Palakunnathu Abraham Malpan known as Martin Luther of the East was born in the ancient Syrian Christian Palakunnathu Family which practiced Knanaya West Syriac Rite Oriental Orthodoxy after the Coonan Cross Oath and is an Indian clergyman of the Malankara Syrian Church who translated and revised the liturgy, restoring the Church to what he considered to be its pristine position before the Synod of Diamper. He therefore strove hard for the abolition of auricular confession, prayers for the dead, invocation of saints, veneration of sacraments. Further he emphasised the study of the Bible, family-worship and evangelistic work, he insisted on a high moral standard of conduct for laity and clergy. All this created a ferment in the Church and its effects are still discernible in the Malankara Syrian Church as a whole; this led to the formation of the Mar Thoma Syrian Church in 1898. Malankara now figuratively known as Kerala, is the south western state of India. Here, the Malankara Church, one of the oldest Christian Churches in history was founded by Thomas the Apostle.
It is believed that it was founded at the same time by Saint Paul. In the seventeenth century, a member of the Panamkuzhy family and settled in Kozhencherry on the banks of river Pampa, they moved to Maramon, lived at Chackkalyil, on the other side of the river. The second son in that family, Mathen moved to the nearby Palakunnathu house, his fifth son was a celibate priest. As was the custom, His youngest son Mathew lived at Palakunnathu family house.. His second son Abraham Malpan moved to Palakunnathu Kuzhiathu house. A number of Malankara Church leaders were born in this family like Mathews Mar Athanasius Malankara Metropolitan; the present head of the Marthoma Church, Dr. Joseph Mar Thoma Metropolitan, is from this family. Abraham Malpan was born on 30 May 1796 as the second son of Palakunnathu Mathew and Mariamma of Pakalomattathil-Mullasseril Family, of Mullasseril Family, Kerala, his father died before he was born, his mother died before he was three. Because the practice of the church at that time was to ordain children as deacons.
He was sent to study Syriac and the worship orders under Malpan Korah Kathanar becoming an expert in the Syriac language. After being ordained as a priest in 1815 by Mar Thoma VIII, he soon became a professor of Syriac, a Malpan, at the Malankara Old Seminary in Kottayam; the priests of that time practised celibacy, a practice, kept after the brief time under the Roman Catholic Church. However, after the British Anglicans arrived, they encouraged the church to end the mandate of celibacy. Metropolitan Punnuthra Mar Dionysius agreed, the practice ended. Abraham Malpan was one of the first of the priests to get married challenging the other faction. According to Church practices and Biblical Instructions, theological students were made deacons at the age of 20 and priests at the age of 30, but during the time just before the reformation small children of 7 years were ordained as deacons by the bishops after taking big bribes from the parents. And people who did not have any theological education were made priests at the age of 16 or 17.
After his Malayalam Education Malpan was sent to study Syriac, the language of the liturgy, under Padinjarekutu Korah Malpan, Puthupally. It was a residential discipleship like the ancient Indian Gurukula education. Abraham obtained good fluency in Syriac and the Bible and acquired a sound knowledge of Christian theology, he was ordained as a Semmasson in 1811, received the priestly ordination as a Kassessa in 1815 from Mar Thoma VIII. He was appointed as the Vicar of Maramon parish. During the time of Marthoma VI, Anglican missionary Claudius Buchanan visited Malankara, he met Marthoma in 1806. With his help, the Bible was translated from the original Aramaic language and was distributed to the parishes. Soon after his meeting, representatives of the parishes met at Arthat church and declared that the people should not follow the teachings by Rome; this meeting can be considered to be the beginning of Sucheekarana Prasthanam in Malankara Church. In 1816, Mar Thoma X, appointed Abraham Malpan as an educator of Syriac at the Kottayam Seminary.
