Crittenden County, Kentucky
Crittenden County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. At the 2010 census, the population was 9,315, the county was formed in 1842 and named for John J. Crittenden and future Governor of Kentucky. It is a prohibition or dry county, Crittenden County, located on the Ohio and Tradewater Rivers in the Pennyroyal region of Kentucky, was created by the state legislature on April 1,1842, from a portion of Livingston County. It became the states 91st county, and was named for John J. Crittenden, a U. S. senator, attorney general, the first county seat was in Crooked Creek, but it was moved to Marion just two years later. Crittenden County was once crossed by the Chickasaw Road, which was a part of the Old Saline Trace and this foot path was used by Native Americans when hunting game that crossed the Ohio River to the salt licks in Illinois. The first settler in the area was James Armstrong, who arrived from South Carolina in 1786 and his family joined him five years later, along with other families that came to settle in the area.
Early in the century, Flynns Ferry was established where the trail crossed the river. Generally pro-Confederate during the American Civil War, the county saw little fighting, several skimishes did place there, and the county courthouse was burned by Confederate Brigadier General Hylan B. Lyon during his raid across western Kentucky in December 1864, lyons men, all Kentuckians, burned a total of seven courthouses, since the Union Army was using them for barracks. The Confederates allowed the locals to remove the records before setting fire to the courthouses, Crittenden County has valuable deposits of fluorspar, porcelain, coal and sand for making glass. Marion was primarily a town in the 1840s associated with the large fluorspar mining industry. This industry peaked in 1947 and has been in decline since. Iron production was a prominent industry in the century, with several furnaces being built in the county. Other products produced in the county include lumber, modular homes, today the county has a strong agricultural economy.
In 1992,66 percent of the population lived on farms, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 371 square miles, of which 360 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. Its northwestern border with Illinois is formed by the Ohio River, the population density was 26 per square mile. There were 4,410 housing units at a density of 12 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98. 24% White,0. 65% Black or African American,0. 15% Native American,0. 09% Asian,0. 14% from other races,0. 51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race
Caldwell County, Kentucky
Caldwell County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,984, Caldwell was a prohibition or dry county until 2013, when the citizens voted to lift the ban. Caldwell County was formed from Livingston County in 1809, prior to that, Caldwell County had been part of Christian and Lincoln Counties — Lincoln County having been one of the three original counties of Kentucky. In the early nineteenth-century, Caldwell County witnessed the passage of the migration of the Cherokee to the West on the Trail of Tears during Indian removal. The Cherokee camped for several weeks in Caldwell County during the winter of 1838, mainly at Big Springs, now in downtown Princeton, at Skin Frame Creek, in 1860, the construction of Princeton College began, but it was delayed by the Civil War. Confederate troops camped on the grounds of Princeton College in 1861, following the Confederate retreat in early 1862, Union soldiers occupied Princeton for the remainder of the war.
In December 1864, raiding Kentucky Confederate cavalry commanded by General Hylan B, lyon burned the Caldwell County courthouse in Princeton, since it was being used to house the Union garrison. The expansion of railroads in the nineteenth century made Princeton an important junction on several major railway lines, most notably the Illinois Central. By the turn of the century, a boom in dark leaf tobacco had made Caldwell County, along with Christian County. However, the monopolization of the market by James B. Duke left many farmers in debt and discontented, under the leadership of Dr. David Amoss of Cobb in Caldwell County, a vigilante force called the Night Riders was formed to combat the Duke monopoly. The Night Riders terrorized those who cooperated with the company by destroying crops, burning warehouses. The Night Riders took over Princeton one night in December 1906, the Black Patch Wars came to an end around 1908. In the mid-twentieth century, Caldwell County began to shift from agriculture to industrialization, Caldwell County is still largely agricultural, however it is home to factories such as Bremner, who are the largest private cookie and cracker factory in North America.
Since 1925, Caldwell County has housed the University of Kentucky Research and Education Center, the UKREC in Princeton is a leader in horticultural and biological sciences. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 348 square miles. The population density was 38 per square mile, there were 6,126 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93. 89% White,4. 81% Black or African American,0. 15% Native American,0. 16% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,0. 39% from other races, and 0. 60% from two or more races
Fredonia is a home rule-class city in Caldwell County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was 401 at the 2010 census, Fredonia is located in western Caldwell County at 37°12′33″N 88°3′32″W. U. S. Route 641 passes through the city, leading north 9 miles to Marion, ky.91 connects Fredonia to the county seat of Princeton 19 miles to the southeast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 0.62 square miles. The town is said to have laid out in 1836. It was formally incorporated by the assembly in 1869. As of the census of 2000, there were 420 people,177 households, the population density was 642.5 people per square mile. There were 206 housing units at a density of 315.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96. 19% White,3. 57% African American, hispanics or Latinos of any race were 0. 48% of the population. 24. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.80.
