The Tamil people known as Tamilar, Tamilans or Tamils, are an ethnic group who speak the language Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to Southern India and North-eastern Sri Lanka. Tamils, with a population of around 76 million and with a documented history stretching back over 2,000 years, are one of the largest and oldest extant ethnolinguistic groups in the modern world. Tamils constitute 5.9% of the population in India, 15.3% in Sri Lanka, 6% in Mauritius, 7% in Malaysia and 5% in Singapore. From the 14th century BCE onwards and mercantile activity along the western and eastern coasts of what is today Kerala and Tamil Nadu led to the development of four large Tamil political states, the Cheras, Cholas and Pallavas and a number of smaller states, all of whom were warring amongst themselves for dominance; the Jaffna Kingdom, inhabited by Sri Lankan Tamils, was once one of the strongest kingdoms of Sri Lanka, controlled much of the north of the island. Tamils were noted for their influence on regional trade throughout the Indian Ocean.
Artifacts marking the presence of Roman traders show direct trade was active between Rome and southern India, the Pandyas were recorded as having sent at least two embassies directly to Emperor Augustus in Rome. The Pandyas and Cholas were active in Sri Lanka; the Chola dynasty invaded several areas in Southeast Asia, including the powerful Srivijaya and the Malay city-state of Kedah. Medieval Tamil guilds and trading organizations like the Ayyavole and Manigramam played an important role in Southeast Asian trading networks. Pallava traders and religious leaders travelled to Southeast Asia and played an important role in the cultural Indianisation of the region. Scripts brought by Tamil traders to Southeast Asia, like the Grantha and Pallava scripts, induced the development of many Southeast Asian scripts such as Khmer, Javanese Kawi script and Thai; the Tamil language is one of the oldest extant written languages, with a history dating back to 300 BCE. Tamil literature is dominated by poetry Sangam literature, composed of poems composed between 300 BCE and 300 CE.
The most important Tamil author was the poet and philosopher Thiruvalluvar, who wrote the Tirukkuṛaḷ, a group of treatises on ethics, politics and morality considered the greatest work of Tamil literature. Tamil visual art is dominated by stylised Temple architecture in major centres and the productions of images of deities in stone and bronze. Chola bronzes the Nataraja sculptures of the Chola period, have become notable symbols of Hinduism. Tamil performing arts are divided into classical; the classical form of dance is Bharatanatyam, whereas the popular forms are known as Koothu and performed in village temples and on street corners. Tamil cinema, known as Kollywood, is an important part of the Indian cinema industry, it is the second largest film industry in India, next only to Bollywood. Music too is divided into many popular genres. Although most Tamils are Hindus, many those in the rural areas practice what is considered to be folk Hinduism, venerating a plethora of village deities. A sizeable number are Christians.
A small Jain community survives from the classical period as well. Tamil cuisine is informed by varied vegetarian and non-vegetarian items spiced with locally available spices; the music, the temple architecture and the stylised sculptures favoured by the Tamil people as in their ancient nation are still being learnt and practised. English historian and broadcaster Michael Wood called the Tamils the last surviving classical civilisation on Earth, because the Tamils have preserved substantial elements of their past regarding belief, culture and literature despite the influence of globalization, it is unknown as to whether the term Thamizhar and its equivalents in Prakrit such as Damela, Dameda and Damila was a self designation or a term denoted by outsiders. Epigraphic evidence of an ethnicity termed as such is found in ancient Sri Lanka where a number of inscriptions have come to light datable from the 6th to the 5th century BCE mentioning Damela or Dameda persons; the well-known Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga ruler Kharavela refers to a Tmira samghata dated to 150 BCE.