His uncle, Thomma Malpan was of opinion that many of the beliefs that infiltrated into Malankara Church were against the teaching of the Bible. While he was the guardian of Abraham Malpan in his younger days, they talked about restoring the Church to its previous position before the Synod of Diamper. Teaching at the Kottayam Seminary, gave him enough time to read and study the Bible in his mother tongue, Malayalam. Mar Thoma XI, convened a meeting of representatives of the Malankara Church at Mavelikkara, on 3 December 1818. In that meeting a committee was appointed to recommend reforms in the Church. Abraham Malpan, Kaithayil Geevarghese Malpan, Eruthikkal Markose Kathanar, Adangapurathu Joseph Kathanar were members of this committee; this is considered as the first step in carrying out the Sucheekaranam in Malankara Church. But after the demise of Mar Thoma XI, things changed. Cheppad Mar Dionysius became Marthoma XII. Due to
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
Church of North India
The Church of North India, the dominant United denomination in northern India, is a united church established on 29 November 1970 by bringing together the Anglican and Protestant churches working in northern India. It is the successor of the Church of England in India along with the Church of Pakistan and the Church of South India; the merger, in discussions since 1929, came between the Church of India, Pakistan and the Ceylon, the United Church of Northern India, the Baptist Churches of Northern India, the Church of the Brethren in India, which withdrew in 2006, the Methodist Church and the Disciples of Christ denominations. The CNI's jurisdiction covers all states of the Indian Union with the exception of the four states in the south and has 1,250,000 members in 3,000 pastorates. Ecumenical discussions with a view to a unified church was initiated by the Australian Churches of Christ Mission, the Methodist Church of Australia, the Wesleyan Methodist Church, the Methodist Episcopal Church and the United Church of Northern India during a round table meeting in Lucknow in 1929.
A negotiation committee was set up in 1951 using the plan of Church Union that resulted from the earlier consultations as its basis. The committee was composed of representatives from the Baptist Churches in Northern India, the Church of India, Pakistan and Ceylon, the Methodist Church, the Methodist Church in Southern Asia and the United Church of Northern India; the Methodist Episcopal Church, did not join the discussions and, in 1981, it became the Methodist Church in India. In 1957, the Church of the Brethren in India and the Disciples of Christ denominations joined in the negotiations as well. A new negotiation committee was set up in 1961 with representatives from all the abovementioned denominations. In 1965, a finalised plan of Church Union, known as the 4th Plan of Union 1965, was made; the union was formalised on 29 November 1970 when all the negotiating churches were united as the Church of North India with the exception of the Methodist Church in Southern Asia which decided not to join the union.
The CNI is a trinitarian church that draws from the traditions and heritage of its constituent denominations. The basic creeds of the CNI are the Apostle's Creed and the Nicene Creed of 381 AD; the liturgy of the CNI is of particular interest, as it combines many traditions, including that of the Methodists and such smaller churches as the Church of the Brethren and the Disciples of Christ. Provision is given for diverse liturgical understandings of the divine revelation; the polity of the CNI brings together the episcopal, the presbyterial and the congregational elements in an effort to reflect the polity of the churches which entered into union. The episcopacy of the CNI is both historical as well as constitutional. There are each under the supervision of a bishop; the main administrative and legislative body is the synod, which meets once every three years to elect a presiding bishop, called a moderator, an executive committee. The moderator acts as the head of the church. Social involvement is a major emphasis in the CNI.
There are synodal boards in charge of various ministries: Secondary, Higher and Theological Education, Health Services, Social Services, Rural Development and Media. There is a synodal Programme Office which seeks to protect and promote peace, justice and dignity of life; the CNI operates 65 hospitals, nine nursing schools, 250 educational institutions and three technical schools. Some of the oldest and well-respected educational institutions in India like Scottish Church College in Calcutta, La Martiniere Calcutta, Wilson College in Mumbai, St. James' School, Hislop College in Nagpur, St. John's Diocesan Girls' School, Calcutta, St. Paul's School in Darjeeling, St. John's College in Agra and St. Stephen's College in Delhi, Bishop Cottons' School in Shimla, Sherwood College in Nainital are under the administration of the CNI; the CNI participates in many ecumenical bodies as a reflection of its commitment towards church unity. Domestically it participates in a joint council with the Church of South India and the Mar Thoma Syrian Church known as the Communion of Churches in India.
