessee. It extends about 125 miles from near Jellico, Tennessee, to a location near Elkhorn City, birch Knob, the highest point, is 3,273 feet above sea level and is located on the Kentucky-Virginia border. It has been a barrier to transportation as the Cumberland River at Pineville, the other is Hickory Creek near Jellico, TN. Wildlife is abundant on Pine Mountain, the land is claimed to be the Black Bear Capital of Kentucky. Black bears, elk and deer are found on Pine Mountain, Pine Mountain Settlement School William Creech, Sr. Pound Gap
National Wildlife Refuge
National Wildlife Refuge System is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is the system of lands and waters set aside to conserve Americas fish, wildlife. National Wildlife Refuges manage a range of habitat types, including wetlands, prairies and marine areas. Among these hundreds of national refuges are home to some 700 species of birds,220 species of mammals,250 reptile and amphibian species and more than 1000 species of fish. Endangered species are a priority of National Wildlife Refuges in that nearly 60 refuges have been established with the purpose of conserving 280 threatened or endangered species. National Wildlife Refuges are places where visitors can participate in a variety of outdoor recreational activities. The National Wildlife Refuge System welcomes nearly 50 million visitors each year, hunters visit more than 350 hunting programs on refuges and on about 36,000 Waterfowl Production Areas.
Opportunities for fresh or saltwater fishing are available at more than 340 refuges, there is at least one wildlife refuge in each of the fifty states. The agency has created Comprehensive Conservation Plans for each refuge, developed through consultation with private and these began a review process by stakeholders beginning in 2013. The CCCPs must be consistent with the Fish and Wildlife Service goals for conservation, the CCPs outline conservation goals for each refuge for fifteen years into the future, with the intent that they will be revised every fifteen years thereafter. Additionally, NEPA requires FWS planners and refuge staff to engage the public in planning process to assist them with identifying the most appropriate alternative. Completed CCPs are available to the public and can be found on the FWS website, equally important is an intimate understanding of the social and economic drivers that impact and are impacted by management decisions and can facilitate or impede implementation success.
Consideration of these contributes to the success of the Service’s mission to protect wildlife. The Refuge System works collaboratively internally and externally to leverage resources, according to the Services 2013 Banking on Nature Report, visitors to refuges positively impact the local economies. Prevention and control of fires is a very active part of refuge management. Completion of controlled burns to reduce fuel loading, and participation in the wildland fire suppression efforts, are vital for management of refuge lands. A considerable infrastructure of physical structures is essential to management of refuge lands. As of September 30,2015 there were 13,030 roads and trails,5,284 buildings,8,007 water management structures, the overall facility infrastructure is valued at nearly $30 billion
Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site
Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site is a 745-acre park near Perryville in Boyle County, Kentucky. An interpretive museum is located near the site where many Confederate soldiers killed in the Battle of Perryville were buried, monuments, interpretive signage, and cannons mark notable events that occurred during the battle. The site became part of the Kentucky State Park System in 1936. The battle was fought on October 8,1862, between the Union Army of the Ohio, commanded by Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, perryvilles homes and farms were left in shambles by the battle. During the battle Bottom had significant damage to his farm, other accounts note that nearly all residents of the area suffered some losses as well as having their homes and outbuildings used as field hospitals. The main force of the Union army had buried most of their dead in long trenches before pursuing Bragg, Union soldiers finally forced local residents to help them lay the dead in shallow trenches carved in the dry soil.
Two months later,347 were reburied in a grave on Bottoms land. In 1886 a total of 435 Confederates were buried on Bottoms land, although Bottom claimed that about 100 were identified, the only remnants of the cemetery were a corner of a stone wall and one headstone—that of Samuel H. Ransom of the 1st Tennessee Infantry CSA. At the end of the war in 1865, Union soldiers reburied the remains of 969 Federal dead in a cemetery at Perryville with a stone wall. Around the time of the centennial, numerous scholars worked to establish the importance of the Western campaigns. In recent years, appreciation for what happened at Perryville and other battlefields in Kentucky, more than 7,000 acres at Perryville are now recognized as a National Historic Landmark, and the site averages around 100,000 visitors per year. A reenactment of the battle occurs each October, the Perryville Battlefield Preservation Association was created in 1991 to preserve and protect the park. The acquisition of 149 acres of farmland from a descendant of Henry Bottom more than doubled the size of the park, the Civil War Trust has as of 2013 saved 954 acres of the battlefield.
