Jenny Wiley State Resort Park
Jenny Wiley State Resort Park was at first named Jenny Wiley State Park on January 1,1954 with Dewey Lake near Prestonsburg, Kentucky as its centerpiece. It is named for Virginia Jenny Wiley, a woman who is remembered as a survivor of Indian captivity. Taken captive October 1,1789, by Indians of the area, Shawnees and Delawares and she escaped after 11 months of captivity. Jenny Wiley became pregnant and gave birth during the captivity, and her dramatic escape in the spring of 1790 is now a legendary tale of early American frontier life in the Levisa Fork River area and the Big Sandy Valley. Of the parks 2,871 acres,1,100 acres is Dewey Lake, the Kentucky record for largest tiger muskie was at Dewey Lake. Dewey Lake was named for the hero of the Battle of Manila Bay, Admiral George Dewey, the park lies in a Moist Appalachian environment, dominated by maple and tulip poplars. The parks hotel, May Lodge, has 49 rooms, many rental cabins, the Music Highway Grill uses locally grown produce and dairy.
The Jenny Wiley Amphitheater produces numerous plays, such as The Wizard of Oz and A Chorus Line, fishing is very popular, with many boat launches as well as a full service boat dock at the May Lodge. The Jenny Wiley Trail marks the path Wiley took to escape her Cherokee tormentors, the beautiful scenery and low traffic make this one of the best kept secrets among Bicycle Tourists and Randoneers. Multiday bicycle camping and touring clinics are offered in fall and winter during the turning of the leaves, an 18-hole golf course is available among other outdoor activities. Dawkins Line Rail Trail Jenny Wiley State Resort Park Kentucky Department of Parks Jenny Wiley Theatre
Cumberland Falls State Resort Park
Cumberland Falls State Resort Park is a park located just southwest of Corbin, Kentucky and is contained entirely within the Daniel Boone National Forest. The park encompasses 1,657 acres and is named for its major feature, the falls are one of the few places in the western hemisphere where a moonbow can frequently be seen on nights with a full moon. The park is the home of 44-foot Eagle Falls, Cumberland Falls was dedicated as a state park at 1,30 p. m. on August 21,1931. Following a $2 million renovation project in 2006, the received an upgraded rating from two diamonds to three diamonds from the American Automobile Association in 2007. Kentucky Dam Village State Resort Park received the upgraded rating, the two facilities were the first state resort parks to achieve the three-diamond rating following AAAs revision of its rating system in 2001
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
Big Bone Lick State Park
Big Bone Lick State Park is located at Big Bone in Boone County, Kentucky. The name of the park comes from the Pleistocene megafauna fossils found there, mammoths are believed to have been drawn to this location by a salt lick deposited around sulphur springs. Ancestors of the sloth and horse grazed the vegetation, the area near the springs was very soft and marshy causing many animals to become stuck with no way to escape. It bills itself as the birthplace of American paleontology, a term which dates from the 1807 expedition by William Clark undertaken at the direction of President Thomas Jefferson. In Nicholas Cresswells journal, dated 1774 to 1777, he records a visit in 1775 to what was called Elephant Bone Lick, in this account, Cresswell describes finding several bones of prodigious size, as well as tusk fragments, and teeth—one weighing approximately 10 pounds. While he assumed the bones were from ancient elephants, the native traditions claimed the bones to be those of white buffaloes that had been poisoned by the salty water.
In 2002, the National Park Service designated Big Bone Lick State Park as an official Lewis, the park was listed in 1972 on the National Register of Historic Places and was further listed as a National Natural Landmark in February 2009. The visitors center features indoor and outdoor exhibits of fossils, American art, the Discovery Trail winds through several habitats, including grassland and savanna, and is accessible to the physically challenged. A small bison herd is maintained on-site, the park has picnicking facilities and a 62-site campground
Daniel Boone National Forest
Daniel Boone National Forest is the only national forest completely within the boundary of Kentucky. Established in 1937, it was named the Cumberland National Forest. The forest was named after Daniel Boone, a frontiersman and explorer in the late 18th century who contributed greatly to the exploration, in 1937, a national forest was established containing 1,338,214 acres within its proclamation boundary. As of June 1937, the Forest Service had purchased only 336,692 acres, most early purchases were large, isolated tracts owned by lumber and coal companies with but few inhabitants. The Forest Service has since had difficulty acquiring more land within the boundary, the bulk of which was. Due in part to World War II, funds for land acquisition were curtailed in the early 1940s, substantial acquisition efforts could not resume until the mid-1960s. The lengthy cessation of land acquisitions, except for period during the forests renaming, naming the forest entailed considerable debate. Protests began immediately after the national forest was named, the naming issue was reopened in the late 1950s.