The age distribution was 21. 4% under the age of 18,6. 4% from 18 to 24,31. 2% from 25 to 44,24. 3% from 45 to 64, the median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.4 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,893, males had a median income of $35,000 versus $21,429 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,865, about 9. 2% of families and 13. 0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19. 4% of those under age 18 and 9. 7% of those age 65 or over
Kentucky Route 90
Kentucky Route 90 is a major east-west state highway in southern Kentucky. The route is 134.734 miles long, and it traverses Barren, Cumberland, Wayne, Pulaski, McCreary and it originates near the KY70 junction with Interstate 65 in Cave City and ends at a junction with US 25W at Youngs Creek. Kentucky Route 90 begins at Cave City at an intersection with KY70, equipped with a light, in the one part of the city where many restaurants, hotels. It is a major tourism hot-spot due to the proximity to Mammoth Cave National Park, in nearby Edmonson County. Signs at the I-65 exit tend to imply that KY90 ends at the exit itself, while state highway documents indicate that the end is at the intersection with KY70, about 100 yards from the exit proper. In spite of this, both KY70 and KY90 markers appear on the signage for Exit 53 of I-65, after KY 90s first mile, it intersects U. S. Route 31W, still within city limits of Cave City. It has an intersection with US 31Es business loop at the Barren County courthouse, before leaving the city of Glasgow, KY90 has an intersection with the Louie B.
Nunn Cumberland Parkway at the exit 14 interchange on the side of the city. KY90 goes through rural areas and into Wayne County where it intersects Kentucky Route 92 at Monticello. The state highway continues into a course towards Mill Springs, the site of a famous Civil War battle site. It enters the southern portion of Pulaski County, the highways concurrency with US27 begins after KY90 crosses the Cumberland River for a second time near Burnside, Kentucky. KY90 runs concurrently with U. S.27 for about 14.6 miles from Burnside to Parkers Lake. This stretch of road is the gateway to General Burnside State Park After departing US27 in northern McCreary County, the road is signed as KY90, however. These are points of interest that can be accessible along this route, roadside Park in Marrowbone, Kentucky once served as a hospital camp for both the Union and Confederate soldiers during the Civil War. Seventy Six Falls, is a waterfall along the shoreline of Lake Cumberland in northern Clinton County, General Burnside State Park near Burnside.
Cumberland Falls State Resort Park at the McCreary/Whitley County line, Cumberland Falls is the only large waterfall south of the Niagara frontier that is famous for the moonbow in the light of the full moon under the right conditions. Crystal Onyx Cave & Campground, located in Pruitts Knob just south of Cave City, had two entrances via KY90 and US Route 31W. The cave was closed down in 2010 following the rainfall the area had that caused flash flooding in Kentucky
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States. The 981-mile river flows through or along the border of six states, through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes many of the states of the southeastern U. S. It is the source of drinking water for three million people and it is named in Iroquoian or Seneca, Ohi, yó, lit. Good River or Shawnee and Spelewathiipi, the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation, in 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle led a French expedition to the Ohio River, becoming the first Europeans to see it. After European-American settlement, the served as a border between present-day Kentucky and Indian Territories. It was a transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S.
In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated and its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted. During the 19th century, the river was the boundary of the Northwest Territory. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement. The Ohio River is a transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical. It is inhabited by fauna and flora of both climates, in winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh but rarely further south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohios confluence with the Mississippi, Paducah was founded there because it is the northernmost ice-free reach of the Ohio. The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers at Point State Park in Pittsburgh, from there, it flows northwest through Allegheny and Beaver counties, before making an abrupt turn to the south-southwest at the West Virginia–Ohio–Pennsylvania triple-state line.