Numerous acres of this land have been incorporated in the state park yearly. Noe, Kenneth W. Perryville, This Grand Havoc of Battle, University Press of Kentucky,2001, Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site Kentucky Department of Parks
Natural Bridge State Resort Park
Its namesake natural bridge is the centerpiece of the park. The natural sandstone arch spans 78 ft and is 65 ft high, the natural process of weathering formed the arch over millions of years. The park is approximately 2,300 acres of which approximately 1,200 acres is dedicated by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission as a nature preserve, in 1981 this land was dedicated into the nature preserves system to protect the ecological communities and rare species habitat. The first federally endangered Virginia big eared bats, Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus, the park was founded as a private tourist attraction in 1895 by the Lexington and Eastern Railroad. In 1910, Louisville and Nashville Railroad acquired the land when it purchased the Lexingon, there are over 20 miles of trails over uneven terrain from moderate to strenuous difficulty, including trails to Whites Branch Arch, Hensons Cave Arch, and other scenic areas. Some of the most famous sites are the arch itself, Lovers Leap, the parks 0.
5-mile Original Trail to the natural bridge dates from the 1890s. Other trails include the 7. 5-mile Sand Gap Trail and the 0. 75-mile Balanced Rock Trail, five miles of the 307-mile Sheltowee Trace National Recreation Trail run through the park, including the Whittleton Trail which connects the park to the Red River Gorge Geologic Area. Activities such as hiking off-trails, disturbing wildlife, or collecting plants are not legal in any Kentucky State Park, Fat Mans Squeeze, a narrow passage in the rock formation, leads to the bottom of the arch. Natural Bridge has several unique sandstone formations, including the Balanced Rock. This is a block of sandstone balanced on the edge of a cliff near the Natural Bridge. The Balanced Rock, is located on Trail #2, not far above Hemlock Lodge, in the early days of the Park, it was called the Sphinx because, when viewed from the correct angle, it crudely resembles the Sphinx in Egypt. Although it is now called the Balanced Rock, it is in fact a pedestal rock - a single piece of stone that has weathered in such a fashion that its midsection is narrower than its cap or its base.
This formation is one of the biggest and most perfectly formed examples of a pedestal rock east of the Rocky Mountains, Natural Bridge State Park is a member of the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, and offers guided backpacking trips and natural history educational programs. Annual events open to the public include Herpetology Weekend each May, Natural Arches Weekend each February, the Kentucky Natives Societys Wildflower Weekend in April consists of Kentucky plants and how they are essential to the well-being of our natural ecosystems commonwealth. We incorporate research and support efforts to identify and protect endangered, the State Park is famous for hosting traditional Appalachian square dances. The traditional Appalachian style dances are held on Friday and Saturday evenings throughout the warm starlit Ky summers on the dance floor. The dance draws hundreds of participants and spectators, showcasing dance groups and singer/performer talents from all over
Archaeological investigations have linked the site with others along the Ohio River in Illinois and Kentucky as part of the Angel Phase of Mississippian culture. Wickliffe Mounds is controlled by the State Parks Service, which operates a museum at the site for interpretation of the ancient community, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it is a Kentucky Archeological Landmark and State Historic Site. The town at Wickliffe Mounds is located on a bluff above the Ohio River, at its peak it had a population probably reaching into the hundreds. The site is dominated by two platform mounds, with at least eight smaller mounds scattered around a central plaza area. Agriculture was based on the cultivation of maize as a staple, the Mississippian culture peoples had trade with societies as far away as North Carolina and the Gulf of Mexico. As in most other Mississippian chiefdoms, the community of Wickliffe had a social hierarchy ruled by a hereditary chief, the site was inhabited between 1000 CE and 1350 CE.
Amateur and semi-professional excavations first began in the site around 1913, the excavations were done under the direction of Dr. Walter B, Alabama State Geologist, and David L. DeJarnette who was the crew chief. To defry the cost of operating the site a one dollar admission was charged for the one hour guided tour during the King era, in cooperation with his wife, Blanche Busey King, he opened the site for tourists under the name Ancient Buried City. These actions put them directly in opposition to profestsional archaeologists who studied the site, the Kings deeded the site to the Western Baptist Hospital in Paducah in 1946, that agreed to pay them a monthly stipend until both of their deaths. The hospital continued to operate the site as a business until 1983 the year Mrs. King died. That year the hospital donated the site to Murray State University, to be used for research, in 1984 the sites historic importance was recognized and it was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In 2004, the became the 11th State Historical Site of Kentucky.
In addition to the freestanding Mound A, the major ceremonial mound and it displays the outstanding collection of pottery and artifacts excavated on site. A mural with a view of the Mississippian village on the bluff shows how the entire complex would have looked. /* Mound A */ Ceremonial Mound is the largest of the mounds and was the location of ceremonial structures and this would have been political and religious center of the community. Originally excavated in 1932 and in 1984-5, it has determined that there are six phases of development. The Architecture Building covers a mound that was residential and you can see several layers of habitation revealed in this cut-away mound. This mound was built up over 200 years, visitors can look into the layers of this mound