It is a member of the National Council of Churches in India. Regionally, the CNI participates in the Christian Conference of Asia and on an international level it is a member of the World Council of Churches, the Council for World Mission, World Alliance of Reformed Churches, World Methodist Council and in full communion with the Anglican Communion; the CNI is in partnership with many other domestic and international Christian agencies. Moderator: Prem Chand Singh, Bishop of Jabalpur Deputy moderator: Probal Kanto Dutta, Bishop of Calcutta General secretary: Alwan Masih Honorary treasurer: Jayant AgarwalAs of October 2017; when founded in 1813, the fourth overseas diocese of the Church of England covered all the subcontinent, all Australasia and some of Africa. With its 1835 split to create Madras diocese, Calcutta was made metropolitan over all its original area, has been split many times since; the Bishop of Calcutta remained Metropolitan of India until the CNI's 1970 creation. Split from Calcutta diocese in 1837, the Diocese of Bombay was the last new Indian diocese of the Church of England before all colonial dioceses became independent in 1863.
Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church
The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church known as the Indian Orthodox Church, is an autocephalous church centered in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the churches of India's Saint Thomas Christian community, which has its origin in the evangelical activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century; the church is headed by the autocephalous Catholicos of the East and the Malankara Metropolitan, presently Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II. It is believed that Saint Thomas Christians of Malabar were in communion with the Church of the East from 496 to 1599, they received episcopal support from Persian bishops, who traveled to Kerala in merchant ships through the spice route, while the local leader of the Saint Thomas Christians held the rank of Archdeacon and was a hereditary office held by the Pakalomattam family. In the 16th century, the overtures of the Portuguese padroado to bring the Saint Thomas Christians into Latin Rite Catholicism led to the first of several rifts in the community by Portuguese colonialists and the establishment of the Catholic and the Malankara Church factions.
Since further splits have occurred, the Saint Thomas Christians are now divided into several fragments, due to western interferences. Saint Thomas Christians were administratively under the single native dynastic leadership of an Archdeacon and were in communion with the Church of the East, centered in Persia, from at least 496; the indigenous Church of Malabar/Malankara followed the faith and traditions handed over by the Apostle St. Thomas. During the 16th century, the Portuguese Jesuits began deliberate attempts to annex the native Christians to the Catholic Church, in 1599 they succeeded through the Synod of Diamper. Resentment against these forceful measures led the majority of the community under the Archdeacon Thomas to swear an oath never to submit to the Portuguese, known as the Coonan Cross Oath, in 1653; the Malankara Church consolidated under Mar Thoma I welcomed Gregorios Abdal Jaleel, who regularized the canonical ordination of Mar Thoma as a bishop. Meanwhile, the Dutch East India Company defeated the Portuguese in supremacy of the spice trade in Malabar in 1663.
The Malankara church used this opportunity to escape from Catholic persecution with the Dutch East India Company's help. At the request of the Malankara Church, the Dutch brought Gregorios Abdal Jaleel of Jerusalem, a bishop of the Syriac Orthodox Church, in their trading vessel in 1665. Mar Thoma I forged a relationship with the Syriac Orthodox Church which laid the foundation for adopting West Syrian liturgy and practices over the next two centuries; the East Syriac Prelate, Mar Yuhanon signed on behalf of the Churches of Persia and India at the first organized gathering of Christianity, the Synod of Nicea held in 325 AD. The East Syriac Canonist Ibn Tayyib says ‘In the time of Catholicose Mar Ishaq the Metropolitanates of Fars and Meru and in the time of Mar Ishu Yab-I/ II/ III Halwan, Samarkhand and China were created’. Mar Ishu Yab warned in his two letters to Mar Shimyun, Metropolitan of Fars located in southern Persia that his independent stand will not hamper the ecclesiastical needs of the people of India.
