Calliope is a town and locality in the Gladstone Region, Australia. At the 2011 census, Calliope had a population of 3,058. Calliope is near the'cross-roads' of the Bruce Highway and the Dawson Highway in Central Queensland, 20 kilometres SSW of the port city of Gladstone; the town is reputedly named after the ship Calliope, which brought the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy to Port Curtis in 1854. Industries of the town and surrounds since that time have included gold mining, beef and more heavy industry and tourism. Calliope Post Office opened on 1 March 1864. Alluvial gold was mined in the area after its discovery in 1862; the following year Queensland's first goldfield was proclaimed. In 1872, a state primary school was opened; the Calliope River Historical Village is situated on the banks of the Calliope River. Lake Awoonga resulted from the construction of a dam on the Boyne River. Lake Awoonga supplies water to the city of Gladstone, Calliope and other townships in the region, as well as supplying the major industries for which the Gladstone region is known.
Total capacity of Lake Awoonga is 777,000 megalitres. The catchment area contributing to the Lake is 2,240 square kilometres and is surrounded by the Boyne and Many Peaks Ranges. Lake Awoonga is home to a thriving array of native animals, several of which are of conservation significance. Two fauna species are listed as vulnerable: the yellow-bellied glider and the grey-headed flying fox. For the bird-watching enthusiast, Lake Awoonga is a paradise with more than 225 species or over 27% of Australia's bird species found in the region; the southern squatter pigeon is listed as vulnerable and of conservation significance, twenty-seven species are listed on International Migratory Conservation Agreement lists. Lake Awoonga is arguably one of the most important near-coast bird refuges on the East Coast of Australia; the Gladstone Area Water Board operates a fish hatchery which breeds barramundi and mangrove jack for release into Lake Awoonga. Barramundi over 20 kg are caught, the heaviest caught by August 2008 weighed in at a hefty 36.5 kg.
In addition, the mangrove jack breeding program has resulted in Lake Awoonga holding the largest stocks in Australia with over 13,000 released. Since 1996 over two and a half million barramundi fingerlings and 340,000 mullet fingerlings have been released into Lake Awoonga. Calliope has an 18-hole golf course with a bowls club. There are an annual rodeo held each year; the town has a swimming pool, sports fields, Hazelbrook Park and a skateboard ramp. Recent years have seen the introduction of a child care centre, supermarket shopping, specialty stores, doctors surgeries and other essential services. A large number of new homes and town houses have been built in Calliope due to its proximity to Gladstone Port and associated industries such as LNG; until 2008, Calliope was the council headquarters of the Calliope Shire which included Boyne Island, Tannum Sands, Mount Larcom and most of the industrial plants plus Awoonga dam. Calliope has now become one of the towns under the umbrella of the Gladstone Regional Council after the merger of the Calliope Shire Council and the former Gladstone City Council.
GRC still maintain significant offices in Calliope. The Calliope Library is on Don Cameron Drive. There is a Gladstone Regional Council administration centre at 5 Don Cameron Drive. Media: Calliope is serviced by Christian FM radio 87.6FM. The Calliope branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall at 2 Bloomfield Street. Calliope State School is a government co-educational Primary School at Calliope. In 2015 the Calliope State School had 588 students enrolled with a teaching staff of 38 FTE and 15 FTE non-teaching staff. Students from Calliope State School come from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds with an ICSEA of 977 in 2015. 4% of the students identify as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent. The Boyne Valley Gladstone, Queensland Boyne River, Queensland Calliope River, Queensland Lake Awoonga, Queensland Media related to Calliope, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Calliope
Baralaba is a small town and rural locality in the Shire of Banana in central Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Baralaba had a population of 314 people; the Dawson River forms the western boundary of the locality. The town is located in the north-west corner of the locality beside the river; the Neville Hewitt weir on the river at the town creates a wide river for recreation. The town is located 33 kilometres west of the Leichhardt Highway; the local economy revolves around beef production. The town's name is derived from an Aboriginal word meaning "high mountain" referring to nearby Mount Ramsay. Baralaba Provisional School opened on 19 August 1918, it became a state school on 1 March 1922. In 1964, a secondary department was added. Baralaba Post Office opened by April 1924. In May 1941, an Honour Board commemorating those who served in World War II was unveiled at the Returned and Services League of Australia Memorial Hall in Stopford Street. Outside of the Memorial Hall is a white cross commemorating those who served in all wars and conflicts.