It mentions that the league of Tamil kingdoms had been in existence 113 years before then. In Amaravati in present-day Andhra Pradesh there is an inscription referring to a Dhamila-vaniya datable to the 3rd century CE. Another inscription of about the same time in Nagarjunakonda seems to refer to a Damila. A third inscription in Kanheri Caves refers to a Dhamila-gharini. In the Buddhist Jataka story known as Akiti Jataka there is a mention to Damila-rattha. There were trade relationship between the Roman Pandyan Empire; as recorded by Strabo, Emperor Augustus of Rome received at Antioch an ambassador from a king called Pandyan of Dramira. Hence, it is clear that by at least 300 B. C. the ethnic identity of Tamils was formed as a distinct group. Thamizhar is etymologically related to the language spoken by Tamil people. Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miz > tam-iz'self-speak', or'one's own speech'. Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iz, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", "-iz" having the connotation of "unfolding sound".
Alternatively, he suggests a derivation of tamiz < tam-iz < *tav-iz < *tak-iz, meaning in origin "the proper process". Possible evidence indicating the
The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from 1500 until 1949. It was ruled by the Travancore Royal Family from Padmanabhapuram, Thiruvananthapuram. At its zenith, the kingdom covered most of modern-day central and southern Kerala with the Thachudaya Kaimal's enclave of Irinjalakuda Koodalmanikkam temple in the neighbouring Kingdom of Cochin, as well as the district of Kanyakumari, now in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu; the official flag of the state was red with a dextrally-coiled silver conch shell at its center. In the early 19th century, the kingdom became a princely state of the British Empire; the Travancore Government took many progressive steps on the socio-economic front and during the reign of Maharajah Sri Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, Travancore became the second most prosperous princely state in British India, with reputed achievements in education, political administration, public work and social reforms. The regions had many small independent kingdoms. During the peak time of Chera-Chola-Pandya, this region became a part of the Chera Kingdom.
During that era, when the region was part of the Chera empire, it was still known as Thiruvazhumkode. It was contracted to Thiruvankode, anglicised by the English to Travancore. In course of time, the Ay kingdom, part of the Chera empire, which ruled the Thiruvazhumkode area, became independent, the land was called Aayi desam or Aayi rajyam, meaning'Aayi territory'; the Aayis controlled the land from present-day Kollam district in the north, through Thiruvananthapuram district, all in Kerala, to the Kanyakumari district. There were the major one at Kollam and a subsidiary one at Thrippapur; the kingdom was thus called Venad. Kings of Venad had, at various times, travelled from Kollam and built residential palaces in Thiruvithamcode and Kalkulam. Thiruvithamcode became the capital of the Thrippapur Swaroopam, the country was referred to as Thiruvithamcode by Europeans after the capital had been moved in 1601 to Padmanabhapuram, near Kalkulam; the Chera empire had dissolved by around 1100 and thereafter the territory comprised numerous small kingdoms until the time of Marthanda Varma who, as king of Venad from 1729, employed brutal methods to unify them.
During his reign, Thiruvithamcode or Travancore became the official name. The Kingdom of Travancore was located at the extreme southern tip of the Indian subcontinent. Geographically, Travancore was divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands, the central midlands, the western lowlands. Venad was a former state at the tip of the Indian Subcontinent, traditionally ruled by rajas known as the Venattadis. Till the end of the 11th century AD, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom; the Ays were the earliest ruling dynasty in southern Kerala, who, at their zenith, ruled over a region from Nagercoil in the south to Trivandrum in the north. Their capital during the first Sangam age was in Aykudi and towards the end of the 8th century AD, was at Quilon. Though a series of attacks by the resurgent Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline of the Ays, the dynasty was powerful till the beginning of the 10th century; when the Ay power diminished, Venad became the southernmost principality of the Second Chera Kingdom.
An invasion of the Cholas into Venad caused the destruction of Kollam in 1096. However, the Chera capital, Mahodayapuram fell in the subsequent Chola attack, which compelled the Chera king, Rama varma Kulasekara, to shift his capital to Kollam. Thus, Rama Varma Kulasekara, the last emperor of the Chera dynasty, is the founder of the Venad royal house, the title of the Chera kings, was thenceforth kept by the rulers of Venad, thus the end of the Second Chera dynasty in the 12th century marks the independence of Venad. In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty and Chirava, merged in the Venad family, which set up the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan. While the Chrirava Moopan had his residence at Kollam, the Thrippappur Moopan resided at his palace in Thrippappur, 9 miles north of Thiruvananthapuram, was vested with the authority over the temples of Venad kingdom the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple.
