Middle Tennessee is a distinct portion of the state of Tennessee, delineated according to state law as the 41 counties in the Middle Grand Division of Tennessee. Middle Tennessee is characterized by rolling hills and fertile stream valleys and its principal city, Nashville, is the state capital. Other major sizeable cities in Middle Tennessee include Clarksville and Murfreesboro, geographically it is composed predominantly of the Nashville Basin and the Highland Rim, although the western portion of the Cumberland Plateau extends into Middle Tennessee. Unlike the geographic designations of regions of most U. S. states, Middle Tennessee, West Tennessee, and East Tennessee are the states three Grand Divisions. According to the Tennessee State Constitution, no more than two of the supreme courts five justices can come from any one Grand Division. The Supreme Court rotates meeting in courthouses in each of the three divisions, the Supreme Court building for Middle Tennessee is in Nashville. A similar rule applies to other commissions and boards, in order to prevent a geographic bias.
Middle Tennessee is the largest in area and least densely populated of the three Grand Divisions, at the 2000 census it had 2,069,976 inhabitants living in its 41 counties, which have a combined land area of 17,009.41 square miles. Its population was 36.38 percent of the states total and its population density was 121.696 inhabitants per square mile at the census
Glasgow is a home rule-class city in Barren County, Kentucky, in the United States. It is the seat of its county, the population was 14,028 at the 2010 U. S. census. The city is known for its annual Scottish Highland Games. In 2007, Barren County was named the one rural place to live by The Progressive Farmer magazine. Glasgow is the city of the Glasgow micropolitan area, which comprises Barren. Glasgow is located in central Barren County at 37°0′1″N 85°55′13″W, U. S. Route 31E and U. S. Route 68 intersect at the center of the city, and the Louie B. Nunn Cumberland Parkway passes south of downtown, with access from three exits. According to the United States Census Bureau, Glasgow has an area of 15.5 square miles, of which 15.4 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles. The city of Glasgow was established by the assembly in 1799. A post office was established in 1803, and the received its city rights in 1809. Historic homes All across Glasgow are historic homes that can back to the early 1800s.
The most popular part of town with these homes is South Green Street, this street has many houses that have many different architectural styles including Colonial, Federal. Each house has its own history and they are owned. Since 1998, WKU has operated a campus in Glasgow. Civil War The Civil War affected many smaller towns like Glasgow, there are many places that were part of the Underground Railroad in Glasgow, such as Big Spring Bottom for keeping horses and the Spotswood House on North Race Street for hiding slaves. Other places include the Old Glasgow Seminary Home on East Main Street, elizabeth Washington married to Alexander Eliot Spotswood and were given a home and land from George Washington in Glasgow. The home is here to this day on North Race Street, it is currently owned by the Kiser family. As of the census of 2010, there were 14,208 people,5,994 households, the population density was 960.0 inhabitants per square mile
Warren County, Kentucky
Warren County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of 2014, the population was 120,460, making it the fifth-most populous county in Kentucky, the county seat is Bowling Green. Generally the county is dry, prohibiting the sale of alcohol, Warren County is included in the Bowling Green, KY Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is located in the Pennyroyal Plateau and Western Coal Fields regions, Warren County was the location of several Native American villages and burial mounds. The first white men to enter the area were the hunters in the 1770s. General Elijah Covington was among the first landowners, mcFaddens Station, one of the earliest settlements, was established in 1785 by Andrew McFadden/McFadin on the northern bank of the Barren River at the Cumberland Trace. Warren County became the 23rd county of Kentucky in 1796, from a section of Logan County and it was named after General Joseph Warren of the Revolutionary War. He dispatched William Dawes and Paul Revere on their famous midnight ride to warn residents of the approaching British troops and he was a hero of the Battle of Bunker Hill.
Through the riverboat trade, Warren County thrived in the agricultural market, in 1859, the Louisville and Nashville Railroad was laid through the county. During the Civil War, most residents are said to have favored the Confederacy, because of its strategic value Warren County was occupied by Confederate forces in September 1861. It was occupied in turn by the Union Army on February 14,1862, during the Confederate withdrawal, they destroyed railroad bridges in Barren County, the Bowling Green train depot and other railroad buildings to hinder Union pursuit. The completion of Interstate 65 and Green River Parkway in the 1960s and 1970s, in 1997, Bowling Green became a Tree City USA, sponsored by the National Arbor Day Foundation. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 548 square miles. The Green River forms the boundary of the county, and was a means of transportation for settlers. Tributaries of the Green River that flow through Warren County are the Barren and Gasper rivers and Jennings creeks, in the north the land is possibly the most rugged, since it lies between the Green and Barren rivers, with very tall ridges near Riverside and Richardsville.
