Kevin Warwick FIET, FCGI, is a British engineer and Deputy Vice-Chancellor at Coventry University in the United Kingdom. He is known for his studies on direct interfaces between computer systems and the human nervous system, has done research concerning robotics. Kevin Warwick was born during 1954 in Keresley, Coventry in the United Kingdom and attended Lawrence Sheriff School in Rugby, Warwickshire where he was a contemporary with Arthur Bostrom, he quit school during 1970 for an apprenticeship with British Telecom, at the age of 16. During 1976 he was granted his first degree at Aston University, followed by a PhD degree and a research job at Imperial College London, he had positions at Somerville College, Newcastle University, University of Warwick and University of Reading before relocating to Coventry University during 2014. Warwick is a Chartered Engineer, a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology and a Fellow of the City and Guilds of London Institute, he is Visiting Professor at the Czech Technical University in Prague, the University of Strathclyde, Bournemouth University and the University of Reading and during 2004 was Senior Beckman Fellow at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, USA.
He is on the Advisory Boards of the Instinctive Computing Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University and the Centre for Intermedia, University of Exeter. By the age of 40 he had been awarded a DSc degree, a higher doctorate, by both Imperial College and by the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague for his research output in separate areas, he has received the IET Achievement Medal, the IET Mountbatten Medal and during 2011 the Ellison-Cliffe Medal from the Royal Society of Medicine. Warwick presented the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, entitled The Rise of Robots in the year 2000. Warwick performs research in artificial intelligence, biomedical engineering, control systems and robotics. Much of Warwick's early research was in the area of discrete time adaptive control, he introduced the first state space based self-tuning controller and unified discrete time state space representations of ARMA models. However he has contributed to mathematics, power engineering and manufacturing production machinery.
Warwick directed an Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council funded research project which investigated the use of machine learning and artificial intelligence techniques to suitably stimulate and translate patterns of electrical activity from living cultured neural networks to use the networks for the control of mobile robots. Hence a biological brain provided the behaviour process for each robot. Warwick helped develop genetic algorithm named Gershwyn, able to exhibit creativity in producing popular songs, learning what makes a successful record by listening to examples of previous successful songs. Gershwyn appeared on BBC's Tomorrow's World having been used to mix music for Manus, a group consisting of the four younger brothers of Elvis Costello. Another Warwick project involving artificial intelligence was Morgui; the head was used to investigate sensor data fusion. The head was X-rated by the University of Reading Research and Ethics Committee due to its image storage capabilities – anyone under the age of 18 who wished to interact with the robot had to obtain parental approval.
Warwick has outspoken opinions about the future with respect to artificial intelligence and its effect on the human species, argues that humanity will need to use technology to enhance itself to avoid being overtaken by machines. He states that many human limitations, such as sensorimotor abilities, can be outperformed by machines, is on record as saying that he wants to gain these abilities: "There is no way I want to stay a mere human." Warwick directed the University of Reading team in a number of European Community projects such as FIDIS researching the future of identity, ETHICBOTS and RoboLaw which considered the ethical aspects of robots and cyborgs. Warwick’s topics of interest have many ethical implications, some due to his Human enhancement experiments; the ethical dilemmas of his research are used as a case study for schoolchildren and science teachers by the Institute of Physics as a part of their formal Advanced level and GCSE studies. His work has been discussed by The President's Council on Bioethics and the President's Panel on Forward Engagements.
He is a member of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics Working Party on Novel Neurotechnologies. Along with Tipu Aziz and his team at John Radcliffe Hospital and John Stein of the University of Oxford, Warwick is helping to design the next generation of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Instead of stimulating the brain all the time, the goal is for the device to predict when stimulation is needed and to apply the signals prior to any tremors occurring to stop them before they start. Recent results have shown that it is possible to identify different types of Parkinson's Disease. Warwick has directed a number of projects intended to excite schoolchildren about the technology with which he is involved. During 2000 he received the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Millennium Award for his Schools Robot League. During 2007, 16 school teams were involved in designing a humanoid robot to dance and complete an assault course—- a final competition being performed at the Science Museum, London.
The project, entitled'Androids Advance' was funded by EPSRC and was presented as a news item by Chinese television. Warwick contributes to the public understanding of science by giving regular public lectures, participating with ra
Coventry Colliery was a coal mine located in the village of Keresley, close to the town of Bedworth, England. Closed in 1991, the site today has been redeveloped as a distribution park, owned by Prologis. Wyken Collieries Ltd had started to extract coal from coal seams within the Warwickshire Coalfield from 1862, across three mining developments in North Warwickshire: Wyken Colliery: served by the Oxford Canal, in 1862 the London and North Western Railway built a short connecting mineral railway to its own Coventry to Nuneaton Line; this mine was worked out by 1881 Alexandra Colliery: started at the same time as the Wyken, it was served from the same LNWR railway. Miners moved to this pit after the closure of the Wyken, but it too became exhausted by 1919 Craven Colliery: started after the other two mines, it was served by the same LNWR branchIn 1902, the company commenced trial excavations at Keresley north of Coventry, soon discovered a viable coal seam; the sinking of a new mine was sanctioned by an Act of Parliament, but not started due to economic problems.