From there, it forms the border between West Virginia and Ohio, upstream of Wheeling, West Virginia, the river follows a roughly southwest and west-northwest course until Cincinnati, before bending to a west-southwest course for most of its length. The course forms the borders of West Virginia and Kentucky. The Ohio drains parts of 15 states in four regions, northeast New York, a small area of the southern border along the headwaters of the Allegheny. Pennsylvania, a corridor from the corner to north central border
Kentucky Transportation Cabinet
The Transportation Cabinet is led by the Kentucky Secretary of Transportation, who is appointed by the governor of Kentucky. The current Secretary is Mike Hancock, who was appointed by Democratic Governor Steve Beshear, as of October 2012, KYTC maintains 27,562.975 miles of roadways in the state. The Transportation Cabinet is composed of four operating Departments, headed by Commissioners and those units are subdivided into Divisions headed by Directors
Cave-In-Rock is a village in Hardin County, United States. Its principal feature and tourist attraction is nearby Cave-In-Rock, on the banks of the Ohio River, the population was 318 at the 2010 census. Cave-In-Rock is located at 37°28′12″N 88°9′59″W, according to the 2010 census, Cave-In-Rock has a total area of 0.422 square miles, of which 0.37 square miles is land and 0.052 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 346 people,165 households, the population density was 874.6 people per square mile. There were 201 housing units at a density of 508.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98. 27% White,1. 16% other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 2. 02% of the population. 41. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 28. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.82. In the village, the population was out with 23. 4% under 18,7. 5% from 18 to 24,24. 9% from 25 to 44,19. 4% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 40 years, for every 100 females there were 81.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.8 males, the median income for a household in the village was $20,694, and the median income for a family was $28,393. Males had an income of $35,833 versus $18,125 for females. The per capita income for the village was $12,050, about 20. 5% of families and 28. 6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43. 8% of those under age 18 and 24. 1% of those age 65 or over. The first European to come across it was M. de Lery of France, other names for the cave include Rock-In-Cave, Rocking Cave, Rock-and-Cave, House of Nature, The Cave, Big Cave, and Murrells Cave. The cave has been the feature of Illinois Cave-in-Rock State Park since 1929. In 1790, counterfeiters Philip Alston and John Duff used the cave as some type of rendezvous, two of Masons brothers had been business partners of Duff in Kaskaskia, Illinois, in the 1780s. Mason created a combination tavern, gambling den and his men lured in gullible river travelers and robbed and killed them.
He may be the Wilson who married one of Masons nieces, in 1799, he hung a sign over the caves entrance saying Wilsons Liquor Vault and House for Entertainment. By this time and his associates had been making salt in the area around the Illinois Salines along the Saline River in southeastern Illinois
Hopkinsville is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Christian County, United States. The population at the 2010 census was 31,577, the area of present-day Hopkinsville was initially claimed in 1796 by Bartholomew Wood as part of a 1, 200-acre grant for his service in the American Revolution. Following the creation of Christian County the same year, the Woods donated 5 acres of land, by 1798, a log courthouse and stray pen had been built, the next year, John Campbell and Samuel Means laid out the streets for Christian Court House. The Civil War generated major divisions in Christian County, Confederate support in Hopkinsville and Christian County was evident in the formation of the Oak Grove Rangers and the 28th Kentucky Cavalry. Christian County was the birthplace of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America, though his birthplace is now part of Todd County, several local businessmen and plantation owners contributed money and war supplies to the South. After Confederate forces retreated to Tennessee, Camp Joe Anderson was established by the Union to the northwest of Hopkinsville in 1862, men who trained there became members of the 35th Kentucky Cavalry, the 25th Kentucky Infantry, and the 35th Kentucky Infantry.
Gen. James S. Jackson had been a Hopkinsville attorney before the war and was killed in service to the Union at the Battle of Perryville in October 1862, private citizens who supported the Union cause provided the army with mules, wagons and food. Hopkinsville changed hands at least half a dozen times, being occupied in turn by Confederate, in December 1864, Confederate troops under Gen. Hylan B. Lyon captured the town and burned the Christian County courthouse, being used by the Union army as a barracks, another skirmish between Union and Confederate forces took place in the field opposite Western State Hospital near the end of the war. The Evansville and Nashville Railroad was the first to connect the city in 1868, in 1879, it was purchased by the L&N. The Ohio Valley Railroad reached the city in 1892, as did the Tennessee Central in 1903, the tobacco from the Black Patch region was highly desired in Europe. The ATC used their power to reduce the prices they paid to farmers. Many farmers continued to sell independently or secretly, prompting the association to form a Silent Brigade to pressure such farmers into compliance, with societal pressure seeming to fail, the Silent Brigade organized the Night Riders to terrorize farmers into submission.