Two coal mines once operated in the Baralaba region. Both closed, but mining operations recommenced at one mine in 2005; the mobile library service commenced in 2004. Baralaba State School is a government co-educational primary and partial secondary school located at 1 Power Street. In 2012, the school had an enrolment of 98 students with 14 teachers; as Baralaba State School only provides secondary education to Year 10, the nearest secondary schools offering Years 11 and 12 are located in Moura and Biloela. Baralaba Golf Club is located on Alberta Road. Banana Shire Council operate a fortnightly mobile library service to Baralaba; every March, there is a campdrafting competition at Baralaba. The annual Baralaba agricultural show is held in May; the Saratoga Fishing Competition is held each September. Baralaba has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Morgan Street and The Esplanade: Dawson Valley Colliery In the 2011 census, Baralaba had a population of 479 people; this was in increase from the 2006 census, when Baralaba had a population of 290.
Media related to Baralaba, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Baralaba Banana Shire Council Town map of Baralba, 1980
Keppel Bay is a broad bay in Central Queensland, Australia at the mouth of the Fitzroy River. Cape Keppel is at the Eastern end of the bay; the bay and the nearby Keppel Islands were named by Captain Cook when he was there on 27 May 1770, after Admiral Augustus Keppel of the British Royal Navy. Great Keppel Island Cape Manifold Pumpkin Island University of Queensland:Queensland Places: Keppel Bay Area
Capella is a small town and locality in the Central Highlands Region, Australia. In the 2016 census, Capella had a population of 1,010 people. Capella is midway between Clermont on the Gregory Highway; the highway passes through Capella from south to north as Capella's main street. Capella is served by the Capella railway station on a railway line from Emerald to Blair Athol; the branch line runs from north to south and is adjacent and to the west of the highway. Capella Creek flows from east to west across the northern part of the locality to the immediate north of the town. Capella Creek is a tributary of the Nogoa River, which in turn is a tributary of the Fitzroy River which enters the Coral Sea. Capella was founded on traditional Wangan land in the 1860s by graziers influenced by the good reports of Ludwig Leichhardt; the town takes its name from Capella Creek, in turn named after the star Capella. The Creek was named by surveyor Charles Frederick Gregory who, following the discovery of copper at Copperfield, about 60 kilometres to the north, surveyed three township sites in the Peak Downs area in 1862.
The town remained a small roadside stopping place halfway between Emerald, to the south, Clermont, to the north, until a railway line was built connecting the two larger towns in 1882. The same year saw the establishment of a Post Office. Capella Provisional School opened the following year, 1883, became Capella State School in 1900. Land resumed from large pastoral runs was made available to small farm selectors in 1883 and small cropping and dairying became early industries; the early 20th century was a time of stable growth and development in the town, although the population only increased from about 250 in 1900 to 300 in 1930. The 1920s saw a great deal of building. Mrs M. J. Walsh opened a café in October 1925 and a bakery opened shortly after. A new Roman Catholic church, St Joseph's, seating 200 people, was dedicated in April 1926; the same year saw a new hall, picture theatre and Country Women's Association clubrooms built. A branch of the Queensland National Bank opened in 1930 and a new Catholic presbytery was built.