The Forest Service investigated the name Cumberland, and found it came to Kentucky in 1750 when Thomas Walker named the Cumberland River in honor of Prince William Augustus, the Duke had defeated the Scottish Highlanders in 1746 at the Battle of Culloden, an especially brutal conflict. Many Scottish families fled to America and ultimately Kentucky as a result of the event, the Forest Service found that for their descendants still living in Eastern Kentucky, the name Cumberland was particularly distasteful. In addition, the Forest Service noted the influence of history on the names of places in Kentucky, during this period of time, place names with British connotations fell out of favor and changes were made. For example, prior to the Revolution, the Kentucky River was called the Louisa River, after the wife of the Duke of Cumberland, during the 1960s, a new movement to rename the national forest took place. Also during the 1960s, part of the national forest was designated a Primitive Weapons Area and set apart for hunting with longbow, crossbow, in 1970, this was the only US area where deer could legally be hunted with crossbows.
The park remains unique still for allowing only muzzle-loaded firearms, in 1967, a large and disconnected addition to the national forest was created, called the Redbird Purchase Unit, after a key purchase from the Red Bird Timber Company. About a third of the land within the national forest proclamation boundary is owned or managed by the Forest Service, the pattern of land ownership is highly fragmented and changes relatively frequently. One of the goals of the Forest Service is to consolidate holdings into larger blocks, the boundaries of Forest Service lands are marked in various ways, including red paint on trees. The shifting boundaries and growing size of Forest Service lands sometimes results in local complaints, in addition, it can be difficult for recreational users to know whether they are on Forest Service lands or not. No Trespassing signs are used by landowners, and conflicts between landowners and recreational users are not uncommon
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site
Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site is a 745-acre park near Perryville in Boyle County, Kentucky. An interpretive museum is located near the site where many Confederate soldiers killed in the Battle of Perryville were buried, monuments, interpretive signage, and cannons mark notable events that occurred during the battle. The site became part of the Kentucky State Park System in 1936. The battle was fought on October 8,1862, between the Union Army of the Ohio, commanded by Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, perryvilles homes and farms were left in shambles by the battle. During the battle Bottom had significant damage to his farm, other accounts note that nearly all residents of the area suffered some losses as well as having their homes and outbuildings used as field hospitals. The main force of the Union army had buried most of their dead in long trenches before pursuing Bragg, Union soldiers finally forced local residents to help them lay the dead in shallow trenches carved in the dry soil.
Two months later,347 were reburied in a grave on Bottoms land. In 1886 a total of 435 Confederates were buried on Bottoms land, although Bottom claimed that about 100 were identified, the only remnants of the cemetery were a corner of a stone wall and one headstone—that of Samuel H. Ransom of the 1st Tennessee Infantry CSA. At the end of the war in 1865, Union soldiers reburied the remains of 969 Federal dead in a cemetery at Perryville with a stone wall. Around the time of the centennial, numerous scholars worked to establish the importance of the Western campaigns. In recent years, appreciation for what happened at Perryville and other battlefields in Kentucky, more than 7,000 acres at Perryville are now recognized as a National Historic Landmark, and the site averages around 100,000 visitors per year. A reenactment of the battle occurs each October, the Perryville Battlefield Preservation Association was created in 1991 to preserve and protect the park. The acquisition of 149 acres of farmland from a descendant of Henry Bottom more than doubled the size of the park, the Civil War Trust has as of 2013 saved 954 acres of the battlefield.