On December 7,1907,250 masked Night Riders seized Hopkinsvilles police station and they pursued tobacco executives who bought tobacco from farmers who were not members of the Dark Tobacco District Planters Protective Association and city officials who aided them. Three warehouses were burned, one of sites became Peace Park. They have gone on with their mischief making, until they have almost ruined the country, on April 2,2006, an F3 tornado swept through parts of Hopkinsville. In the storm,200 homes were damaged and 28 people were injured, a gas line was damaged, causing a gas leak. Hopkinsville is located south of the center of Christian County at 36°51′17″N 87°29′20″W, madisonville is 35 miles to the north, Russellville is 35 miles to the east, and Clarksville, Tennessee, is 26 miles to the south
U.S. Route 68
U. S. Route 68 is a United States highway that runs for 560 miles from northwest Ohio to Western Kentucky. The highways western terminus is at US62 in Reidland and its northern terminus is at Interstate 75 in Findlay, Ohio. It is signed east–west in Kentucky and north–south in Ohio, U. S. Route 68 is designated as a Scenic Highway throughout Kentucky. The majority of the winds through forested, hilly terrain. US68 is Broadway through downtown Lexington, and it is Harrodsburg Road before it leaves Lexington, the route passes several Civil War battle sites. The Battle of Tebbs Bend Historic Civil War Site is located near Campbellsville, in addition, the Jefferson Davis State Historic Site is along the highway about 9 miles east of Hopkinsville at the small town of Fairview. There is an annual 400-mile yard sale held along the highway for 4 days in early summer, the sections of the highway through Campbellsville and Lebanon are slated for expansion to begin in 2008. The long-term goal is to widen and make safer the entire US68 corridor through Kentucky as part of the Heartland Parkway project, sections in Kentucky have been improved in recent years.
The Paris Pike which was completed in 2003, work is currently in progress to make US68 four lanes through Land Between the Lakes. Two spans of the US 68/KY80 Eggner Ferry Bridge over Kentucky Lake collapsed after being struck by a ship on January 26,2012. The bridge reopened to traffic on May 25,2012, US68 takes a south-north route throughout Ohio, roughly paralleling Interstate 75 but covering counties one tier to the east of those counties covered by I-75. US68 begins at the William H. Harsha Bridge over the Ohio River, shortly before reaching Interstate 70, it becomes a four-lane expressway, bypassing Springfield before transitioning back to a rural two-lane road as it approaches Urbana. As it continues north, US68 passes through West Liberty, Kenton, Dunkirk, in total, US68 traverses 179.1 miles within Ohio. US68 followed the current KY218 westward into Horse Cave, US68 moved to its current routing from Bowling Green to Perryville around 1948-49. US68 previously ran to Toledo, terminating at the west approach to the High Level Bridge south of downtown and it passed through Springfield, Ohio prior to its realignment onto a four-lane bypass of that city.
One exit ramp from US68 ends on Upper Valley Pike, rather than on US 40/SR4, another entrance ramp includes two-way traffic, the Ohio Department of Transportation the same year approved $5 million to fund the project. However, the TCC soon rejected ODOTs money, concluding that even its recommended fix would not be enough to solve the road networks underlying problems. Instead, the TCC is making changes, such as improving traffic signal timing and adding signs
Princeton is a home rule-class city in Caldwell County, Kentucky, in the United States. It is the seat of its county, the population was 6,329 during the 2010 U. S. Census. The community at the head of Eddy Creek was first called Eddy Grove for the source at a large whirling spring. 1,700 acres of surrounding land was granted to the Virginian William Prince for his service during the American Revolution and he settled there in what was Livingston County in 1799 and erected Shandy Hall, a brick home and tavern. The county court accepted the proposal in July and named the new community Princetown, construction of Princeton College began in 1860 but was delayed by the commencement of the Civil War. Confederate troops camped on its campus in 1861, using one of the buildings as a hospital, following the Confederate retreat in early 1862, Union soldiers occupied the town for the remainder of the war. In December 1864, Confederate-allied Kentuckian cavalry under Gen. Hylan B, lyon raided the town and razed the courthouse, which was serving as a Union garrison.
Since 1925, Princeton has housed the University of Kentucky Research and Education Center, every September, Princeton hosts the Black Patch Festival in its historic downtown. Up to 65 booths feature a variety of foods and activities. One of the highlights of the Black Patch Festival each year is the concert held at the Princeton First Baptist Church. The festival is named after the variety of Black Patch tobacco grown in the surrounding areas of western Kentucky. Tobacco was at the center of one of the largest civil uprisings in American history, by the start of the 20th century, an agricultural boom in dark leaf tobacco had made Caldwell County, along with Christian County, a major tobacco growing area. However, the monopolization of the market by James B. Duke left many farmers in debt, on December 1,1906, the Night Riders raided Princeton and burned the largest tobacco factories in the world. This large, natural spring flows from a cave located in the heart of downtown Princeton, the towns founder chose to build his home above the spring and established a sawmill close by.
Ancient trails used by animals and early Indians, and by stagecoaches and pioneers and they led to the major rivers of the area, the Cumberland and the Ohio. During the Cherokee removal of 1838-39, the Native Americans were to be moved west on steamboats, however, a severe drought in the summer of 1838 made river travel all but impossible. With thousands of people, plus a number of horses, wagons