The town became the council seat of the Shire of Peak Downs in 1927 and a new Shire Hall was built in 1936. The mid 1930s saw the town's main streets kerbed and channelled and a "bitumen emulsion paved footpath" laid in the main street, Peak Down's Street. A town electricity supply was introduced in December, 1954 although other services had to wait for another decade or more, being introduced between 1962 and 1982. In the 1950s the Queensland British Food Corporation introduced large-scale grain production into the district on land used for grazing. A run of poor seasons led to the project's failure, but introduced new crops such as sunflower and sorghum; the Capella Hotel, on the corner of Peak Downs and Crinum Streets, was built in 1955. This was the site of the former Commercial Hotel, built in 1929, destroyed in a fire in February 1943; the destruction of the Commercial left the town with only one other hotel and the Peak Downs Shire Council, realising the need to provide additional accommodation for visitors to the town, undertook to build the Hotel as a function of local government.
Several local authorities in Queensland built and ran their own licensed premises in the 1950s, including Rockhampton and Winton. The new Capella Hotel was designed by Mr E. A. Hegvold and built by J. J. Booker and Sons, at a cost of ₤33,000; the Hotel was opened on 7 May 1955. The Peak Downs district was part of the Brigalow Development Scheme in the 1960s with large-scale clearing of the brigalow scrub by mechanical means; the large new farming blocks opened up by the clearing of the Brigalow lent itself to the broadland growing of grain and cereal crops sunflower and sorghum. Bulk storage facilities for these new crops was built in 1964 and the population of the district increased with new farming families. Capella saw the opening of a range of new activities and facilities, including a district agricultural show, Girl Guides, a swimming pool, a pre-school centre. Coal was discovered at Tieri, about 36 kilometres east of Capella, in 1982 and a large open-cut mine was developed; the mine boosted the economy of the area and the 1980s saw a number of new developments and buildings in Capella, including the Capella Cultural Centre and a pioneer village.
The Capella School opened a secondary department in 1984, which separated to become the Capella State High School on 23 January 1989. In 2003 the security of Capella's water supply was assured by a pipeline to Tieri. At the 2006 census, the town had a population of 796. In 2008 the Shire of Peak Downs was amalgamated into the Central Highlands Regional Shire, with its seat in Emerald. In the 2011 census, Capella had a population of 926 people. Today, it is a service town catering to the large coal-mining interests in the area as well as pastoralists and farmers; the Peak Downs Shire cemetery is located in Capella. The cemetery has a memorial li
Rolleston is a small town and locality in the Central Highlands Region, Australia. In the 2011 census, Rolleston had a population of 129 people. Rolleston was built on Kanolu land; the town is named after Christopher Rolleston, a pastoralist, involved in leasing a number of pastoral runs in the area in the 1860s. At the 2006 census and the surrounding area had a population of 123, it is located on the Comet River, 335 kilometres west of Gladstone and 694 kilometres northwest of Brisbane. Springsure, the nearest town lies 71 kilometres to the north-west. Rolleston lies on the junction of the Carnarvon and Dawson highways. Queensland's the notorious Patrick and James Kenniff. There is a large coal mine 13 kilometres west called the Rolleston coal mine. Mining is expected to last more than 20 years; the Central Highlands Regional Council operates a public library on Planet Street. Rolleston State School opened on 9 October 1871. Expedition Range Lake Nuga Nuga Rolleston weather records Queensland travel site
Emerald is a town in the Central Highlands Region, Australia. At the 2016 Census, Emerald had an urban population of 13,500; the town is the business centre for the Central Highlands Regional Council. Emerald lies on a tributary of the Fitzroy River; the town lies 300 kilometres from the coast and 270 kilometres west of the city of Rockhampton on the junction of the Capricorn and Gregory highways. The Tropic of Capricorn intersects the Gregory Highway just north of Emerald; the original inhabitants include the Gayiri Aborigninal group who occupied the area for tens of thousands of years before European colonisation began in the nineteenth century. The first European to explore the area was Ludwig Leichhardt between 1843 and 1845; the British Colony of Queensland was established in 1859. Emerald was established in 1879 as a base for the Central line from Rockhampton. Emerald Post Office opened on 5 June 1879; the new Emerald Library building opened in 1994. Some of the recorded floods to have occurred in the region include 1863, 1864, 1868, 1870, 1871, 1872, 1875, 1876, 1878, 1882, 1887, 1890, 1894, 1896, 1898, 1906, 1912, 1918, 1920s, 1950, 1956 was the wettest year on record with 1032.29 mm rainfall.