The history of Travancore began with Marthanda Varma, who inherited the kingdom of Venad, expanded it into Travancore during his reign. After defeating a union of feudal lords and establishing internal peace, he expanded the kingdom of Venad through a series of military campaigns from Kanyakumari in the south to the borders of Kochi in the north during his 29-year rule; this rule included Travancore-Dutch War between the Dutch East India Company, allied to some of these kingdoms and Travancore. In 1741, Travancore won the Battle of Colachel against the Dutch East India Company, resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in the region. In this battle, the admiral of the Dutch, Eustachius De Lannoy, was captured and defected to Travancore. De Lannoy was appointed as Captain of His Highness' Body-guard and Senior Admiral and he modernised the Travancore army by introducing firearms and artillery. Travancore became the most dominant state in the Kerala region by defeating the powerful Zamorin of Kozhikode in the battle of Purakkad in 1755.
Ramayyan Dalawa, the Prime Minister of Marthanda Varma played an important role in this consolidation and expansion. On 3 J
Śrauta is a Sanskrit word that means "belonging to śruti", that is, anything based on the Vedas of Hinduism. It is an prefix for texts, ceremonies or person associated with śruti; the term, for example, refers to Brahmins who specialise in the śruti corpus of texts, Śrauta Brahmin traditions in modern times have been reported from Coastal Andhra. The Sanskrit word Śrauta is rooted in śruti. Śrauta, states Johnson, is an adjective, applied to a text, ritual practice or person, when related to śruti. Klostermaier states that the prefix means "belonging to śruti", includes ceremonies and texts related to śruti; the word is sometimes spelled Shrauta in scholarly literature. Spread via Indian religions, homa traditions are found all across Asia, from Samarkand to Japan, over a 3000-year history. A homa, in all its Asian variations, is a ceremonial ritual that offers food to fire and is descended from the Vedic religion; the tradition reflects a ritual eclecticism for fire and cooked food that developed in Indian religions, the Brahmana layers of the Vedas are the earliest surviving records of this.
Yajna or vedic fire sacrifice ritual, in Indian context, became a distinct feature of the early śruti rituals. A śrauta ritual is a form of quid pro quo where through the fire ritual, a sacrificer offered something to the gods, the sacrificer expected something in return; the Vedic ritual consisted of sacrificial offerings of something edible or drinkable, such as milk, clarified butter, rice, barley, an animal, or anything of value, offered to the gods with the assistance of fire priests. This Vedic tradition split into Smarta; the Śrauta rituals, states Michael Witzel, are an active area of study and are incompletely understood.Śrauta "fire ritual" practices were copied by different Buddhist and Jain traditions, states Phyllis Granoff, with their texts appropriating the "ritual eclecticism" of Hindu traditions, albeit with variations that evolved through the medieval times. The homa-style Vedic sacrifice ritual, states Musashi Tachikawa, was absorbed into Mahayana Buddhism and homa rituals continue to be performed in some Buddhist traditions in Tibet and Japan.
Śrautasūtras are ritual-related sutras based on the śruti. The first versions of the Kalpa sutras were composed by the sixth century BCE, starting about the same time as the Brahmana layer of the Vedas were composed and most ritual sutras were complete by around 300 BCE, they were attributed to famous Vedic sages in the Hindu tradition. These texts are written aphoristic sutras style, therefore are taxonomies or terse guidebooks rather than detailed manuals or handbooks for any ceremony; the Śrautasūtras differ from the smārtasūtra based on smṛti. The Smartasutras, in ancient vedic and post-vedic literature refer to the gṛhyasūtras and sāmayācārikasūtras; the Śrautasūtras form a part of the corpus of Sanskrit sutra literature. Their topics include instructions relating to the use of the śruti corpus in great rituals and the correct performance of these major vedic ceremonies, are same as those found in the Brahmana layers of the Vedas, but presented in more systematic and detailed manner. Definition of a Vedic sacrifice — Apastamba Yajna Paribhasa-sutras 1.1, Translator: M Dhavamony Baudhayana srautasutra is the oldest text in the śrautasūtra genre, includes in its appendix a paribhāṣāsūtra.
Other texts such as the early Apastamba śrautasūtra and composed Katyayana start with Paribhasa-sutra section. The śulbasūtras or śulvasūtras are appendices in the śrautasūtras and deal with the mathematical methodology to construct geometries for the vedi; the Sanskrit word śulba means "cord", these texts are "rules of the cord". They provide, states Kim Plofker, what in modern mathematical terminology would be called "area preserving transformations of plane figures", tersely describing geometric formulae and constants. Five śulbasutras have survived through history, of which the oldest surviving is the Baudhayāna śulbasūtra, while the one by Kātyāyana may be chronologically the youngest. Śrauta rituals and ceremonies refer to those found in the Brahmana layers of the Vedas. These include rituals related to fire, full moon, new moon, animal sacrifice, as well as seasonal offerings made during Vedic times; these rituals and ceremonies in the Brahmanas texts are difficult to follow. A clearer description of the ritual procedures appeared in the Vedanga Kalpa-sutras.
The Vedic rituals, states Burde, can be "divided into Śrauta and Gṛhya rituals". Śrauta rites relating to public ceremonies were relegated to the Śrautasutras, while most Vedic rituals relating to rites of passage and household ceremonies were incorporated in the Gṛhyasūtras. However, the Gṛhyasūtras added many new non-Śrauta ceremonies over time; the śrautasūtras focus on large expensive public ceremonies, while gṛhyasūtras focus on householders and saṃskāras such as childbirth, marriage and cremation. The śrautasūtra ceremonies are elaborate and require the services of multiple priests, while gṛhyasūtra rituals can be performed without or with the assistance of a priest in the Hindu traditions; the Śrauta rituals varied in complexity. The first step of a Śrauta ritual was making of an altar the initiation of fire, next of Havir-yajnas recitations offering of milk o
An Agraharam or Agrahara was a grant of land and royal income from it by a king or a noble family, to religious purposes to Brahmins to maintain temples in that land or a pilgrimage site and to sustain their families. Agraharams were known as Chaturvedimangalams in ancient times, they were known as ghatoka, boya. The name originates from the fact that the agraharams have lines of houses on either side of the road and the temple to the village god at the centre, thus resembling a garland around the temple. According to the traditional Hindu practice of architecture and town-planning, an agraharam is held to be two rows of houses running north-south on either side of a road at one end of which would be a temple to Shiva and at the other end, a temple to Vishnu. An example is Vadiveeswaram in Tamil Nadu. With Brahmins taking up professions in urban areas and some migrating abroad agraharams are vanishing fast. Many of the traditional houses are giving way to commercial buildings. Agraharam were started in south india during the Pallava period.
The Agraharam was maintained using royal patronage but the Agraharam become a self sustaining economy. The earliest existing description of an agraharam has been found in a 3rd-century AD Sangam Age work called Perumpāṇāṟṟuppaṭai; the houses had in front of them, a shed with short legs to. Domestic fowl and dogs did not approach them, it was the village of the guardians of the Veda who teach its sounds to the parrots with the bent mouth. If you reach, fair faced bangled ladies who are as chaste as the little star which shines in the north of the bright, broad sky, will after sunset feed you on the well-cooked rice named after the bird along with slices of citron boiled in butter taken, from the buttermilk derived from red cows and scented with the leaves of the karuvembu, mixed with pepper-powder, the sweet-smelling tender fruit plucked from the tall mango tree and pickled There are a number of places in Andhra pradesh named agraharam; these places may have originated as Bramhin-populated villages.
Examples of such settlements include: Agraharam, Kanuru, in Peravali mandal of the West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh state, India Agraharam, Siddavaram, in Porumamilla mandal of Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh state, India Aatreyapuram Agraharam, village and a mandal in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Chennupalli Agraharam, in Ballikurva mandal of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh state India Chintapalli agraharam, in Pentapadu mandal of West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh state India There are a number of places in Southern Karnataka named agrahara; these places might have originated as Brahmin villages. Agrahara, Handikunte post, Sira taluk, Tumkur dist, Karnataka Agrahara, Arkalgud, in Hassan district of Karnataka state, India Agrahara, Arsikere, in Hassan district of Karnataka Agrahara, Channarayapatna, in Hassan district of Karnataka Agrahara, Chiknayakanhalli, in Tumkur district of Karnataka Agrahara, Chintamani, in Kolar district of Karnataka Agrahara, Holalkere, in Chitradurga district of Karnataka Agrahara, Hosadurga, in Chitradurga district of Karnataka Agrahara, Hunsur, in Mysore district of Karnataka Agrahara, Kadur, in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka Agrahara, Kanakapura, in Bangalore Rural district of Karnataka Agrahara, Koratagere, in Tumkur district of Karnataka Agrahara, Malur, in Kolar district of Karnataka Agrahara, Sandur, in Bellary district of Karnataka Agrahara, Shrirangapattana, in Mandya district of Karnataka Agrahara, Sira, in Tumkur district of Karnataka Agrahara, Srinivaspur, in Kolar district of Karnataka Agrahara Bachahalli, in Krishnarajpet taluk of Mandya district, Karnataka Agrahara Palya, in Bangalore North taluk of Bangalore district, Karnataka Agrahara Somarasanahalli, in Kola taluk of Kolar district, Karnataka Agrahara Vaddahalli, in Hosakote taluk of Bangalore Rural district, Karnataka Agrahara Valagerehalli, in Channapatna taluk of Bangalore Rural district, Karnataka Konappana Agrahara, town in Anekal taluk adjoining Electronics City.
Rupena Agrahara Agrahara, Handikunte post, Sira taluk, Tumkur dist, Karnataka Annalagraharam, village in Kumbakonam taluk of Thanjavur district. Ganapathi Agraharam, village in Thanjavur district Pallipalayam Agraharam, village in Namakkal district Tiruchy Mylapore There is a famous Agraharam in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala called Valiya Sala, the lengthiest Agraharam in India. Agraharams in Palakkad district are around 96; when the villages are counted in the municipal area, there are around 18 of them. The concept is similar with houses in a temple at one end, they may differ in shapes - some are in straight line, some are T shaped and few have multiple temples within the village. Kuzhalmannam Agraharam, one among agraharams of Palakkad where Kerala Iyers live
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Thrissur is a revenue district of Kerala situated in the central part of that state. Spanning an area of about 3,032 km2, Thrissur district is home to over 10% of Kerala’s population. Thrissur district is bordered by the districts of Palakkad and Malappuram to the north, the districts of Ernakulam and Idukki to the south; the Arabian Sea lies to the west and Western Ghats stretches towards the east. Thrissur district was formed on July 1949, with the headquarters at Thrissur City. Thrissur is known as the cultural capital of Kerala, the land of Poorams; the district is known for its ancient temples and mosques. Thrissur Pooram is the most colourful temple festival in Kerala; the name Thrissur is derived from'Thiru-Shiva-Perur', which translates to "The city with the name of the Lord Siva". Thrissur was known as "Vrishabhadripuram" and "Then Kailasam" in ancient days. Another interpretation is'Tri-shiva-peroor' or the big land with three Shiva temples, which refers to the three places where Lord Shiva resides – namely Vadakkunnathan temple, Asokeswaram Siva temple and Irattachira Siva temple.
From ancient times, Thrissur District has played a part in the political history of south India. As the whole of Thrissur used to come under the Madras dynasty before independence, there are many Tamil speaking families here. In Kerala and Thrissur are home to many Tamil Brahmins; the early political history of the District is interlinked with that of the Cheras of the Sangam age, who ruled over vast portions of Kerala with their capital at Vanchi. The whole of the present Thrissur District was included in the early Chera Empire; the District can claim to have played a part in fostering the trade relations between Kerala and the outside world in the ancient and medieval period. Kodungalloor, which had the distinction of being the "Primum Emporium India", gave shelter to all the three communities which have contributed to the prosperity of Malabar; these three communities are the Jews and the Muslims. The history of Thrissur district from the 9th to the 12th centuries is the history of Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram and the history since the 12th century is the history of the rise and growth of Perumpadappu Swarupam.
In 1790 Raja Rama Varma popularly known as Saktan Tampuran ascended the throne of Cochin. With the accession of this ruler the English or modern period in the history of Cochin and of the District began. Saktan Tampuran was responsible for the destruction of the power of the feudal Nair chieftains and increase of royal power. Another force in the public life of Trichur and its suburbs was the Namboodithiri community and Menons of royal ancestry. A large part of the Trichur Taluk was for long under the domination of the Yogiatiripppads, the ecclesiastical heads of the Vadakkunnathan and Perumanam Devaswoms; the wave of nationalism and political consciousness which swept through the country since the early decades of this century has its repercussions in the District as well. Thrissur District has been in the forefront of the country-wide movement for temple entry and abolition of untouchability; the Guruvayur Satyagraha is a memorable episode in the history of the national movement. According to the 2011 census Thrissur district has a population of 3,110,327 equal to the nation of Mongolia or the US state of Iowa.
This gives it a ranking of 113th in India. The district has a population density of 1,026 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 4.58%. Thrissur has a sex ratio of 1109 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 95.32%. Thrissur was the second highest urbanized district in Kerala after Ernakulam. According to the 2001 India census, Thrissur District had a population of 2,975,440. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Thrissur has a literacy rate of 86%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 87%, female literacy is 85%. 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Hindus and Muslims constitute the bulk of the population, with Hindus as the majority, with 59.24% followed by Christians and Muslims. The Hindu community consists of Nairs and Ezhavas. Ambalavasis and Brahmins – including the local Namboodiris and migrants like Iyers and GSBs- form a percentage of the Hindu population; the Scheduled Castes, around 12% of the population of the district form a section among the Hindus of the district.
The Catholics – both Syro Malabar and Latin, Orthodox Jacobites and Chaldeans are the main sections of the Christian Community in the district. Catholics constitute 90% of the Christian population of the district spreading in 3 dioceses namely Thrissur and Kottapuram. Orthodox, Jacobites and Chaldean Syrians constitute the rest. Kunnamkulam, a small town in the northern part of the district is the center for the Orthodox and Marthomites; the Orthodox church has its Thrissur diocese centered at Mannuthy. The Kunnamkulam-Malabar diocese of The Marthoma Syrian Church is centered at Kunnamkulam. Chaldean Syrians spread around Thrissur city with 25,000 followers; the Malabar Independent Syrian Church known as Thozhiyoor church has its own headquarters at Guruvayur with 7000 followers. Muslims live predominantly in the coastal belt of the district, from north Punnayoorkkulam to South Azhikode, they are dominant in Guruvayur and Chavakkad, in good in numbers Kodungalloor and Nattika areas Sunnis are the major section in Muslim community.
Source: Official Statistics 2007 Thrissur is situated in southwestern India (10.52°N 76.21°E / 1
The Nambudiri transliterated Nambūdiri, Namboodiri and Nampūtiri, are a Malayali Brahmin caste, native to Kerala. As the traditional feudal elite, Nambudiris owned a large portion of the land in the region of Malabar until the Kerala Land Reforms starting in 1957. Nambudiris have been noted for their unique practices such as the adherence to srauta ritualism and orthodox tradition. Cyriac Pullapilly mentions that the dominating influence of the Nambudiris was to be found in all matters: religion, society and culture of Kerala. Nambudiri mythology associates their immigration to Kerala from the banks of Narmada, Kaveri rivers with the legendary creation of Kerala by Parasurama, an avatar of Vishnu. According to this legend, the region was created when Parasurama threw his axe into the sea.. Although it is known that the present-day region of Kerala was once governed by the Chera dynasty, little information exists regarding its early ethnography. Anthropologists Heike Moser and Paul Younger note that the Nambudiri Brahmin presence predates the 9th century, as attested by grants of land given to them by ruling families.
According to the historian Romila Thapar, local kings and chiefs encouraged them to move to the area by offering such tax-exempt land grants in return for them officiating in Vedic rites that would legitimise the grantors' status as rulers. They gained land and improved their influence over the socio-economic life of the region by helping rulers during the wars between the Chola and Chera dynasties when Vedic schools were turned into military academies. Operating from their illam houses, Nambudiris' ownership of agricultural land under the janmi system increased over many centuries and, according to Moser and Younger, they "established landholding temples and taught the people the rules of caste"; the Nambudiris have been described to be responsible for the Sanskrit influence on Malayalam a Dravidian language, due to the Nambudiri Brahmin's mixing of Sanskrit and the local Tamil language. Medieval Kerala has been characterised as an oligarchy, dominated by the Nambudiris, who owned all the temples and their subsidiary villages.
The Nambudiris had influence with the ruling class through a process known as sambandam, where they would marry Kshatriya women from the upper sections of the Nair caste: the traditional military elite and ruling group of Kerala society. The children of such unions were not considered Nambudiris; as a result of such unions, nearly all the kings of Kerala, although considered Nairs, were offspring of Nambudiri fathers. These arrangements allowed the Nambudiris to gain political power in addition to religious and cultural dominance; the Nambudiri's grip on land was maintained through the practice of strict primogeniture and patrilineal inheritance. Despite their younger members having hypergamous relationships with Nairs, whose caste traditions were matrilineal, Nambudiri families remained aloof from general society. Although the historian E. K. Pillai has claimed that the Nambudiris from the 1100s enforced matrilineal polyandry on the patrilineal communities of the area, sociologist Randall Collins thinks it is unlikely that such a change could be imposed and says that "more it was the result of a process of marriage politics spread by emulation in the decentralised situation of status competition."
Some other scholars believe that the matrilineal customs predate the period and cite the queens of the Pandyan dynasty as evidence for this. The unwillingness of Nambudiris to adapt to changes in wider society persisted until the early years of the 20th century but Susan Bayly believes that their decline in significance can be traced to the period 1729-1748 when Marthanda Varma established the Kingdom of Travancore and chose to use Deshastha Brahmins from Tamil Nadu in his civil service, she believes that decision undermined the relationship between the Nambudiri Brahmins and royalty in the region, although others have said that Varma's influence was short-lived and that the main cause of change was the arrival of British colonial administrators, such as Colin Macaulay and John Munro, from the early 1800s. The British encouraged the work of Christian missionaries, notably in provision of education, began the introduction of a judicial system that would have a significant impact on the landholdings, inheritance customs and marriage arrangements of both the Nambudiris and Nairs.
The traditional basis of life was challenged by these and other changes, affecting the other major ethnic groups of the area, such as the Ezhavas and the Syrian Christians. The following Vedic recensions are attested among them. Rigveda, the Śākala recension, the only extant recension of the Rigveda across India; the Nambudiris follow both Śāṅkhāyana Śrauta Sūtras. The latter, called the Kauṣītaki tradition among Nambudiris is restricted to them. Yajurveda, the Taittirīya śākhā with the Baudhāyana, Vādhūla and Āgniveśya srauta sutras. Samaveda in the Jaiminīya recension, elsewhere found only among the Śōḻiya Brahmans; the ancient Vedic ritual of Agnicayana, which spans a 12-day period and which Frits Staal and Robert Gardner claim to be one of the oldest known rituals, was maintained by Nambudiri Brahmins until at least 1975. Although it may have died out elsewhere in India and thus be symptomatic of the community's resistance to change, David Knipe notes that it is still performed in Andhra Pradesh and has been for centuries.
Traditionally, they wore. When they had to travel, they wore two sets of cloth in addition known as a vasthram. Nambudiris wore their traditional hair