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In Greek mythology, the Keres, singular Ker, were female death-spirits. They were the goddesses who personified violent death and who were drawn to bloody deaths on battle fields; the Keres were daughters of Nyx, as such the sisters of beings such as Moirai, who controlled the fate of souls and Thanatos, the god of peaceful death. Some authorities, such as Cicero, called them by a Latin name, Tenebrae "the Darknesses", named them daughters of Erebus and Nyx; the Greek word κήρ means "death" or "doom" and appears as a proper noun in the singular and plural as Κήρ and Κῆρες to refer to divinities. Homer uses Κῆρες in the phrase κήρες θανάτοιο, "Keres of death". By extension the word may mean "plague, disease" and in prose "blemish or defect"; the relative verb κεραΐζω or κείρω means "ravage or plunder". Sometimes in Homer the words κήρ and moira have similar meanings; the older meaning was "destruction of the dead", Hesychius of Alexandria relates the word to the verb κηραινειν "decay". And Nyx bare hateful Moros and black Ker and Thanatos, she bare Hypnos and the tribe of Oneiroi.

And again the goddess murky Nyx, though she lay with none, bare Momus and painful Oizys, the Hesperides... She bare the Moirai and the ruthless avenging Keres... Deadly Nyx bare Nemesis to afflict mortal men, after her and Philotes and hateful Geras and hard-hearted Eris, they were described as dark beings with a thirst for human blood. They would hover over the search for dying and wounded men. A description of the Keres can be found in the Shield of Heracles: The black Dooms gnashing their white teeth, grim-eyed, bloody, terrifying fought over the men who were dying for they were all longing to drink dark blood; as soon as they caught a man who had fallen or one newly wounded, one of them clasped her great claws around him and his soul went down to Hades, to chilly Tartarus. And when they had satisfied their hearts with human blood, they would throw that one behind them and rush back again into the battle and the tumult; as death daimons, they were associated with Cerberus. Though not mentioned by Hesiod, Achlys may have been included among the Keres.

A parallel, unusual personification of "the baleful Ker" is in Homer's depiction of the Shield of Achilles, the model for the Shield of Heracles. These are works of art. In the fifth century, Keres were portrayed as small winged sprites in vase-paintings adduced by J. E. Harrison, who described apotropaic rites and rites of purification that were intended to keep the Keres at bay. According to a statement of Stesichorus noted by Eustathius, Stesichorus "called the Keres by the name Telchines", whom Eustathius identified with the Kuretes of Crete, who could call up squalls of wind and would brew potions from herbs; the term Keres has been cautiously used to describe a person's fate. An example of this can be found in the Iliad where Achilles was given the choice between either a long and obscure life and home, or death at Troy and everlasting glory; when Achilles and Hector were about to engage in a fight to the death, the god Zeus weighed both warriors' keres to determine who shall die. As Hector’s ker was deemed heavier, he was the one destined to die and in the weighing of souls, Zeus chooses Hector to be killed.

During the festival known as Anthesteria, the Keres were driven away. Their Roman equivalents were the Tenebrae. Hunger, madness. Nightmare have each a sprite behind them. E. Harrison observed, but two Keres might not be averted, these, which emerged from the swarm of lesser ills, were Old Age and Death. Odysseus says, "Death and the Ker avoiding, we escape", where the two are not quite identical: Harrison found the Christian parallel "death and the angel of death. Keres is used to describe a branch of paganism that follows the goddess Nyx; when applied in this way, Keres is taken to mean "daughters of Nyx." Among destructive personifications are: Anaplekte, Nosos, Stygere. Mathias Egeler suggests a connection exists between the Valkyries of Norse mythology. Both deities are war spirits that fly over battlefields during conflicts and choose those to be slain; the difference is that Valkyries are benevolent deities in contrast to the malevolence of the Keres due to the different outlook of the two cultures towards war.

The word valkyrie derives from Old Norse valkyrja, composed of two words. Together, they mean "chooser of the slain"; the Greek word "Ker" etymologically means death. Badb Kerostasia Valkyrie March, J. Cassell's Dictionary Of Classical Mythology, London, 1999. ISBN 0-304-35161-X Harrison, Jane Ellen, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion 1903. Chapter V: "The demonology of ghosts and spites and bogeys" The dictionary definition of Keres at Wiktionary

Brian Setzer

Brian Robert Setzer is an American guitarist and songwriter. He found widespread success in the early 1980s with the 1950s-style rockabilly group Stray Cats, revitalized his career in the early 1990s with his swing revival band, the Brian Setzer Orchestra. Setzer was born April 1959 in New York, he played in jazz bands when he was in school. He found a way to hear jazz at the Village Vanguard, though as he got older he got interested in rock and rockabilly, he was the Tomcats, which he began with his brother, Gary. The Tomcats became the Stray Cats when double bassist Lee Rocker and drummer Slim Jim Phantom joined and Gary left the band. In 1980, thinking they might have more success in England than in America, they sold their instruments to pay for airplane tickets and flew to London. After performing in London for a few months, they met Dave Edmunds, a guitarist and record producer who shared their love of rockabilly and 1950s' rock and roll. Edmunds produced their debut album, Stray Cats, which yielded two hit singles, "Stray Cat Strut" and "Rock This Town".

The second album, Gonna Ball, was less successful. The band returned to America and released Built for Speed, produced again by Dave Edmunds, with songs collected from their first two albums. Helped by their music videos on MTV, the Stray Cats became popular in America, their next album, Rant n' Rave with the Stray Cats produced the hit " Sexy + 17". The Stray Cats disbanded in 1984, though they reunited recorded, toured. After recording three albums with different producers, they returned to Dave Edmunds for Choo Choo Hot Fish. After the Stray Cats disbanded in 1984, Setzer began a solo career that included working as a sideman for other acts, such as the Honeydrippers led by Robert Plant. On his first solo album, The Knife Feels Like Justice, he turned away from rockabilly and moved toward rhythm and blues and the heartland rock of John Mellencamp; the album was featured Kenny Aronoff on drums. Both men had worked on albums by Mellencamp, his second studio album Live Nude Guitars followed in 1988 with Setzer serving as co-producer along with Larson Paine, Chris Thomas and David A. Stewart.

Setzer returned to his love of music from this time the jump blues of Louis Prima. In the 1980s, he resurrected rockabilly, in the 1990s, swing, he assembled the Brian Setzer Orchestra, a seventeen piece big band that got the public's attention with a cover version of Prima's "Jump, Jive an' Wail" from the album The Dirty Boogie. The song won the Grammy Award for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals, while "Sleep Walk" from the same album won the Grammy for Best Pop Instrumental Performance; the album Wolfgang's Big Night Out featured Setzer's interpretation of classical pieces, such as Beethoven's "Symphony No. 5" and "Für Elise". Wolfgang earned Setzer this time for Best Classical Crossover Album, he executive produced the album Ready Steady Go! by Drake Bell and played guitar on two songs. Setzer has been married three times, most in 2005 to Julie Reiten, a former singer with the Dustbunnies. Orville H. Gibson Lifetime Achievement Award, 1999 Grammy Award for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals, "Jump, Jive an' Wail", 1998 Grammy Award for Best Pop Instrumental Performance, "Sleep Walk" and "Caravan" Long Island Music Hall of Fame, 2015 The Knife Feels Like Justice Live Nude Guitars Rockin' by Myself Ignition!

Nitro Burnin' Funny Daddy Rockabilly Riot Vol. 1: A Tribute to Sun Records 13 Red Hot & Live Setzer Goes Instru-Mental! Rockabilly Riot! Live from the Planet Rockabilly Riot! All Original The Brian Setzer Orchestra The Brian Setzer Orchestra Guitar Slinger The Dirty Boogie Vavoom! Jumpin' East of Java Boogie Woogie Christmas Dig That Crazy Christmas Wolfgang's Big Night Out Songs from Lonely Avenue Christmas Comes Alive Rockin' Rudolph Bloodless Pharaohs Brian Setzer and the Bloodless Pharaohs Stray Cats Stray Cats Gonna Ball Built for Speed Rant n' Rave with the Stray Cats Rock Therapy Blast Off! Let's Go Faster! The Best of the Stray Cats: Rock This Town Choo Choo Hot Fish Original Cool Rumble in Brixton 40 Come Out and Play, Twisted Sister Deep in the Heart of Nowhere, Bob Geldof Sentimental Hygiene, Warren Zevon Two Fires, Jimmy Barnes Closer to the Flame, Dave Edmunds Traffic from Paradise, Rickie Lee Jones Muddy Water Blues: A Tribute to Muddy Waters, Paul Rodgers La Bamba, Los Lobos Toolin' Around, Arlen Roth Bug Alley, Gary Hoey Cheating at Solitaire, Mike Ness Beatin' the Heat, Dan Hicks Ghost on the Canvas, Glen Campbell Step Back, Johnny Winter Ready Steady Go!, Drake Bell Brian Setzer Orchestra Live in Japan Rumble in Brixton Brian Setzer Orchestra Live: Christmas Extravaganza One Rockin' Night Live in Montreal Jazz Festival Rockabilly Riot!

Osaka Rocka Live in Japan Brian Setzer Orchestra Live: Christmas Rocks! Brian Setzer has a large guitar collection which spans many decades and brands, he favours vintage equipment and hollow body guitars, a

Joint Arms Control Implementation Group

The Joint Arms Control Implementation Group is a specialist defence component affiliated to UK Joint Forces Command. JACIG was based at RAF Scampton, it was formed to performing treaty associated tasks as part of the UK's commitment to post Cold War confidence building associated with the Vienna Document and the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. Its operating base is RAF Henlow in Bedfordshire. JACIG's first Commandant and main architect of the unit's structure and method of operations was Colonel Roy Giles. Giles was a veteran of BRIXMIS; the unit's personnel are drawn from all the MOD civil service. JACIG has carried out the following duties since its inception and continues to play an active role in constructive disarmament: Hundreds of inspections or visits related to arms control treaties, such as the revised CFE treaty and its adaption discussed in the 1999 Istanbul summit Confidence and security building evaluations and inspection supporting the Vienna Document 2011 A number of missions related to the Open Skies treaty A variety of bilateral activities, outside formal treaty requirements, designed to foster good working relationships with a number of OSCE nations Developing capabilities in a range of conventional weapons conventions and treaty implementation including SALW reduction in former conflict zones Language training and arms control inspectors' courses Lecturing at overseas institutions Providing technical expert advice in a variety of forums.

As well as carrying site inspections and area visits to confirm the correct reporting or destruction of treaty limited equipment, JACIG provides escorts to incoming foreign counterpart organisations. The unit has become more involved in the setting up and implementation of treaties and agreements to destroy and imit the use of small arms and light weapons

Gevorgian Seminary

Gevorkian Theological Seminary known as Gevorkian Seminary, is a theological university-institute of the Armenian Apostolic Church founded by Catholicos George IV in 1874. It is located in the town of Vagharshapat within the complex of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, Armenia. Gevorkian Seminary is considered the oldest university in modern Armenia. During the tenure of Catholicos Gevorg IV, he called for the creation of a theological school at the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin to meet the educational needs of the clergy. In the summer of 1872 he called upon Archimandrites Gevork Surenian, Vahan Bastanian, Vahram Mankuni and Aristakes Sedrakian to facilitate the re-establishment of the historic school, it was decided to open a new seminary. On 18 May 1869, the cornerstone of the Gevorkian Seminary was laid on the north grounds of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin; the foundation stone was installed by Catholicos Gevorg IV. During the celebration ceremony writer Gazaros Aghayan was present.

“On May 25 we witnessed the happy occasions, one of, the second year anniversary of the Catholicos’ consecration and the other – the founding of the seminary". The seminary was under construction from 1869–1874. During this same time the Armenian Church was under negotiations with the Tsarist government regarding the opening of the school. On 28 September 1874, the seminary building was ready, its completion celebrated. A few days on 5 October 1874, the Officer of the Caucasus Commission, informed Archimandrite Bastanian that the tsar had approved the seminary charter and it was allowed to open; the seminary began its mission after overcoming many difficulties. The seminary had its first graduates during the 1885–86 academic year. To improve the teaching of ecclesiastical subjects Catholicos Markar I invited Bishop Malachai Ormanian to teach at the seminary, his guidance helped to strengthen the role of these subjects. The famous contemporaries of this generation were Catholicos Gevork V, Archimandrite Komitas, Karekin I of the Great House of Cilicia and Bishop Karapet Mkrtchian.

The Gevorkian Seminary was the only academic institution where the science of education, psychology and philosophy were taught, with the primary aim to prepare a core group of skilled and trained teachers. The development and implementation of the Educational Sciences in the seminary were founded by through the efforts of S. Mandikian, N. Karamian, A. Oltetsian, G. Edilian, A. Shavarshian. Great emphasis was given to the history of the Armenian people, bibliography, music and art etc. New colleagues replaced this first generation of educators; the graduates of the seminary were invited to teach, among them Manuk Abeghian, Archbishop Karekin Hovsepiants, Bishop Karapet Mkrtchian and others. The seminary was charged with the task of preparing teachers for secular schools. On 16 September 1888, Catholicos Makar l added an appendix to the charter of the seminary, which affirmed the goal of this educational institution to prepare the Armenian clergy. During the first 43 years of existence, the seminary prepared 43 clergymen/teachers who in turn provided education for thousands of students.

While the seminary was founded as a Theological School the true benefits of the school were more secular in nature, as the graduates built an important educational and cultural wealth in the 19th and 20th centuries. The founding of the seminary coincided with a period of emergence of Armenian culture and an increase of intellectuals. However, at the time, the Tsarist government was engaged in a policy of closing the local parish schools. Withstanding this difficult period, the seminary was able to preserve its existence until 1917 and was the tying and uniting force for Armenian schools and culture; the seminary gathered Armenian young men from all over the world. During the first 43 years, the seminary carried out its mission with a high level of responsibility toward the Armenian Church, empowering her with a valiant legion of clergy as well as meritorious armenologists, historians, musicians and patriotic public figures. Among the notable graduates are Catholicos Gevork Vl Chorekchian, Karekin l Hovsepiants, Bishop Karapet Ter-Mkrtchian, Ruben Ter-Minasian, Ervand Ter-Minasian, Arshak Ter-Mikaelian, Manuk Abeghian, Nikoghaios Adonts, Stepan Malkhasiants, Avetik Isahakian, Aksel Bakunts, Levon Shant and many other worthy teachers and clergymen.

During the time of the Armenian Genocide, the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin was filled with massive numbers of refugees. Due to the tragic situation facing the Armenian nation, Catholicos Gevork I and the director, Bishop Karekin Hovsepiants, decided to temporarily close the seminary in December 1917, with great hope that it would reopen the next year, it was not until 1921. Catholicos Gevork V Sureniants, Catholicos Khoren l Muradbekian and Archbishop Karekin Hovsepiants took important steps to reopening the school; these efforts were realized due to the consecutive activities of Catholicos Gevork Vl Chorekchian. In 1925, word was received by Archbishop Khoren Muradbekian

Stellar population

During 1944, Walter Baade categorized groups of stars within the Milky Way into stellar populations. By the way, in the abstract of the article by Bade, he recognizes that Jan Oort conceived this type of classification in 1926: " The two types of stellar populations had been recognized among the stars of our own galaxy by Oort as early as 1926". Baade noticed that bluer stars were associated with the spiral arms and yellow stars dominated near the central galactic bulge and within globular star clusters. Two main divisions were defined as Population I and Population II, with another newer division called Population III added in 1978, which are simply abbreviated as Pop I, II or III. Between the population types, significant differences were found with their individual observed stellar spectra; these were shown to be important, were related to star formation, observed kinematics, stellar age, galaxy evolution in both spiral or elliptical galaxies. These three simple population classes usefully divided stars by their chemical composition or metallicity.

By definition, each population group shows the trend where decreasing metal content indicates increasing age of stars. Hence, the first stars in the universe were deemed Population III, old stars as Population II, recent stars as Population I. Note for example our sun, population I, is a recent star with a 1.4 percent metallicity, regarded as high in astrophysics and metallicity refers to all elements beyond the first row. That is metals here are regarded as elements heavier than H and He including the non-metals like oxygen. A nomenclature different to usual usage. Observation of stellar spectra has revealed that stars older than the Sun have fewer heavy elements compared to the Sun; this suggests that metallicity has evolved through the generations of stars by the process of stellar evolution. Under current cosmological models, all matter created in the Big Bang was hydrogen and helium, with only a tiny fraction consisting of other light elements. E.g. lithium and beryllium. When the universe had cooled sufficiently, the first stars were born as Population III stars without any contaminating heavier metals.

This is postulated to have affected their structure so that their stellar masses became hundreds of times more than that of the Sun. In turn, these massive stars evolved quickly, their nucleosynthetic processes created the first 26 elements. Many theoretical stellar models show that most high-mass Population III stars exhausted their fuel and exploded in energetic pair-instability supernovae; those explosions would have dispersed their material, ejecting metals into the interstellar medium, to be incorporated into the generations of stars. Their destruction suggests. However, some Population III stars might be seen in high-redshift galaxies whose light originated during the earlier history of the universe. None have been discovered, scientists have found evidence of an small ultra metal-poor star smaller than our sun, found in a binary system of the spiral arms in our Milky Way, it was discovered while investigating the "wobble" of its larger neighboring star expecting to find a black hole. This star is likely going to further our knowledge of Population III stars.

Stars too massive to produce pair-instability supernovae would have collapsed into black holes through a process known as photodisintegration. Here some matter may have escaped during this process in the form of relativistic jets, this could have distributed the first metals into the universe; the oldest observed stars, known as Population II, have low metallicities. As those stars died, they returned metal-enriched material to the interstellar medium via planetary nebulae and supernovae, enriching further the nebulae out of which the newer stars formed; these youngest stars, including the Sun, therefore have the highest metal content, are known as Population I stars. Population I, or metal-rich, stars are young stars with the highest metallicity out of all three populations, are more found in the spiral arms of the Milky Way galaxy; the Earth's Sun is an example of a metal-rich star and is considered as an intermediate Population I star, while the solar-like Mu Arae is much richer in metals.

Population I stars have regular elliptical orbits of the galactic centre, with a low relative velocity. It was earlier hypothesized that the high metallicity of Population I stars makes them more to possess planetary systems than the other two populations, because planets terrestrial planets, are thought to be formed by the accretion of metals. However, observations of the Kepler data-set have found smaller planets around stars with a range of metallicities, while only larger, potential gas giant planets are concentrated around stars with higher metallicity — a finding that has implications for theories of gas giant formation. Between the intermediate Population I and the Population II stars comes the intermediary disc population. Population II, or metal-poor, stars are those with little metal; these objects were formed during an earlier time of the universe. Intermediate Population I stars are common in the bulge near the centre of our galaxy, whereas Population II stars found in the galactic halo are older and thus more metal-poor

De Magnete

De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure is a scientific work published in 1600 by the English physician and scientist William Gilbert and his partner Aaron Dowling. A influential and successful book, it exerted an immediate influence on many contemporary writers, including Francis Godwin and Mark Ridley. In his work, Gilbert described many of his experiments with his model Earth called the terrella.. Gilbert made the claim that gravity was due to the same force and he believed that this held the Moon in orbit around the Earth. While incorrect by modern standards, this claim was still far closer to the truth than the ancient Aristotelian theory, which held that the heavenly bodies consist of a special fifth element which moves in circles, while the earthly elements move downward. Johannes Kepler accepted Gilbert's theory and used it as a working basis for his famous laws of planetary motion. In De Magnete, Gilbert studied static electricity produced by amber. Amber is called elektron in Greek, electrum in Latin, so Gilbert decided to refer to the phenomenon by the adjective electricus, giving rise to the modern terms "electric" and "electricity".

De Magnete was influential because of the inherent interest of its subject matter, but for the rigorous way in which Gilbert described his experiments and his rejection of ancient theories of magnetism. Gilbert acknowledged his debt to Peter of Maricourt and incorporated this 13th-century scientist's experiments on magnetism into his own treatise. Although Gilbert's thinking was influenced by the mysticism of his time he is regarded as a pioneer of experimental science. De Magnete consists of six books. Historical survey of magnetism and theory of Earth's magnetism; the loadstone in antiquity from Plato onwards and the gradual identification of iron ores. The south pole of a loadstone points to the north pole of the Earth and vice versa as the terrestrial globe is magnetic. Distinction between electricity and magnetism. An amber stick when rubbed affects a rotating needle made of any type of metal and attracts paper and water, but electricity is different to magnetism which only attracts iron-bearing materials.

He shows the effects of cutting a spherical loadstone through the poles and equator and the direction of attraction at different points. Magnets act at a distance but the force has no permanent presence and is not hindered like light. Materials including gold and diamonds are not affected by magnets, nor can one produce perpetual motion; the Earth's normal magnetism. He proposes that the angle of the precession of the equinoxes are caused by magnetism. A loadstone floated in water returns to the same direction. Iron heated to white heat and cooled lying along a meridian acquires magnetism, but stroking with other materials fails—he proved this with an experiment with 75 diamonds in front of witnesses. The best way to magnetize a compass. Declination; the compass does not always point to true north. There is considerable variation. Using the terrella he shows that variations in the height of the surface can lead to differences but insists that variation is a global issue. In the midst of the ocean or continent there is no variation.

He shows how to measure the sources of common errors. Magnetic dip; the angle of inclination of a compass to the horizon differs according to latitude. He shows. At the equator it is level and increases towards the poles as he has shown earlier with his terrella. Terrestrial rotation. Heraclides and others held that the Earth rotates from west to east and this is supported by Copernicus, but Aristotle said otherwise. "If the rotations of the earth seems headlong and not to be permitted by nature because of its rapidity worse than insane, both as regards itself and the whole universe is the motion of the primum mobile." He rejects the idea of a sphere of the fixed stars for which no proof has been offered and leaves aside the question of other movements of the Earth but "infers not with mere probability, but with certainty the diurnal revolution of the earth." He states that "the cause of the diurnal motion are to be found in the magnetic energy and the alliance of bodies" but offers no further guidance.

The inclination of the Earth's pole to the ecliptic produces the seasons. He explains the Precession of the equinoxes as the movement of the Earth's axis. In Chapter III, Gilbert argues in favor of the Copernican System, he posits that due to the inordinate distance of the celestial spheres, if in fact the spheres exist at all, it is an absurd idea that they would rotate every 24 hours, as opposed to the rotation of the tiny sphere of the Earth. He states, "How far away from the earth are those remotest of stars: they are beyond the reach of eye, or man's devices, or man's thought. What an absurdity is this motion", he argues for the extreme variability of the distance to the various heavenly bodies and states that situated "in thinnest aether, or in the most subtle fifth essence, or in vacuity – how shall the stars keep their places in the mighty swirl of these enormous spheres composed of a substance of which no one knows aught?". De Magnete, Peter Short, London, 1600 De Magnete, Wolfgang Lockmans, Stettin, 1628 De Magnete, 1633 De Magnete, 1892 De Magnete, En