Numerous acres of this land have been incorporated in the state park yearly. Noe, Kenneth W. Perryville, This Grand Havoc of Battle, University Press of Kentucky,2001, Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site Kentucky Department of Parks
Pine Mountain State Resort Park
Pine Mountain State Resort Park is a Kentucky state park located in Bell County, United States. The park opened in 1924 as Kentuckys first state park, each spring, the park hosts the annual Kentucky Mountain Laurel Festival, as it has since 1933. When Pine Mountain State Resort Park was established in 1926, it was named Cumberland State Park, but the name was changed in 1938 in order to avoid confusion with the newly formed Cumberland Falls State Resort Park. During the parks early years, there was little development, in 1933 the Civilian Conservation Corps began constructing the main office building, roads, bridges and hiking trails. In 1960s, the Kentucky State Park System began updating their parks, for Pine Mountain State Park, they constructed a new wing to the lodge that contained 30 more guest rooms,10 additional cottages, swimming pool, and golf course. Today, the park serves as one of southeastern Kentuckys premier state parks, herndon J. Evans Lodge - The lodge has 30 guest rooms. Mountain View Restaurant seats 125 people and has a dining area that seats 25 people.
Wasioto Winds Golf Course - This 18 hole golf course was ranked fourth in the nation by Golf Digest Magazine as the Best New Affordable Public Golf Courses in January 2003, cottages - The park has nine one room cabins that were developed by the CCC in the 1920s. It has eleven modern two-bedroom cabins, chained Rock - During the 1930s, the people of Pineville, Kentucky decided to create a new tourist attraction. So in 1933, a group of people hauled a 101-foot-long chain to the top of Pine Mountain, supposedly the rock was chained to the mountain in order to keep it from rolling down the mountain and destroying the city. Other attractions - Miniature golf, hiking, Ray Harm artworks, interpretive center, playgrounds and gift shop
Fort Donelson National Battlefield
The commanders received national recognition for their victories in February 1862, as they were the first major Union successes of the war. This struck a blow to the Confederacy early in the war. The main portion of the park, in Dover, Fort Heiman, in nearby Calloway County, was a Confederate battery in the Battle of Fort Henry. The most vulnerable area in the Confederate defensive line in the Western Theater was the state of Kentucky, the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers were potential avenues for a Union invasion of the South through Kentucky and into Tennessee and beyond. Since Kentucky had declared neutrality, the Confederacy could not build defensive works within the state without risking alienating the local population, the local population in western Kentucky was pro-Confederate. Kentuckys westernmost congressional district elected a secessionist and Lincoln proclaimed it to be in rebellion and they surveyed possible sites along the Cumberland River, noting the high ridges and deep hollows near the Kentucky border.
In mid-May, on the west bank of the not far below Dover, Anderson laid out the water battery of Fort Donelson. The new fort was named in honor of the Confederate General Daniel S. Donelson who, along with Colonel Bushrod Johnson of the Corps of Engineers, construction was begun by a large force of men brought from the nearby Cumberland Iron Works. The site was established as Fort Donelson National Military Park on March 26,1928, the national military park and national cemetery were transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. The park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15,1966 and it was redesignated a national battlefield on August 16,1985. Public Law 108-367 increased the authorized boundary of the battlefield from 551.69 acres to 2,000 acres. On October 30,2006, Calloway County transferred the Fort Heiman site to the Park Service, Fort Heiman had been listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 12,1976.
The Cumberland River was dammed in the 1960s, this area is referred to as Lake Barkley. It covers a roughly similar to the original river while at flood stage. The Fort Donelson National Cemetery, at 15.34 acres in Stewart County, contains 670 Union dead, there are numerous veterans from wars. The cemetery is presently unavailable for additional burials, washington, U. S. Department of the Interior. Where the South Lost the War, An Analysis of the Fort Henry—Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862, Stackpole books,2003, ISBN 0-8117-0049-6. NPS Fort Donelson National Battlefield site Public Law 108-367 U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Fort Donelson Fort Donelson National Cemetery at Find a Grave