Ancient East Syriac crosses found out in many places with writings in Pahlavi language engraved on it, as seen at Kadamattom Orthodox church, Kottayam Canaanite church, Mylapore church are pronounce our close relationship with Eastern Church. Malankara Nazranies had evolved a script to write Malayalam after making certain changes in East Syriac script though ‘Vattezhuthe’ an early form of Malayalam was in vogue; the present-day Malayalam script was formulated and used by Indo-Aryan settlers on the lines of Devnagari for the translation of their Epics to Malayalam after 12th century. Aarthat Padiyola in copper plate, declaring the sovereignty of Malankara Church in 1806 was written in old Malayalam script. An early script, ‘Kharoshti’ prevailed in northwestern India was developed from eastern Syriac, which helped to decipher identical edicts written in India's original but defunct Prakrit languages. Many documents related to 17th and 18th century reveals the attachment of Nazranis to Eastern Syria.
A memorandum by Malankara Nazranis to Roman Pope against compulsive westernization during the 17th century states that, "All our prayers are written in the Chaldean Syriac of our Apostle father St. Thomas". A Jesuit priest Nunes Barutha of that period states that: "Marthoma Christians are not believe in any other teaching other than written in Eastern Syriac". In 1682, Bartholomew, a West Syrian Malpan from Aleppo was appointed in Verapoly seminary by Carmelites, but Malankara Nazranis opposed the appointment to teach their students by a West Syrian teacher. Canon of Udayamperoor synod asked to discontinue the use of Eastern Syriac in liturgy and prayers for native Malayalam. Eastern Aramaic was used in Malankara up to the 17th century, all borrowed words and names from Syriac to Malayalam are phonetically in Eastern Syriac. Malankara Nazranis were adapted to Western Syriac and liturgy due to ecclesiastical support and long stay of many Antiochean prelates in the second half of 17th and 18th centuries.
At the outset of Latinisation, Nazranis were reluctant to accept Latin bishops. When Vasco-da-Gama arrived in Cochin in 1502, Metropolitan Mar Yahb Alla assisted by Mar Denha, Mar Yacob and Mar Yuhanon sent by Babylonian Patriarch ministered from Ankamaly a
The Plymouth Brethren are a conservative, low church, non-conformist, evangelical Christian movement whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland in the late 1820s, originating from Anglicanism. The group emphasizes sola scriptura, the belief that the Bible is the supreme authority for church doctrine and practice over and above any other source of authority. Plymouth Brethren see themselves as a network of like-minded free churches, not as a Christian denomination. An influential figure among the early Plymouth Brethren was John Nelson Darby; the movement refused to take any denominational name to a stance that some still maintain. The title "The Brethren," however, is one that many of their number are comfortable with, in that the Bible designates all believers as "brethren": "one is your Master Christ. Brethren assemblies are divided into two major branches: the Open Brethren and the Exclusive Brethren, following a schism that took place in 1848. Both of these main branches are themselves divided into several smaller streams, with varying degrees of communication and overlap among them.
The best-known and oldest distinction between Open and Exclusive assemblies is in the nature of relationships among their local churches. Open Brethren assemblies function as networks of like-minded independent local churches. Exclusive Brethren are connectional and so feel under obligation to recognize and adhere to the disciplinary actions of other associated assemblies, thus for Exclusive Brethren disciplinary action involves denying the individual participation in the breaking of bread or Lord's table. This is a Sunday morning service of prayer, singing and taking communion, with important assembly-related announcements given at the end. Exclusion from it is a major issue. Discipline among Brethren may involve formal social ostracism or "shunning" to varying degrees, dependent upon which kind of Brethren group it is. For instance, people placed "under discipline" may be asked not to attend any group functions which are purely social, people may decline to eat or shake hands with members who are under discipline.