The 1970s had similar rainfall to the 1860s and 1870s. Prior to the 1990s, flood damage to residential properties was non-existent; the biggest impact of flooding of the Nogoa River in Emerald itself was that one side of Emerald was cut off from the other and caravans at the Carinya Caravan Park would be towed to higher ground each time the Nogoa River rose, to prevent the caravans from being submerged. This caravan park is now the site of the Centro Property where Coles Supermarket and other businesses operate. A former swamp area is now part of Kidd Street, an old river course; the watercourse that extended along the back of the hospital, past the rear of Woolworths and past the Information Centre has been converted into a channel with a concrete section on one side near the information centre, reducing the channel in size by two-thirds. This area has been allowed to be developed in the vicinity of Creek Street. Fairbairn Dam overflowed for the first time in 17 years on 19 January 2008. Major flooding in Emerald occurred a few days as the Nogoa River broke its banks.
The floods resulted in more than 2,500 people being evacuated. The 2008 floods did not reach the heights of flooding in previous years. Emerald has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Clermont Street: Emerald railway station According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 13,532 people in Emerald. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 3.6% of the population. 73.8% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were New Zealand 4.3%, Philippines 1.6%, South Africa 1.1% and England 1.1%. 81.4% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Afrikaans at 0.8%. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 26.3%, No Religion 21.1% and Anglican 15.4%. Emerald is a service town for a large number of industries in the area. Extensive coal mining operations are carried out in the district. Cotton is grown in the area, is processed at the Yamala Cotton Gin, while other agricultural activities include grape and grain growing.
The citrus industry was affected by a citrus canker outbreak that started in 2004 and was declared over in early 2009. More than half a million citrus trees located around Emerald had to be destroyed. Emerald Solar Park is west of the town and generates up to 65MW of electricity since October 2018. Emerald has a humid subtropical climate with mild, dry winters. Maximum temperatures range from 34 °C in January to 22 °C in July, while minimums range from 22 °C to 7 °C; the average annual rainfall is 641.2 mm. The wettest year on record was 1407.2 mm in 1956. Extremes of temperature have ranged from 48.6 °C to −5.6 °C, while the wettest 24 hours on record was 182.0 mm on 25 February 1975. To the west of the town is an area known as The Gemfields, with small towns such as Sapphire and Rubyvale indicating the type of gems found there; the sapphire fields located here are the largest in the southern hemisphere. The Fairbairn Dam, a short drive to the south of the town, was opened in 1972, holds back the waters of Lake Maraboon.
The lake covers an area of up to 150 km², making it one of the largest artificial lakes in the country. When full, it holds more water than Sydney Harbour; this extensive water supply has allowed the cotton industry to flourish in the area, the lake is a boon for local water sports. Emerald has ten schools: six primary schools, three secondary schools, a distance education school. There are three public primary schools, Denison State School, Emerald North State School, Emerald State School. Emerald North State School opened on 1 October 1879 and Emerald North State School was opened on 29 January 1980. Marist College Emerald, St Patrick's, St Brigid's and Emerald Christian College are private schools; the only public high school in Emerald is Emerald State High School. Capricornia School of Distance Education shares a campus with Denison State School; the small community of Gindie exists 23 kilometres south of Emerald on the Gregory Highway. It is home to a primary school established in 1897, Gindie State School.
The school closed in 1949 and subsequently reopened. Central Queensland University has a campus in Emerald. Central Highlands Regional Council operates Emerald Library at Emerald; the Emerald branch of the Queensland Co
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund