Eastern Arabia was known as Al-Bahrain until the 18th century. This region stretched from the south of Basra along the Persian Gulf coast and included the regions of Bahrain, Kuwait, Al-Hasa, United Arab Emirates, Southern Iraq, Northern Oman; the entire coastal strip of Eastern Arabia was known as "Bahrain" for ten centuries. Until recently, the whole of Eastern Arabia, from southern Iraq to the mountains of Oman, was a place where people moved around and married unconcerned by national borders; the people of Eastern Arabia shared a culture based on the sea. The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are Eastern Arabia, the borders of the Arabic-speaking Gulf do not extend beyond Eastern Arabia; the modern-day states of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar and UAE are the archetypal Gulf Arab states. Saudi Arabia is considered a Gulf Arab state although most Saudis do not live in Eastern Arabia. In Arabic, Baḥrayn is the dual form of baḥr, so al-Baḥrayn means "the Two Seas". However, which two seas were intended remains in dispute.
The term appears five times in the Qur'an, but does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as “Awal”—but rather to the oases of al-Katif and Hadjar. It is unclear when the term began to refer to the Awal islands, but it was after the 15th century. Today, Bahrain's "two seas" are instead taken to be the bay east and west of the coast, the seas north and south of the island, or the salt and fresh water present above and below the ground. In addition to wells, there are places in the sea north of Bahrain where fresh water bubbles up in the middle of the salt water, noted by visitors since antiquity. An alternate theory offered by Al-Hasa was that the two seas were the Great Green Ocean and a peaceful lake on the mainland; the term "Gulf Arab" refers, geographically, to inhabitants of eastern Arabia. The term "Khaleejis" is misused to identify all the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula; the inhabitants of Eastern Arabia's Gulf coast share similar cultures and music styles such as fijiri and liwa.
The most noticeable cultural trait of Eastern Arabia's Gulf Arabs is their orientation and focus towards the sea. Maritime-focused life in the small Gulf Arab states has resulted in a sea-oriented society where livelihoods have traditionally been earned in marine industries; the Arabs of Eastern Arabia speak a dialect known as Gulf Arabic. Most Saudis do not speak Gulf Arabic. There are 2 million Gulf Arabic speakers in Saudi Arabia in the coastal eastern region. Before the GCC was formed in 1981, the term "Khaleeji" was used to refer to the inhabitants of Eastern Arabia. Before the 7th century CE, the population of Eastern Arabia consisted of Christianized Arabs, Arab Zoroastrians and Aramaic-speaking agriculturalists; some sedentary dialects of Eastern Arabia exhibit Akkadian and Syriac features. The sedentary people of ancient Bahrain were Aramaic speakers and to some degree Persian speakers, while Syriac functioned as a liturgical language. Dilmun appears first in Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets dated to the end of fourth millennium BC, found in the temple of goddess Inanna, in the city of Uruk.
The adjective'Dilmun' is used to describe a type of one specific official. Dilmun was mentioned in two letters dated to the reign of Burna-Buriash II recovered from Nippur, during the Kassite dynasty of Babylon; these letters were from a provincial official, Ilī-ippašra, in Dilmun to his friend Enlil-kidinni in Mesopotamia. The names referred to are Akkadian; these letters and other documents, hint at an administrative relationship between Dilmun and Babylon at that time. Following the collapse of the Kassite dynasty, Mesopotamian documents make no mention of Dilmun with the exception of Assyrian inscriptions dated to 1250 BC which proclaimed the Assyrian king to be king of Dilmun and Meluhha. Assyrian inscriptions recorded tribute from Dilmun. There are other Assyrian inscriptions during the first millennium BC indicating Assyrian sovereignty over Dilmun. Dilmun was later on controlled by the Kassite dynasty in Mesopotamia. One of the early sites discovered in Bahrain indicate that Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacked northeast Persian Gulf and captured Bahrain.
The most recent reference to Dilmun came during the Neo-Babylonian dynasty. Neo-Babylonian administrative records, dated 567 BC, stated that Dilmun was controlled by the king of Babylon; the name of Dilmun fell from use after the collapse of Neo-Babylon in 538 BC. There is both literary and archaeological evidence of extensive trade between Ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilization. Impressions of clay seals from the Indus Valley city of Harappa were evidently used to seal bundles of merchandise, as clay seal impressions with cord or sack marks on the reverse side testify. A number of these Indus Valley seals have turned up at other Mesopotamian sites; the “Persian Gulf” types of circular, stamped seals known from Dilmun, that appear at Lothal in Gujarat and Failaka, as well as in Mesopotamia, are convincing corroboration of the long-distance sea trade. What the commerce consisted of is less known: timber and precious woods, lapis lazuli and luxury goods such as carnelian and glazed s
Unemployment or joblessness is a situation in which able-bodied people who are looking for a job cannot find a job. The causes of unemployment are debated. Classical economics, new classical economics, the Austrian School of economics argued that market mechanisms are reliable means of resolving unemployment; these theories argue against interventions imposed on the labor market from the outside, such as unionization, bureaucratic work rules, minimum wage laws and other regulations that they claim discourage the hiring of workers. Keynesian economics emphasizes the cyclical nature of unemployment and recommends government interventions in the economy that it claims will reduce unemployment during recessions; this theory focuses on recurrent shocks that reduce aggregate demand for goods and services and thus reduce demand for workers. Keynesian models recommend government interventions designed to increase demand for workers, its namesake economist John Maynard Keynes, believed that the root cause of unemployment is the desire of investors to receive more money rather than produce more products, not possible without public bodies producing new money.
A third group of theories emphasize the need for a stable supply of capital and investment to maintain full employment. On this view, government should guarantee full employment through fiscal policy, monetary policy and trade policy as stated, for example, in the US Employment Act of 1946, by counteracting private sector or trade investment volatility, reducing inequality. In addition to theories of unemployment, there are a few categorizations of unemployment that are used to more model the effects of unemployment within the economic system; some of the main types of unemployment include structural unemployment and frictional unemployment, as well as cyclical unemployment, involuntary unemployment, classical unemployment. Structural unemployment focuses on foundational problems in the economy and inefficiencies inherent in labor markets, including a mismatch between the supply and demand of laborers with necessary skill sets. Structural arguments emphasize causes and solutions related to disruptive technologies and globalization.
Discussions of frictional unemployment focus on voluntary decisions to work based on each individuals' valuation of their own work and how that compares to current wage rates plus the time and effort required to find a job. Causes and solutions for frictional unemployment address job entry threshold and wage rates; the unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals in the labor force. During periods of recession, an economy experiences a high unemployment rate. Millions of people globally or 6% of the world's workforce were without a job in 2012; the state of being without any work yet looking for work is called unemployment. Economists distinguish between various overlapping types of and theories of unemployment, including cyclical or Keynesian unemployment, frictional unemployment, structural unemployment and classical unemployment; some additional types of unemployment that are mentioned are seasonal unemployment, hardcore unemployment, hidden unemployment.
Though there have been several definitions of "voluntary" and "involuntary unemployment" in the economics literature, a simple distinction is applied. Voluntary unemployment is attributed to the individual's decisions, whereas involuntary unemployment exists because of the socio-economic environment in which individuals operate. In these terms, much or most of frictional unemployment is voluntary, since it reflects individual search behavior. Voluntary unemployment includes workers who reject low wage jobs whereas involuntary unemployment includes workers fired due to an economic crisis, industrial decline, company bankruptcy, or organizational restructuring. On the other hand, cyclical unemployment, structural unemployment, classical unemployment are involuntary in nature. However, the existence of structural unemployment may reflect choices made by the unemployed in the past, while classical unemployment may result from the legislative and economic choices made by labour unions or political parties.
The clearest cases of involuntary unemployment are those where there are fewer job vacancies than unemployed workers when wages are allowed to adjust, so that if all vacancies were to be filled, some unemployed workers would still remain. This happens with cyclical unemployment, as macroeconomic forces cause microeconomic unemployment which can boomerang back and exacerbate these macroeconomic forces. Classical, or real-wage unemployment, occurs when real wages for a job are set above the market-clearing level causing the number of job-seekers to exceed the number of vacancies. On the other hand, most economists argue that as wages fall below a livable wage many choose to drop out of the labor market and no longer seek employment; this is true in countries where low-income families are supported through public welfare systems. In such cases, wages would have to be high enough to motivate people to choose employment over what they receive through public welfare. Wages below a livable wage are to result in lower labor market participation in the above-stated scenario.
In addition, consumption of goods and services is the primary driver of increased demand for labor. Higher wages lead to workers having more income available to consume services. Therefore, higher wages increase gene
Pathemari is a 2015 Indian Malayalam-language period drama film written and directed by Salim Ahamed and starring Mammootty in the lead role, with a supporting cast that includes Jewel Mary, Sreenivasan, Salim Kumar, Shaheen Siddique, Viji Chandrasekhar, Joy Mathew. The plot follows the life of Pallikkal Narayanan who migrated to the Middle-East in the early 1960s, when the Kerala Gulf boom was just beginning. Resul Pookutty handles the sound recording, while music is composed by Bijibal and cinematography is done by Madhu Ambat; the principal photography began in October 2014. The film was shot in Middle East. Distributed by Eros International, Pathemari released on 9 October 2015 received critical praise. Pathemari was selected for the Indiwood Panorama Competition section at the 2nd edition of Indiwood Carnival 2016 in Hyderabad; the film begins with a young Narayanan and Moideen along with a group of men travelling by Dhow for Dubai to lead a better life. Launchi Velayudhan is responsible for shifting of the young men to the Gulf illegally through the sea route.
In Dubai both Narayanan and Moideen work as construction labourers. They reside along with other labourers, they sacrifice their happiness and work hard to earn money. Narayanan visits his home and gifts his family and friends with imported items. During one of his visits Narayanan informs his wife that he would not return to Dubai and would settle in Kerala & earn money by starting a business; however Narayanan realises that his family values money more than him and his wife is conscious of losing her social image of being a "dubai man's wife". Narayanan returns to Dubai. In the meanwhile, Chandraettan's daughter is not getting married since she has no money or property in her name. Chandraettan offers Narayanan a land of 8 cents and in turn asks him to transfer his share of the property house to Chandraettan's daughter. Chandraettan is of the opinion. Narayan obliges for the same. After few months Chandraettan again informs Narayanan that his son in law would like to rent the house to earn extra income.
Narayanan is upset. Narayan informs. Years pass by and Narayanan's children are now young adults, his children are only interested in Narayanan's money and not concerned about him. One day Narayanan passes away and his dead body is flown to Kerala. After the last rituals are performed the family see a TV interview of Narayanan. Narayanan informs that he is the most successful person since because of him, his family is happy and not hungry, he never informed his family of the various hardships faced by him and he never felt tired working hard since he was earning for his family. He is satisfied if he is responsible for their happiness. Narayan's last wish is to be again be reborn as Narayanan again and have the same family and friends & make them happy. In November 2013, Salim Ahamed announced that he will be directing a film that deals with the Gulf and various aspects of it, and it will star Mammootty in the lead, in his second collaboration with Ahmed after Kunjananthante Kada. Madhu Ambat was reported to handle the cinematography with the sound recording done by Resul Pookutty.
It was in 2013. He expressed the interest, the total screenplay was finished in a homework of span one year. In September 2014, Jewel Mary a television anchor was cast as heroine, in her feature film debut as Nalini, while Mammootty's character was revealed to be named Pallickal Narayanan. Sreenivasan was confirmed to play the role of Moidheen, while Siddique, Salim Kumar, Joy Mathew and Yavanika Gopalakrishnan were signed for other prominent roles. Actress Viji Chandrasekhar was confirmed to play protagonist's mother. Shaheen Siddique was selected to play Mammootty's son. Salim Ahamed had earlier denied the rumours that Suresh Gopi and Manju Warrier would be part of the cast. Principal photography of the film commenced in October 2014 and was completed by April 2015, in three schedules in and around Khorfakhan, Dubai, Nattika and Bepur. In March third week, Mammootty joined with the crew for a five-day schedule of filming in UAE, held in Bur Dubai and Rola Square in Sharjah. Jothish Shankar designed the art for the film.
The ninenty percent of the scenes in Pathemari are sets, according to Jyothish. The set for Mumbai Airport of 1980 was erected at the parking area of Greater Cochin Development Authority Building in Marine Drive, Kochi; every scenes taking place abroad except the outdoors were shot in Eranakulam. The Khader Hotel where the expatriates were used to lend food was erected at a studio in Kochi; the house was erected at Thriprayar. The scenes in the sloop were shot adopting a water-craft from Beypore, it was during the shoot of Kunjananthante Kada that Resul Pookutty, the Academy Award winning sound designer, was roped in the project by Salim Ahamed. For the film, sounds of air conditioners and its changing over the time in the Gulf were used by Resul in order to portray the development and transformation of the surroundings there, he says that he did the sound design in such a way same as that of the images are arranged in the film, that "the past is represented colourfully and the present is monochromatic."
It was real sounds that used for the scene in which the protagonist's first voyage aboard a sloop is featured. Resul used the'gurgling sound of water' on the background for the scene, which, he says, the director
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, sometimes called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain, their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. Human occupation of the present UAE has been traced back to the emergence of anatomically modern humans from Africa some 125,000 BCE through finds at the Faya-1 site in Mleiha, Sharjah. Burial sites dating back to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age include the oldest known such inland site at Jebel Buhais.
Known as Magan to the Sumerians, the area was home to a prosperous Bronze Age trading culture during the Umm Al Nar period, which traded between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia as well as Iran and the Levant. The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior; the Islamic age of the UAE dates back to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the subsequent Battle of Dibba. The UAE's long history of trade led to the emergence of Julfar, in the present day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a major regional trading and maritime hub in the area; the maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese and British. Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819, which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate.
This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971 following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971, the seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972. Islam is the official religion and Arabic is the official language of the UAE; the UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare and infrastructure; the UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city and an international aviation and maritime trade hub. The country is much less reliant on oil and gas than in previous years and is economically focusing on tourism and business; the UAE government does not levy income tax although there is a system of corporate tax in place and value added tax was established in 2018 at 5%.
The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a middle power. It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Gulf Cooperation Council; the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an older habitation from 130,000 years ago. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley; this contact persisted and became wide-ranging motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3,000 BCE. Sumerian sources talk of the UAE as home to Magan people. There are six major periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in the pre-Islamic UAE, which includes the Hafit period from 3,200-2,600 BCE.
From 1,200 BC to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive Iron Ages and the Mleiha period, the area was variously occupied by Achaemenid and other forces and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the falaj irrigation system. In ancient times, Al Hasa adjoined Greater Oman. From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman; the spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah. This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful u
Sunny Varkey is a non-resident Indian, Dubai-based education entrepreneur and education philanthropist from Kerala. He is the founder and chairman of the global advisory and educational management firm GEMS Education, the largest operator of private kindergarten-to-grade-12 schools in the world, with a network of over 130 schools in over a dozen countries, he is the chairman of the umbrella business organisation the Varkey Group, the founder and trustee of the philanthropic Varkey Foundation. As of 2012, Varkey is a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador, and in June 2015, Varkey committed to The Giving Pledge, vowing to donate at least half of his money to philanthropic causes over his lifetime. He is the first education entrepreneur to join the pledge. Varkey was born in Kerala, India in 1957, his father, KS, mother, were Kerala Christians, educators. The family moved to Dubai in 1959, when the emirate was still undeveloped, his father worked for British Bank of the Middle East, both of his parents taught English to local Arabs, including members of the royal family.
At the age of four, Sunny was sent back to Kerala to attend Infant Jesus School, a Catholic boarding school in Kollam city. When he was 11 years old, he sold fruit on the side of the road to make a little extra money, he and his elder sister returned to Dubai in 1970, Sunny completed his O-Levels at St. Mary's Catholic High School, he pursued his A-Levels at Bembridge School in the UK for a year, completed his A-Levels in Dubai at the British Council. The discovery of oil in Dubai in 1966 brought in many foreign workers, including many from the Indian subcontinent. Varkey returned to Dubai in 1977, his employment included work at Standard Chartered bank, opening a small trading company and a maintenance company, becoming part owner of the Dubai Plaza Hotel, entering the healthcare industry; when in 1980 local authorities insisted that his parents' Our Own English High School be housed in a purpose-built facility, Varkey took over the operation of the school, which had under 400 students at the time.
He soon dropped his other businesses, expanded the school, added new schools as well. The education situation in Dubai was ripe for expansion, since local schools were only for native Arabs, the children of the ever-increasing number of expats needed education of their own. Varkey opened Indian and British schools, offered education under the different curricula: Indian, U. S. British, International Baccalaureate. After creating a strong network of schools in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, in 2000 Varkey established Global Education Management Systems, an advisory and educational management firm, in advance of his worldwide overseas expansion. In 2003, he began opening GEMS schools in England, beginning with Sherborne House in Hampshire and Bury Lawn in Milton Keynes. Soon afterwards, he took over Sherfield School in Hampshire, purchased another 10 schools in England in the north. In 2004, Varkey's GEMS group opened its first schools in India. Varkey continued to add schools in the subcontinent, purchased a controlling interest in the India-based Everonn Education, which the Varkey Group and GEMS manage.
GEMS subsequently opened schools in Kenya, Egypt, Libya, the U. S. Switzerland, elsewhere around the globe, it is the largest operator of private kindergarten-to-grade-12 schools in the world, as of 2014 has over 130 schools in over a dozen countries. Varkey's GEMS schools are established in various price brackets, to serve all markets and income levels; the more expensive schools have more spacious grounds and amenities such as golf and tennis facilities, smaller class sizes. Educational quality is maintained in the budget-range schools by using excellent teachers, by efficiency and economisation on time and space, by capitalising on economies of scale: the huge network of GEMS schools shares resources and information and provides training to teachers across the whole system; when entering into new markets GEMS schools benefit from local partners who understand local conditions. GEMS schools aim to offer a holistic education, to instill students with values of altruism and philanthropy. GEMS Education is geared to form graduates who are forward-thinking global citizens with universal values and leadership qualities.
For GEMS students, Varkey stresses an ideology and atmosphere of multiculturalism, the importance of giving back to others both locally and globally. GEMS has two divisions: educational services. GEMS Education Solutions is the consultancy arm of GEMS Education, providing educational services and advice, it was established in 2011, it works with governments and non-profits, public and private clients, to transform the quality of global education and skills provision, using the resources of GEMS' more than 50 years of experience in the field. One of GEMS Education Solutions' projects is assisting and advising the state school system in the United Arab Emirates. In Ghana, it implements MGCubed – Making Ghana Girls Great – which equips two classrooms in each Ghanaian primary school with a computer, satellite modem, solar panels, creating an interactive distance-learning platform to deliver both formal in-school teaching and informal after-school training; the project teaches 8,000 students in 72 Ghanaian schools, is Sub-Saharan Africa's first interactive distance-learning project.
In Saudi Arabia, via the Oxford Partnersh
The Malayali people are a multi ethnic linguistic group originating from the present-day state of Kerala in India. They are identified as native speakers of the Malayalam language, classified as part of the Dravidian family of languages. According to the Indian census of 2011, there are 33 million Malayalis in Kerala, making up 96.7% of the total population of the state. Malayali minorities are found in the neighboring state of Tamil Nadu in Kanyakumari district and in other metropolitan areas of India. Over the course of the half of the 20th century, significant Malayali communities have emerged in Persian Gulf countries, including the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Kuwait, to a lesser extent, other developed nations with a immigrant background such as the United States, United Kingdom and Canada; as of 2013, there were an estimated 1.6 million ethnic Malayali expatriates worldwide. According to A. R. Raja Raja Varma, Malayalam was the name of the place, before it became the name of the language spoken by the people.
Malayalam, the native language of Malayalis, has its origin from the words mala meaning mountain and alam meaning land or locality. Hence the term Malayali refers to the people from the mountains who lived beyond the Western Ghats, Malayalam the language, spoken there; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Hence the term Keralar seem to precede the usage of the word Malayala/Malayalam. According to the Indian census of 2001, there were 30,803,747 speakers of Malayalam in Kerala, making up 93.2% of the total number of Malayalam speakers in India, 96.7% of the total population of the state. There were 557,705 in Tamil Nadu and 406,358 in Maharashtra; the number of Malayalam speakers in Lakshadweep is 51,100, only 0.15% of the total number, but is as much as about 84% of the population of Lakshadweep. In all, Malayalis made up 3.22% of the total Indian population in 2001.
Of the total 33,066,392 Malayalam speakers in India in 2001, 33,015,420 spoke the standard dialects, 19,643 spoke the Yerava dialect and 31,329 spoke non-standard regional variations like Eranadan. As per the 1991 census data, 28.85% of all Malayalam speakers in India spoke a second language and 19.64% of the total knew three or more languages. Just before independence, Malaya attracted a large number of Malaylis. Large numbers of Malayalis have settled in Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad. A large number of Malayalis have emigrated to the Middle East, the United States, Europe. There were 644,097 people with Malayalam heritage in the United States, according to the 2012 census, with the highest concentrations in Bergen County, New Jersey and Rockland County, New York, including a large number of professionals. There were 7,093 Malayalam speakers in Australia in 2006; the 2001 Canadian census reported 7,070 people who listed Malayalam as their mother tongue in the Greater Toronto Area and Southern Ontario.
In 2010, the Census of Population of Singapore reported that there were 26,348 Malayalees in Singapore. The 2006 New Zealand census reported 2,139 speakers. 134 Malayalam speaking households were reported in 1956 in Fiji. There is a considerable Malayali population in the Persian Gulf regions in Bahrain, Doha, Abu Dhabi and European region in London; the Malayali live in an historic area known as the Malabar coast, which for thousands of years has been a major centre of the international spice trade, operating at least from the Roman era with Ptolemy documenting it on his map of the world in 150AD. For that reason, a distinct culture was created among the Malayali due to centuries of contact with foreign cultures through the spice trade; the arrival of the Cochin Jews, the rise of Saint Thomas Christians in particular were significant in shaping modern day Malayali culture. Portuguese Latin Christians, Dutch Malabar, French Mahe, British English, Arabian Muslim communities which arrived after 1498 left their mark as well making Kerala more colourful and diverse.
Malayalis can now be seen in all the countries of the world with the excellence of adaptation to any culture, food habits, language. In 2017, a detailed study of the evolution of the Singapore Malayalee community over a period of more than 100 years was published as a book: From Kerala to Singapore: Voices of the Singapore Malayalee Community, it is believed to be the first in-depth study of the presence of a NRI Malayalee community outside of Kerala. Malayalam is the language spoken by the Malayalis. Malayalam is derived from old Tamil in the 6th century. For cultural purposes Malayalam and Sanskrit formed a language known as Manipravalam, where both languages were used in an alternating style. Malayalam is the only language among the major Dravidian languages without diglossia; this means, that the Malayalam, spoken does not differ from the written variant. Malayalam is written using the Malayalam script. Malayalam literature is ancient in origin; the oldest literature works in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated between the 9th century and 11th century.
Malayalam literature includes the 14th century Niranam poets, whose works mark the dawn of both modern Malayalam language and indigenous Keralite poetry. The Triumvirate of poets are recognized for m
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th