One practical result of this among Open Brethren is that, should a member be disciplined in one assembly, other Open assemblies aware of that disciplining would not automatically feel any binding obligation to deny that person participation in their breaking of bread service, as long as their leadership does not consider whatever caused the disciplinary action a serious issue. A numerically small movement known as the Needed Truth Brethren emerged from the Open Brethren around 1892 in an attempt to address the problem of making discipline more effective. Reasons for being put under discipline by both the Open and Exclusive Brethren include disseminating gross Scriptural or doctrinal error, in the eyes of the fellowship, or being involved in what is deemed sexual immorality. Being accused of irregular or illegal financial dealings may result in being put under discipline. In Exclusive meetings, a member under discipline in one assembly would not be accepted in another assembly, as one assembly respects the decisions made by another assembly.
Exclusive assemblies are much more adherent to the shunning of the offending party, using as guidance instructions given in Leviticus 14:34–48 for dealing with a "leprous house". In extreme cases, members may be asked to divorce members of their immediate families. Another less clear difference between assemblies lies in their approaches to collaborating with other Christians. Many Open Brethren will hold gospel meetings, youth events, or other activities in partnership with non-Brethren Evangelical Christian churches. More conservative Open Brethren—and the majority of Exclusive Brethren—tend not to support activities outside their own meetings. Since the formation of the Exclusives in 1848, there have been a great number of subdivisions into separate groups, but most groups have since rejoined, with the exception of the separatist Plymouth Brethren Christian Church; this group is informally known as "Jimite" from their following of James Taylor, Jr at the division in 1970, they are referred to as the Raven-Taylor-Hales Exclusive Brethren.
This group practices extreme separation, other Brethren groups accuse it of being a cult. Most other Exclusive groups prefer not to be known by any name and are only given such designations by non-members. There are some movements with strong Brethren connections; the Assemblies Jehovah Shammah of India, for example, are regarded as Open Brethren because of their general willingness to work and worship together with other Evangelical Christians, because their foreign connections tend to be with Open Brethren. The ecclesiology, has more in common with that of the Exclusive Brethren. Both Open and Exclusive assemblies maintain relations within their respective groups through common support of missionaries, area conferences, the travelling ministries of "commended workers", "laboring brothers", itinerant evangelists; some Exclusives hold t
Kuriakose Elias Chavara
Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara, C. M. I. was social reformer. He is the first canonised Catholic male saint of Indian origin and belongs to the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic Church based in the state of Kerala, he was the co-founder and first Prior General of the first congregation for men in the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, now known as the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate, of a similar one for women, the Congregation of the Mother of Carmel. Kuriakose Elias Chavara was born on 10 February 1805 at Kainakary, Kerala in a Nasrani Christian family as the son of Iko Chavara and Mariam Thoppil. Nasranis are Saint Thomas Christians who are the ancient Christians of Kerala baptised by St. Thomas the Apostle in the first century; the name Kuriakose is derived from the Syriac Aramaic name ܩܘܪܝܩܘܣ. He was baptised on 17 February 1805 at Chennamkary. On 8 September 1805, St. Chavara was dedicated to Blessed Virgin Mary at Vechoor; the Chavara family has derived from the ancient Nasrani family Meenappally in Kainakary.
In his childhood, Kuriakose attended the village school. There he studied elementary sciences, he entered the seminary in 1818 in Pallipuram. He was ordained a priest on 29 November 1829 and celebrated first Holy Qurbana at St. Andrew's Catholic Forane Church Arthunkal Alappuzha, his special intention during the first Holy Qurabana was the realization of the religious institute, being contemplated by Palackal Thomas Malpan, Porukara Thomas Kathanar, Brother Jacob Kaniathara and himself. Kuriakose Elias Chavara joined with two other priests, Palackal Thoma Malpan and Porukara Thoma Kathanar to lead a monastic life; the name of the community they founded was Servants of Mary Immaculate. The foundation for the first monastery at Mannanam was laid on 11 May 1831 by Porukara Thomas Kathanar. Palackal Malpan and Porukara Kathanar died in 1846 respectively. On 8 December 1855, Kuriakose Elias Chavara and ten other priests took vows in the Carmelite tradition, he was nominated as the Prior General of Mannanam monastery.