The major drainage in Warren county is Barren River, which flows through Bowling Green and is surrounded by ridges in some areas. Several sizable hills rise in Bowling Green proper, in the east the land is rolling near Drakes Creek. The land in the south and southwest of the county is predominantly flat, in the western side of the county, the land is hilly with steep ridges and rocky and cliff-ridden near Gasper River
Annual average daily traffic
Annual average daily traffic, abbreviated AADT, is a measure used primarily in transportation planning and transportation engineering. Traditionally, it is the volume of vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. AADT is a useful and simple measurement of how busy the road is, newer advances from traffic data providers are now providing AADT by side of the road, by day of week and by time of day. One of the most important uses of AADT is for determining funding for the maintenance, in the United States the amount of federal funding a state will receive is related to the total traffic measured across its Highway network. Each year on June 15, every state in the United States submits a Highway Performance Monitoring System HPMS report, the HPMS report contains various information regarding the road segments in the state based on a sample of the road segments. In the report, the AADT is converted to Vehicle Miles Traveled, VMT is the AADT multiplied by the length of the road segment.
To determine the amount of traffic a state has, the AADT cannot be summed for all road segments since an AADT is a rate, the VMT is summed and is used as an indicator of the amount of traffic a state has. For federal-funding, formulas are applied to include the VMT and other highway statistics, to measure AADT on individual road segments, traffic data is collected either by an automated traffic counter or hiring an observer to record traffic. There are two different techniques of measuring the AADTs for road segments, one technique is called continuous count data collection method. This is where sensors are embedded into a road and traffic data is measured all 365 days. The AADT would be the sum of the traffic for the entire year divided by 365 days. There is a problem calculating the AADT with this method. The continuous count equipment is not operating for the full 365 days due to being shut down for maintenance or repair, because of this, seasonal or day-of-week biases might skew the calculated AADT.
In 1992, AASHTO released the AASHTO Guidelines for Traffic Data Programs, for every month and day-of-week, a Monthly Average Day of Week is calculated. Each day-of-weeks MADW is calculated across months to calculate an Annual Average Day of Week, the AADWs are averaged to calculate an AADT. The United States Federal Highway Administration has adopted this method as the method in the. While providing the most accurate AADT, installing and maintaining continuous count stations method is costly, most agencies are only able to monitor a very small percentage of the roadway using this method. Most AADTs are generated using data collection methods sometimes known as the coverage count data collection method
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
A concurrency in a road network is an instance of one physical road bearing two or more different highway, motorway, or other route numbers. When two freeways share the same right-of-way, it is called a common section or commons. Other terminology for a concurrency includes overlap, duplex, multiplex, concurrent numbering can become very common in countries that allow it. In some countries, concurrent numbering is avoided by posting only one number on road signs. Criticism of concurrencies include environmental intrusion, as well as being considered a factor in road accidents, most concurrencies are simply a combination of two route numbers on the same physical road. This is often advantageous as well as economically advantageous, it may be better for two route numbers to be combined into one along riverways or through mountain valleys. Some nations allow for concurrencies to occur, some nations specifically do not allow it to happen, in those nations which do permit concurrencies, it can become very common.
In these countries, there are a variety of concurrences which can occur, an example of this is the concurrency of I-70 and I-76 on the Pennsylvania Turnpike in western Pennsylvania. A triple Interstate concurrency is found north of Madison, with I-39, I-90, Wisconsin has another triple Interstate concurrency along the five-mile section of I-41, I-43, and I-894 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The concurrency of I-41 and I-43 on this roadway is an example of a wrong-way concurrency, the longest Interstate highway concurrency is I-80 and I-90 for 265 miles across Indiana and Ohio. There are examples of eight-way concurrencies, I-465 around Indianapolis and Georgia State Route 10 Loop around downtown Athens, Georgia. Portions of the 53-mile I-465 overlap with I-74, US31, US36, US40, US52, US421, SR37, seven of the eight other designations overlap between exits 46 and 47 to create an eight-way concurrency. In the United States, concurrencies are simply marked by placing signs for both routes on the same or adjacent posts, the federal Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices prescribes that when mounting these adjacent signs together that the numbers will be arranged vertically or horizontally in order of precedence.
The order to be used is Interstate Highways, U. S. Highways, state highways, and finally county roads, several states do not officially have any concurrencies, instead officially ending routes on each side of one. There are several circumstances where unusual concurrencies exist along state borders, one example occurs along the Oklahoma–Arkansas state line. At the northern end of this border Oklahoma State Highway 20 runs concurrently with Arkansas Highway 43, concurrencies are found in Canada. In Manitoba, the Trans-Canada Highway from Winnipeg to Portage la Prairie is concurrently signed with Yellowhead Highway, in Ontario, the Queen Elizabeth Way and Highway 403 run concurrently between Burlington and Oakville, forming the provinces only concurrency between two 400-series highways. In the United Kingdom, routes do not run concurrently with others, where this would normally occur, the roadway takes the number of only one of the routes, while the other routes are considered to have a gap and are signed in brackets
U.S. Route 31E
U. S. Route 31E is the easternmost of two parallel routes for U. S. Highway 31 from Nashville, Tennessee, to Louisville, Kentucky. US 31E begins as the Ellington Parkway at the corner of Main Street and US31, US 31W, US41 and US431 just east of Interstate 24. The freeways interchanges in the middle of the route mainly includes locally maintained streets such as Cleveland Street, East Trinity Lane, Hart Lane, Ellington Parkway ends at an interchange with SR155, about 0.56 miles east of the Brileys I-65 junction. A ramp directing Ellington Parkways northbound traffic to I-65 north is provided at the Briley/Ellington junction, access to Ellington Parkway southbound is provided by a ramp from I-65 south via exit 90A. The road is named for former Tennessee governor Buford Ellington, who served two terms from 1959 to 1963, the other from 1967 to 1971. Ellington encouraged lots of road building throughout the state during his term as governor. After Nashville, the passes through Hendersonville and Gallatin, Tennessee.
It never intersects Interstate 40. U. S. Route 31E in Kentucky is the easternmost of two routes for U. S. Highway 31 in Kentucky, in between each is Interstate 65 in Kentucky. At the north end is Louisville, starting at the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge, going south, it goes through the towns of Mount Washington, New Haven, Hodgenville and Scottsville before arriving at the Tennessee border. In the 19th century the route was a stagecoach path between Louisville and Nashville and before that a postal route at least by 1820. Originally part of the Jackson Highway, the Works Progress Administration measured the distance on 31E in Kentucky as 147.8 miles. Its only interchanges with interstates are in Jefferson County, both of which are beltways, Interstate 264 and the I-265/Gene Snyder Expressway, however, it has intersections with the state freeways of Martha Layne Collins Blue Grass Parkway and with the Louie B. Nunn Cumberland Parkway in Barren County, there are various historical sites along 31E in Kentucky.
Also, five monuments to the Civil War are along the path. 31E has been known as a road, with many risky spots. A historic one was at Coxs Creek in Nelson County, where a post office had to be relocated so traffic could see each other, other dangerous spots in Nelson County where emergency personnel consider notorious are Gobel Lake Curve, Hibbs Lane, and High Grove. The American Association of State Highway Officials adopted a resolution against split routes in 1934, the rest of US 31E from Glasgow to Nashville was assigned U. S. Route 143. This proposed route was extended southwest to Centerville in 1938 and Jackson in 1944 via State Route 100, US 31W would have become the main route of US31
Green River (Kentucky)
The Green River is a 384-mile-long tributary of the Ohio River that rises in Lincoln County in south-central Kentucky. Tributaries of the Green River include the Barren River, the Nolin River, the Pond River, the river was named after Nathanael Greene, a general of the American Revolutionary War. Following the Revolutionary War, many veterans staked claims along the Green River as payment for their military service, the river valley attracted a number of vagrants, earning it the dubious nickname Rogues Harbor. In 1842, the Green River was canalized, with a series of locks and dams being built to create a channel as far inland as Bowling Green. Four locks and dams were constructed on the Green River, and one lock and dam was built on the Barren River, a tributary that passed through Bowling Green. During the American Civil War, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan conducted daring raids through the Green River country, from which he reached into southern Indiana, in 1901, two additional locks and dams were opened on the Green River, which allowed river traffic to Mammoth Cave.
In 1941, Mammoth Cave National Park was established, and the two locks and dams closed in 1950. In 1965, Lock and Dam #4 at Woodbury failed, this was the dam that locked both the Green and Barren rivers, in 1969, the United States Army Corps of Engineers impounded a section of the river, forming 8, 200-acre Green River Lake. The lake is now the primary feature of Green River Lake State Park, there is still one Native American tribe living on the Green River, the Southern Cherokee Nation of Kentucky. In 1893 Governor John Y. Brown recognized the Southern Cherokee Nation as an Indian tribe, the Green River flows through Mammoth Cave National Park, located along river miles 190 to 205. The 384-mile-long Green River, an important transportation artery for the industry, is open to traffic up to the closed Lock. Muhlenberg County, once the largest coal-producing county in the nation, benefits greatly from access to the river, in 2002, more than 10 million short tons were shipped on the river, primarily sub-bituminous coal, petroleum coke, and aluminum ore.
The Green River is home to more than 150 fish species and this includes some of Kentuckys largest fish and some of the worlds rarest species of mussels. B. Cunningham wrote a series of 22 detective stories, all but one of which are set in a county through which the Green River flows and which feature Jess Roden, in 1969, Creedence Clearwater Revival released the album Green River. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Green River Green River
Allen County, Kentucky
Allen County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,956, the county is named for Colonel John Allen, a state senator and soldier who was killed leading the 1st Regiment of Kentucky Rifleman at the Battle of Frenchtown, Michigan during the War of 1812. Allen County is a prohibition or completely dry county and it was formed in 1815 from parts of Barren and Warren counties. Allen County is included in the Bowling Green, KY Metropolitan Statistical Area, Allen County was established in 1815 from land given by Barren and Warren counties. A courthouse fire in 1902 resulted in the loss of county records. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 352 square miles. The population density was 51 per square mile, there were 8,057 housing units at an average density of 23 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97. 62% White,1. 07% Black or African American,0. 16% Native American,0. 12% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,0. 36% from other races, and 0. 66% from two or more races. 0.
83% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,23. 10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was out with 25. 80% under the age of 18,8. 90% from 18 to 24,28. 50% from 25 to 44,23. 10% from 45 to 64. The median age was 36 years, for every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.30 males, the median income for a household in the county was $31,238, and the median income for a family was $36,815. Males had an income of $27,587 versus $22,659 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,506, about 13. 20% of families and 17. 30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23. 40% of those under age 18 and 20. 40% of those age 65 or over. Allen County, like most of Kentucky, is increasingly solidly Republican, adolphus Amos Halifax Halfway Holland New Roe Petroleum Scottsville Mordecai Ham Jim McDaniels Charles Napier Norro Wilson Barry D.
Dyer Cal Turner Sr. National Register of Historic Places listings in Allen County, Kentucky
Interior Low Plateaus
The Interior Low Plateaus are a physiographic region in eastern United States. It consists of a landscape that extends from north Alabama across central Tennessee and Kentucky into southern Illinois, Indiana. Its natural communities are a matrix of temperate forests and this is a region of rolling plains and eroded plateaus, with a temperate continental climate. It is notable for its extensive karst limestone, which comprise the caves at Mammoth Cave National Park and this region includes a portion of what the U. S. Forest service calls the Central Hardwood Forest. The underlying bedrock of the Interior Low Plateaus consists of rocks such as limestone, sandstone. These date from the Ordovician period in the Nashville Basin and Bluegrass region, the Interior Low Plateaus lie at the southern edge of the glacial boundary. Unlike the till plain to the north, the bedrock is generally close to the surface. The hillier parts of the Interior Low Plateaus are not mountain ranges, the natural communities in this region are a matrix of forest and prairie.
Today, much of the prairie and savanna communities have been lost due to fire suppression. However, oak-hickory woodlands remain relatively common, and mesic forest is abundant along riparian areas, oak-hickory woodland is the most common natural community in the Interior Low Plateaus. It is the dominant natural community for many areas of rolling hills, including the Western Highland Rim, Shawnee Hills and these woodlands represent an intermediate state between a forest and a savanna, with a moderate historical fire frequency. Today, many remnants have transitioned into mesic forest due to fire suppression, common trees in this community include post oak, white oak, southern red oak, black oak, and pignut hickory. In more calcareous areas, common trees include Shumard oak, Chinquapin oak. In more acidic dry woodlands there are stands of chestnut oak, the flat surfaces of the Interior Low Plateaus historically contained extensive areas of open prairie. This fire-maintained community was concentrated in the areas of the Mitchell Plain and Pennyroyal Plain with smaller areas of prairie in the Nashville Basin, early settlers describe these areas as nearly treeless expanses, containing Greater prairie chicken and herds of Bison.
Today, some remains in areas that are managed by controlled burns, or other forms of tree removal such as powerline. Dry prairies are the most common remnant in this region, due to their unsuitability for agriculture and they are dominated by Schizachyrium scoparium and Aristida purpurascens. Mesic prairies are rarer, and are dominated by tall grasses such as Indian grass, big bluestem