Mount Mithridat is a large hill located in the center of Kerch, a city on the eastern Kerch Peninsula of Crimea. It is 91.4 metres in elevation. From the top of Mount Mithridat a scenic view spreads across the Strait of Kerch and the city of Kerch. Sometimes it is possible to see the Caucasus shore. Mount Mithridat was named after Mithridates VI of Pontus, he was ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus, a long-time antagonist of the Roman Republic via the Mithridatic Wars, until he was deceived by his son. After a long siege of Panticapaeum he tried to kill himself several times, until was killed by the leader of his own guardsmen; the Great Mithridates Staircase leads to the top of Mount Mithridat, in a series of flights and balustraded terraces. It was built in 1833-40 by the Italian architect Alexander Digbi. In the present day, a road goes to the top of the mountain. In the 19th century a museum was erected on the top of the mountain in the form of a Greek temple, but it was destroyed during the Crimean War.
In 1944 a memorial obelisk was built at the summit to commemorate the soldiers that defended Kerch in World War II. The landmark mountain was one of the nominees for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine
The Syvash or Sivash known as the Putrid Sea or Rotten Sea, consists of a large system of shallow lagoons on the west coast of the Sea of Azov. Separated from the sea by the narrow Arabat Spit, the water of the Syvash covers an area of around 2,560 km2 and the entire area spreads over about 10,000 km2, its eastern connection to the Sea of Azov is called the Henichesk Strait. The Syvash borders the northeastern coast of the main Crimean Peninsula; the Syvash nearly cuts the Crimean Peninsula off from the mainland, serving as a natural border for its autonomous republic. The long and narrow Arabat Spit runs to its east; the two bodies are connected in the north at the Henichesk Strait beside the port of Henichesk. To its west, the isthmus of Perekop connects Crimea to Ukraine; the Syvash is shallow. The deepest place is about 3 meters, with most areas between 1 meter deep; the bottom is covered with silt up to 5 m thick. Being shallow, the waters in the Syvash heat up in the summer and produce a putrid smell.
The wide area for evaporation leaves the water salty. The amount of various salts is estimated at 200 million metric tons. Several plants harvest the mineral resources of Syvash; the Syvash area is a wetland of international importance. The shores are low sloping and salty. In summer, the water level of Syvash decreases revealing barren solonets soils called "syvashes" by locals; the Syvash is sometimes divided into the Western Eastern Syvash. These are connected to each other by the Chongar Strait. During the Russian Civil War, the Syvash became famous for a surprise crossing by the Red Army during the Perekop-Chongar Operation; the Syvash may appear red in color due to the salt-tolerant micro-algae Dunaliella salina. The eastern parts of the Syvash contain less salt and are home to reeds and other wetland vegetation; the large islands in the Central Syvash are covered with steppes consisting of feather grass, tauric wormwood, crested wheat grass, fescue. The shores of the Syvash contains a large number of salt-tolerant vegetation, including glasswort, plantains, sea lavender, saltbush.
Media related to Syvash at Wikimedia Commons
Prime Minister of Crimea
The Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Crimea is the head of government of the Republic of Crimea. Until 2014 Prime Minister, whose nomination was proposed by the Speaker of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea with the approval of the President of Ukraine and approved by the Crimean parliament, presided over the Council of Ministers of Crimea. Since 2014, Prime Minister is appointed by the Head of the Republic of Crimea, once a candidate for Prime Minister will approve the State Council of Crimea. Head of the Republic of Crimea could lead the Council of Ministers of Crimea, but he must pass the approval of the State Council. Independent Republican Party of Crimea Agrarian Party of Ukraine People's Party of Crimea People's Democratic Party Ukrainian Platform "Sobor" Our Ukraine Party of Regions Labour Ukraine Party of Regions Russian Unity United Russia List of Chairmen of the Executive Committee of Crimea Official website World Statesmen.org Avdeyev, Yu. History of the Crimean Premier Office.
Krymskaya Pravda. 1 March 2016
A peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on the majority of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is understood to be continuous, though not named as a single body of water. Peninsulas are not always named as such. A point is considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water, less prominent than a cape. A river which courses through a tight meander is sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the loop of water. In English, the plural versions of peninsula are peninsulas and, less peninsulae. List of peninsulas Isthmus
2014 Crimean status referendum
The Crimean status referendum was a controversial vote on the political status of Crimea held on March 16, 2014 by the legislature of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the local government of Sevastopol. The referendum requested local populations whether they wanted to join Russia as a federal subject, or if they wanted to restore the 1992 Crimean constitution and Crimea's status as a part of Ukraine. After the events of Euromaidan, the referendum was held during a Russian military takeover of Crimea; the referendum is not internationally recognized by most countries. In 1991 and 1994, Crimea passed referendums in support for greater Crimean autonomy within Ukraine's sovereignty. Most members of the Supreme Council of Crimea claimed the ousting of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych in the 2014 Ukrainian revolution was a "coup" and the new interim government in Kiev was illegitimate and stated that the referendum was a response to these developments; the March 16 referendum's available choices did not include keeping the status quo of Crimea and Sevastopol as they were at the moment the referendum was held.
The 1992 constitution accords greater powers to the Crimean parliament including full sovereign powers to establish relations with other states. The final date and ballot choices were set. Before and after the plebiscite was proclaimed, the Crimean peninsula was host to Russian soldiers who managed to oversee public buildings and Ukrainian military installations; the official result from the Autonomous Republic of Crimea was a 96.77 percent vote for integration of the region into the Russian Federation with an 83.1 percent voter turnout. Following the referendum, The Supreme Council of Crimea and Sevastopol City Council declared the independence of the Republic of Crimea from Ukraine and requested to join the Russian Federation. On the same day, Russia recognized the Republic of Crimea as a sovereign state; the referendum was regarded as illegitimate by most members of the European Union, the United States and Canada due to Russian intervention. Thirteen members of the United Nations Security Council voted in favor of a resolution declaring the referendum invalid, but Russia vetoed it and China abstained.
A United Nations General Assembly resolution was adopted, by a vote of 100 in favor vs. 11 against with 58 abstentions, which declared the referendum invalid and affirmed Ukraine's territorial integrity. As the plebiscite was proclaimed, the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People had called for a boycott of the referendum; the Mejlis Deputy Chairman, Akhtem Chiygoz, felt that the actual turnout could not have exceeded 30–40 percent, arguing that to be the normal turnout for votes in the region. According to the 2001 Ukrainian population census, 65.3% of the population of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea are ethnic Russians, 15.7% are ethnic Ukrainians and 12.2% are Crimean Tatars. In Sevastopol, 71.6% are ethnic Russians and 22.4% are ethnic Ukrainians. 77% of Crimea's and 94% of Sevastopol's population are native speakers of Russian. Crimea and Sevastopol are neighboring subdivisions of Ukraine located in the Crimean peninsula, a region with a long and complex history. Demographically, the region is populated by Russian-speaking majorities but with such demographics undergoing dramatic changes for the past 200 years, due in part to the deportation of the Crimean Tatars 70 years ago.
Following the Tatar deportation, large numbers of ethnic Russians and ethnic Ukrainians settled in the region. During the period of the Soviet Union, the Crimean Oblast was a subdivision of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic until the 1954 transfer of Crimea into the Ukrainian SSR. Crimea became part of independent Ukraine after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, shortly after Crimea had re-gained its autonomy following a 1991 referendum; the Ukrainian parliament abolished the 1992 Crimean Constitution and the office of President of Crimea in 1995. In 1998, Crimea gained a new constitution. Polling by the Razumkov Centre in 2008 found that 63.8% of Crimeans would like Crimea to secede from Ukraine and join Russia and 53.8% would like to preserve its current status, but with expanded powers and rights. Razumkov characterized Crimeans' views as controversial and unsteady, therefore vulnerable to internal and external influences. A poll by the International Republican Institute in May 2013 found that 53% wanted "Autonomy in Ukraine", 12% were for "Crimean Tatar autonomy within Ukraine", 2% for "Common oblast of Ukraine" and 23% voted for "Crimea should be separated and given to Russia".
A poll conducted by the Crimean Institute of Political and Social Research on March 8–10, 2014 found that 77% of respondents planned to vote for "reunification with Russia", 97% assessed the current situation in Ukraine as negative. A poll conducted by the GfK Group on March 12–14, 2014 with 600 respondents found that 70.6% of Crimeans intended to vote for joining Russia, 10.8% for restoring the 1992 constitution and 5.6% did not intend to take part in the referendum. The poll showed that if Crimeans had more choices, 53.8% of them would choose joining Russia, 5.2% restoration of 1992 constitution, 18.6% a independent Crimean state and 12.6% would choose to keep the previous status of Crimea. UNDP in Crimea conducted series of polls about possible referendum on joining Russia with a sample size of 1200: Different po
History of Crimea
The recorded history of the Crimean Peninsula known as Tauris and the Tauric Chersonese, begins around the 5th century BC when several Greek colonies were established along its coast. The southern coast remained Greek in culture for two thousand years as part of the Roman Empire, its successor states, the Byzantine Empire, the Empire of Trebizond, the independent Principality of Theodoro. In the 13th century, some port cities were controlled by the Genovese; the Crimean interior was much less stable, enduring a long series of invasions. In the medieval period, it was acquired by Kievan Rus', but fell to the Mongol invasions as part of the Golden Horde, they were followed by the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire, which conquered the coastal areas as well, in the 15th to 18th centuries. In 1783, the Ottoman Empire was defeated by Catherine the Great. Crimea was traded to Russia by the Ottoman Empire as part of the Treaty provision. After two centuries of conflict, the Russian fleet had destroyed the Ottoman navy and the Russian army had inflicted heavy defeats on the Ottoman land forces.
The ensuing Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca forced the Sublime Porte to recognize the Tatars of the Crimea as politically independent. Catherine the Great's incorporation of the Crimea in 1783 from the defeated Ottoman Empire into the Russian Empire increased Russia's power in the Black Sea area; the Crimea was the first Muslim territory to slip from the sultan's suzerainty. The Ottoman Empire's frontiers would shrink for another two centuries, Russia would proceed to push her frontier westwards to the Dniester. In 1921 the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created; this republic was dissolved in 1945, the Crimea became an oblast first of the Russian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR. From 1991 the territory was covered by the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol City within independent Ukraine. However, during the 2014 Crimean crisis, the peninsula was taken over by Russia and a referendum on whether to rejoin Russia was held. Shortly after the result in favour of joining Russia was announced, Crimea was annexed by the Russian Federation as two federal subjects: the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol.
Archaeological evidence of human settlement in Crimea dates back to the Middle Paleolithic. Neanderthal remains found at Kiyik-Koba Cave have been dated to about 80,000 BP. Late Neanderthal occupations have been found at Starosele and Buran Kaya III. Archaeologists have found some of the earliest anatomically modern human remains in Europe in the Buran-Kaya caves in the Crimean Mountains; the fossils are about 32,000 years old, with the artifacts linked to the Gravettian culture. During the Last Glacial Maximum, along with the northern coast of the Black Sea in general, Crimea was an important refuge from which north-central Europe was re-populated after the end of the Ice Age; the East European Plain during this time was occupied by periglacial loess-steppe environments, although the climate was warmer during several brief interstadials and began to warm after the beginning of the Late Glacial Maximum. Human site occupation density was high in the Crimean region and increased as early as ca. 16,000 years before the present.
Proponents of the Black Sea deluge hypothesis believe Crimea did not become a peninsula until recently, with the rising of the Black Sea level in the 6th millennium BC. The beginning of the Neolithic in Crimea is not associated with agriculture, but instead with the beginning of pottery production, changes in ﬂint tool-making technologies, local domestication of pigs; the earliest evidence of domesticated wheat in the Crimean peninsula is from the Chalcolithic Ardych-Burun site, dating to the middle of the 4th millennium BCBy the 3rd millennium BC, Crimea had been reached by the Yamna or "pit grave" culture, assumed to correspond to a late phase of Proto-Indo-European culture in the Kurgan hypothesis. In the early Iron Age, Crimea was settled by two groups: the Tauri in southern Crimea, the East Iranian-speaking Scythians north of the Crimean Mountains. Taurians intermixed with the Scythians starting from the end of 3rd century BC were mentioned as Tauroscythians and Scythotaurians in the works of ancient Greek writers.
The origins of the Tauri, from which the classical name of Crimea as Taurica arose, are unclear. They are a remnant of the Cimmerians displaced by the Scythians. Alternative theories relate them to the Abkhaz and Adyghe peoples, which at that time resided much farther west than today; the Greeks, who established colonies in Crimea during the Archaic Period, regarded the Tauri as a savage, warlike people. After centuries of Greek and Roman settlement, the Tauri were not pacified and continued to engage in piracy on the Black Sea. By the 2nd century BC they had become subject-allies of the Scythian king Scilurus; the Crimean Peninsula north of the Crimean Mountains was occupied by Scythian tribes. Their center was the city of Scythian Neapolis on the outskirts of present-day Simferopol; the town ruled over a small kingdom covering the lands between the lower Dnieper River and northern Crimea. In the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, Scythian Neapolis was a city "with a mixed Scythian-Greek population, strong defensive walls and large public buildings constructed using the orders of Greek
Crimean Goths were Greuthungi-Gothic tribes who remained in the lands around the Black Sea in Crimea. They were the least-powerful, least-known, the longest-lasting of the Gothic communities, their existence is well attested through the ages though the exact period when they ceased to exist as a distinct culture is unknown. In the Fourth Turkish letter by Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, they are described as "a warlike people, who to this day inhabit many villages" though in the 5th century, Theodoric the Great failed to rouse Crimean Goths to support his war in Italy. At the time, it was customary to refer to a wide range of Germanic tribes as "Goths", so the exact ethnic origin of the Germanic peoples in Crimea is a subject of debate. Aside from textual reports of the existence of the Goths in Crimea, both first and second hand, from as early as 850, numerous archaeological examples exist, including the ruins of the former capital city of the Crimean Goths: Doros, or Mangup as it is now known.
On top of this, there are numerous articles of jewelry, shields, buttons and small personal artifacts on display in museums in Crimea and in the British Museum which have led to a better understanding of the Gothic Kingdom. In the report made by Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq in 1595 of the Crimean Goths, he claims to not be able to determine whether the Germanic peoples of Crimea were Goths or Saxons the language cannot be directly linked to the well-attested Gothic language. Though most scholars agree the peoples must have been of Gothic origin, some others have maintained that the so-called "Crimean Goths" were in fact West or North Germanic tribes who settled in Crimea and linguistically influenced by the Ostrogoths. According to Herwig Wolfram, following Jordanes, the Ostrogoths had a huge kingdom north of the Black Sea in the 4th century, which the Huns overwhelmed in the time of the Gothic king Ermanaric when the Huns migrated to the Ukrainian steppe; the Ostrogoths became vassals of the Huns until the death of Attila, when they revolted and regained independence.
Like the Huns, the Goths in Crimea never regained their lost glory. According to Peter Heather and Michael Kulikowski, the Ostrogoths did not exist until the 5th century, when they emerged from other Gothic and non-Gothic groups. Other Gothic groups may have settled in Crimea, it has been speculated that the Crimean Goths were in fact Saxons escaping Christian persecution from the west, or North Germanic tribes who migrated southwards. Either way, the existence of Goths in Crimea is first testified from around the 3rd century, after that they were well reported. During the late 5th and early 6th century, the Crimean Goths had to fight off hordes of Huns who were migrating back eastward after losing control of their European empire. In the 5th century, Theodoric the Great tried to recruit Crimean Goths for his campaigns in Italy, but few showed interest in joining him; the Principality of Gothia or Theodoro formed after the Fourth Crusade out of parts of the Byzantine thema of Klimata which were not occupied by the Genoese.
Its population was a mixture of Greeks, Crimean Goths, Bulgars and other nations, which confessed Orthodox Christianity. The principality's official language was Greek; the territory was under the control of Trebizond, part of its Crimean possessions, the Perateia. Many Crimean Goths were Greek speakers and many non-Gothic Byzantine citizens were settled in the region called "Gothia" by the government in Constantinople. A Gothic principality around the stronghold of Doros, the Principality of Theodoro, continued to exist through various periods of vassalage to the Byzantines, Kipchaks, Mongols and other empires until 1475, when it was incorporated in the Khanate of Crimea and the Ottoman Empire. There is a theory that some Anglo-Saxons who left England after the Battle of Hastings in 1066 arrived in Constantinople in time to help the Byzantines repel an invasion; as a reward, the Byzantine emperor granted them lands near the Sea of Azov in what may have been the Crimean Peninsula. By the 16th century, the existence of Goths in Crimea had become well known to European scholars.
Many travelers wrote about the Goths. One romantic report appears in Joachimus Cureus' Gentis Silesiae Annales in which he claims that during a voyage in the Black Sea, his ship was forced ashore by storms. There, to his surprise, he found a man singing a song in which he used "German words"; when he asked him where he was from, he answered "that his home was nearby and that his people were Goths". Several inscriptions from the early 9th century found in the area use the word "Goth" only as a personal name, not ethnonym. Meanwhile, some legends about a Gothic state in Crimea existed in Europe throughout the Middle Ages. In the 16th century, an Imperial envoy in Suleiman's court Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq reported having had a conversation with two Goths in Constantinople, he left the Gothic-Latin dictionary with about a hundred Germanic words that share some traits in common with the ancient Gothic language. Following the report by Busbecq, numerous European travelers went to visit Crimea, Torquatus visited Crimea in the mid- to late 16th century in which he reported the existence of Goths who spoke their own language, but used Greek and Hungarian in dealing with outsiders.
In 1690, Kampfer states: The language spoke in the Peninsula Crimea, or Taurica Chersonesus, in Asia, still retains many German words, brought thither, as is suppos'd by a colony of Goths, who went to settle there about 850 years after the Deluge. The late Mr. Busbeq