The congregation became affiliated as a Third Order institute of the Order of Discalced Carmelites. From that point on they used the postnominal initials of T. O. C. D. Kuriakose Elias Chavara was a social reformer who initiated reforms in the Kerala society much before Narayana Guru Chattambi Swamikal and Vakkom Abdul Khadar Maulavi. Though he hailed from a Syriac Christian family, which occupied a higher social status, he played a major role in educating and uplifting people of the lower ranks of society. Kuriakose Chavara started an institution for Sanskrit studies at Mannanam in 1846. A tutor belonging to the Variar community was brought from Thrissur, to teach at this Sanskrit institution. After establishing the Sanskrit institution in Mannanam, Chavara took the initiative to start a school in a nearby village called Arpookara. On this Fr. Parappurath Varkey wrote in the Chronicles of the Mannanam monastery: “While the work on the Mannanam School began, a place on the Arpookara Thuruthumali hill was located to build a Chapel and school for the converts from the Pulaya caste."
Fr. Chavara was the first Indian who not only dared to admit the untouchables to schools but provided them with Sanskrit education, forbidden to the lower castes, thereby challenging social bans based on caste, as early as the former part of the 19th century, it was during this time Bishop Bernadine Baccinelly issued a circular in 1864 which would act as the root cause of tremendous growth of education and hundred percent literacy in Kerala. It was a warning circular which stated, “each parish should establish educational institutions, or else they will be debarred from the communion”; the schools in Kerala are called Pallikudams because of this circular. Kuriakose Chavara took great interest in implementing the circular, he delegated the members of his Congregation to ensure the implementation of the order in the circular and to take up educational activities. Each monastery was to oversee these activities of the parish churches in its neighbourhood. Kuriakose Chavara knew that the schools he started in Mannanam and Arpookara would be successful if the poor students dalits were given midday meals.
It was his original idea. It inspired Sir C P Ramaswamy Iyer to recommend this to King for being implemented in all government run schools; this practice is continued today in government schools in India. Kuriakose Chavara a charity practice known as Pidiyari to encourage people to make daily small donations to help the needy; the Pidyari scheme supported the Midday meal Kuriakose Chavara popularized in schools The Pidiyari scheme was implemented in the following way: Participants would daily set aside a small quantity of rice in a special collection pot. The rice collected would be brought to Church during the weekends and was used to feed the poor students for midday meal. A pious organization was formed by Kuriakose Chavara called “Unnimishihayude Dharma Sabha” who took care of the Pidiyaricollection. Kuriakose Chavara started St. Joseph's Press at Mannanam in 1846, the third printing press in Kerala and the first press founded by a Malayali without the help of foreigners. From this printing press came the oldest existing Malayalam newspaper in circulation Nasrani Deepika.
Kuriakose Elias Chavara introduced retreat preaching for the laity for the first time in the Kerala Church. He popularised devotions and piety exercises such as rosary, way of the cross an
Chaldean Syrian Church
The Chaldean Syrian Church of India is an Eastern Christian Church based in Thrissur, India. It is an archbishopric of the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East and is in full communion with Patriarch Gewargis III, the Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East; the Chaldean Syrian Church uses the Divine Liturgy of Saints Mar Addai and Mar Mari belonging to the East Syriac Rite liturgy. Its members are a part of the St. Thomas Christian community, who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century, they are exclusively based in the state of Kerala, with the church's cathedral, the Marth Mariam Cathedral, located in Thrissur. The Chaldean Syrian Church is the modern day continuation of the historic Church of the East in India, after the majority of its followers were converted to Catholicism and Oriental Orthodoxy. Today the Chaldean Syrian Church is one of four archbishoprics in the Assyrian Church of the East, has about 50,000 members in and around Thrissur.
St. Thomas Christians trace their origin to Thomas the Apostle, believed to have evangelized in India in the 1st century. By the 3rd century India's Christian community was part of the Church of the East, led by the Patriarch of the East in Seleucia-Ctesiphon, Persia. In the 7th century India was designated as its own ecclesiastical province, functioned as such until the Portuguese entrance into the region in the 1500s. In 1599, the Portuguese arrived in India and used intimidation to force the St. Thomas Christian community into becoming an Eastern Catholic Church under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Goa, as a result their Church was Latinized, their Holy books were burned, their connection to the Church of the East in Mesopotamia was severed in what is known as the Synod of Diamper; the Portuguese set up their headquarters in Goa early in the 16th century and extended their domain to Kerala. The Archbishopric of Goa, backed by the Portuguese, claimed jurisdiction over the Syriac Christians of Malabar.
The East Syriac liturgy and the Mesopotamian connection of the St. Thomas Christians lead open them to a suspicion of Nestorianism. However, The coercive actions of the Portuguese padroado system caused a faction in the community to follow Archdeacon Mar Thoma I in a rebellion against the Portuguese in 1653 which they called the Coonan Cross Oath, in which they stated they would refuse to obey the Jesuites; the faction that followed Thomas were known as the Malankara Church, however, as a response to this Rome sent a different group known as Carmelites in two groups from the "Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples" to Malabar headed by Friar Sebastiani and Friar Hyacinth. The Friars first arrived in 1655, began to deal directly with the Archdeacon, Mar Thoma I. Although he was unable to sway the Archdeacon, Fr. Sebastiani gained the support of many, including Parambil Mar Chandy, Alexandar Kadavil and the Vicar of Muttam, the three councilors of Mar Thoma I; as a result of this, Between 1661 and 1662, out of the 116 churches, the Catholic Carmelites reclaimed eighty-four churches, leaving Mar Thoma I with thirty-two churches.
The eighty-four churches and their congregations were the body from which the Syro Malabar Catholic Church has descended, while The other thirty-two churches and their congregations represented the nucleus of the Malankara Syrian Church, turned into a West Syriac Rite church in around AD 1665 when Mar Gregorios, a Bishop sent by the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, arrived in India. The dissident group under the leadership of the Archdeacon welcomed him, mistaking him for an East Syriac Rite Bishop sent by the Church of the East. Though most of the St. Thomas Christians relented in their strong opposition to the Western control, the arrival of the Bishop Mar Gregorios of the Syriac Orthodox Church in 1665 marked the beginning of a formal schism among the St. Thomas Christians; those who accepted the West Syriac theological and liturgical tradition of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch of Mar Gregorios became known as Jacobites, while The Syriac Catholics remained in communion with Rome and in the 19th century came to be known as the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church.
The Chaldean Syrian Church originates from the faction. The Chaldean Syrian Church's current Metropolitan, Mar Aprem Mooken, has argued that the church represents a direct continuation of the Ancient Church of the East hierarchy in India. However, Mathias Mundadan sets the church's origin within the 19th century autonomy movement within the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. For over two hundred years the Syro-Malabar Catholics were under the authority of the Portuguese Archbishop of Goa; this arrangement led to resentment from some members, who wanted more autonomy for their local church, resulting in a formidable and sustaining autonomy movement. In the 19th century this movement's leaders made repeated pleas to both the Pope and the Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church for their own bishop and liturgy. In response these pleas, the Chaldean Patriarch Joseph Audo sent a request to Pope Pius IX for the Syro-Malabar Catholics to be placed under his authority. Without waiting for a reply, he dispatched Mar Elias Mellus, Bishop of'Aqra, to India in July1874.
Mar Mellus had substantial success convincing Syro-Malabar Catholics in Thrissur District and some churches in Kottayam District to recognize him as their bishop. Although the churches and God's People were called by the name Syro-