On 14 February 1911, the investors in the Wykens Collieries formed the new Warwickshire Coal Company Ltd, to take over the mines of the Wykens company and develop the coal seam at Keresley. The sinking of the shafts of the Coventry Colliery were begun immediately. By 1913, the shafts had reached below the geographical reach of the single 114 feet shaft of the Hawkesbury Junction steam engine pump house supplying water to both the Coventry and Oxford Canals. Built in 1821, it housed a Newcomen steam engine, brought from Griff Colliery, where it had worked for 100 years. Named Lady Godiva, it was decommissioned in 1913 but left in place, moved to the Dartmouth Museum in the 1960s; this geographic resource meant that the colliery had an immediate outlet for its pumped-out water ingress. With the twin shafts sunk to a depth of 720 yards, the mine began operating in 1917; the colliery had its own branch from the Coventry Canal, but in 1919 with the return of the men from the First World War, production increased.
A separate and new 2 miles private railway was constructed from the LNWR's Coventry to Nuneaton Line at Three Spires Junction. As a result of the mines expansion, the village of Keresley expanded. Modern new houses were built in the new expansion areas of Keresley Newlands and Keresley End, which included the inclusion of inside toilets and good sized gardens. In 1924 the mine company built a Social Club, operated by the Miners' Federation of Great Britain; the club closed in May 2012. In 1924 all shares in Warwickshire Coal Co Ltd were acquired by the Coltness Iron Company Ltd. With the closure due to complete workout in 1927 of the Craven Colliery, all miners were transferred to the Coventry Colliery. With significant contracts to supply coal to electricity generation stations in Birmingham and Coventry, including the Hams Hall power stations, the company hired in over 1,000 coal wagons. By 1939, the last year of full production before the Second World War, the colliery was producing over 1,000,000 long tons of coal per annum.
Nationalised on 1 January 1947, the colliery became part of the National Coal Board's Area 4. In the early 1960s, the NCB started a development of a smokeless coal plant, known as a Homefire Plant, on site; this came into production in 1967, resultantly in an NCB reorganisation the Coventry Colliery became part of the South Midlands Area. The colliery closed for redevelopment in October 1991, with the site handed over to the local authority in 1996; the Homefire Plant closed in 2000. The colliery had its own branch from the Coventry Canal, but the large amounts of spoil created, the reduction in shipping charges associated with building materials, necessitated the building of a temporary 2 miles private railway, which connected with the LNWR's Coventry to Nuneaton Line at Three Spires Junction near Foleshill. In 1919, with the return of the men from the First World War, production increased; the line was hence rebuilt as double track with extensive sidings adjacent to Three Spires Junction, formally used for the distribution of extracted coal.
On site the railway operated both 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in and 2 ft, the used for the distribution of spoil and goods onsite. The company bought its own locomotives to operate these private lines, bought new and secondhand from a range of manufacturers, including Andrew Barclay Sons & Co. North British Locomotive and Peckett and Sons. In the early 1960s, with the Beeching Axe making ex-British Railways steam engine types cheaply available, the NCB bought three ex-Great Western Railway 1500 Class 0-6-0 Pannier Tanks in 1962, No.s 1501, 1502 and 1509. All three were sent to Andrew Barclay Sons & Co. in Scotland for refurbishment before use on the colliery system, their being brought into operation resulted in all of the other existing standard gauge locomotives being scrapped onsite. In 1970, the NCB contracted in British Rail Class 08 diesel shunters; the three 1500 Class locomotives were sold into preservation at the Severn Valley Railway, with 1502 and 1509 providing a kit of spares to refurbish 1501, before they were scrapped at Cashmore's, Great Bridge in October 1970.
1501's boiler certificate expired in 2006, is undergoing overhaul on the SVR. The colliery company/NCB owned and operated locomotives were: After British Coal handed the site over to the local authority in 1996, the site was divided into three areas: The residual Homefire "smokeless coal" plant A country park, called Keresley Park; this houses the new Keresley Community Centre opened in 1999 A new distribution park, owned by PrologisAfter the closure of the Homef
Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner was a German British scholar of the history of art of architecture. Pevsner is best known for his monumental 46-volume series of county-by-county guides, The Buildings of England simply referred to by his surname. Nikolaus Pevsner was born in Leipzig, the son of Hugo Pevsner, a Russian-Jewish fur merchant, his wife, Anna, he attended St. Thomas School and went on to study at several universities, Munich and Frankfurt am Main, before being awarded a doctorate by Leipzig in 1924 for a thesis on the Baroque architecture of Leipzig. In 1923, he married the daughter of distinguished Leipzig lawyer, Alfred Kurlbaum, he worked as an assistant keeper at the Dresden Gallery. He converted to Lutheranism early in life. During this period he became interested in establishing the supremacy of German modernist architecture after becoming aware of Le Corbusier's Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau at the Paris Exhibition of 1925. In 1928 he contributed the volume on Italian baroque painting to the Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft, a multi-volume series providing an overview of the history of European art.
He taught at the University of Göttingen, offering a specialist course on English art and architecture. According to biographer Stephen Games, Pevsner welcomed many of the economic and cultural policies of the early Hitler regime. However, due to Nazi race laws he was forced to resign his lectureship in 1933; that year Pevsner moved to England, settling in Hampstead, where poet Geoffrey Grigson was his neighbour in Wildwood Terrace. Pevsner's first post was an 18-month research fellowship at the University of Birmingham, found for him by friends in Birmingham and funded by the Academic Assistance Council. A study of the role of the designer in the industrial process, the research produced a critical account of design standards in Britain which he published as An Enquiry into Industrial Art in England, he was subsequently employed as a buyer of modern textiles and ceramics for the Gordon Russell furniture showrooms in London. By this time Pevsner had completed Pioneers of the Modern Movement: from William Morris to Walter Gropius, his influential pre-history of what he saw as Walter Gropius's dominance of contemporary design.
Pioneers ardently championed Gropius's first two buildings on the grounds that they summed up all the essential goals of 20th-century architecture. In spite of that, the book remains an important point of reference in the teaching of the history of modern design, helped lay the foundation of Pevsner's career in England as an architectural historian. Since its first publication by Faber & Faber in 1936, it has gone through several editions and been translated into many languages; the English-language edition has been renamed Pioneers of Modern Design. Pevsner was "more German than the Germans" to the extent that he supported "Goebbels in his drive for'pure' non-decadent German art", he was reported as saying of the Nazis: "I want this movement to succeed. There is no alternative but chaos.... There are things worse than Hitlerism." Nonetheless, he was included in the Nazi Black Book as hostile to the Hitler regime. In 1940, Pevsner was taken to the internment camp at Liverpool, as an enemy alien.
Geoffrey Grigson wrote in his Recollections: "When at last two hard-faced Bow Street runners arrived in the early hours of the morning to take... I managed, clutching my pyjama trousers, to catch them up with the best parting present I could think of, an elegant little edition, a new edition, of Shakespeare's Sonnets." Pevsner was released after three months on the intervention of, among others, Frank Pick Director-General of the Ministry of Information. He spent some time in the months after the Blitz clearing bomb debris, wrote reviews and art criticism for the Ministry of Information's Die Zeitung, an anti-Nazi publication for Germans living in England, he completed for Penguin Books the Pelican paperback An Outline of European Architecture, which he had begun to develop while in internment. Outline would go into seven editions, be translated into 16 languages, sell more than half a million copies. In 1942, Pevsner secured two regular positions. From 1936 onwards he had been a frequent contributor to the Architectural Review and from 1943 to 1945 he stood in as its acting editor while the regular editor J. M. Richards was on active service.
Under the AR's influence, Pevsner's approach to modern architecture became more complex and more moderate. Early signs of a lifelong interest in Victorian architecture influenced by the Architectural Review, appeared in a series written under the pseudonym of "Peter F. R. Donner": Pevsner's "Treasure Hunts" guided readers down selected London streets, pointing out architectural treasures of the 19th century, he was closely involved with the Review's proprietor, H. de C. Hastings, in evolving the magazine's theories on picturesque planning. In 1942, Pevsner was appointed a part-time lecturer at Birkbeck College, London, he lectured at Cambridge University for 30 years, having been Slade professor there for a record six years from 1949 to 1955, would become the Slade professorship at Oxford in 1968. Framing all this was his career as a writer and editor. After moving to England, Pevsn
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree. Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most grown species in the genus Malus; the tree originated in Central Asia, where Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse and European Christian traditions. Apple trees are large. Apple cultivars are propagated by grafting onto rootstocks, which control the size of the resulting tree. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and use, including cooking, eating raw and cider production. Trees and fruit are prone to a number of fungal and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means. In 2010, the fruit's genome was sequenced as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.
Worldwide production of apples in 2017 was 83.1 million tonnes, with China accounting for 49.8% of the total. The apple is a deciduous tree standing 6 to 15 ft tall in cultivation and up to 30 ft in the wild; when cultivated, the size and branch density are determined by rootstock selection and trimming method. The leaves are alternately arranged dark green-colored simple ovals with serrated margins and downy undersides. Blossoms are produced in spring with the budding of the leaves and are produced on spurs and some long shoots; the 3 to 4 cm flowers are white with a pink tinge that fades, five petaled, with an inflorescence consisting of a cyme with 4–6 flowers. The central flower of the inflorescence is called the "king bloom"; the fruit matures in late summer or autumn, cultivars exist in a wide range of sizes. Commercial growers aim to produce an apple, 2 3⁄4 to 3 1⁄4 in in diameter, due to market preference; some consumers those in Japan, prefer a larger apple, while apples below 2 1⁄4 in are used for making juice and have little fresh market value.
The skin of ripe apples is red, green, pink, or russetted, though many bi- or tri-colored cultivars may be found. The skin may be wholly or russeted i.e. rough and brown. The skin is covered in a protective layer of epicuticular wax; the exocarp is pale yellowish-white, though pink or yellow exocarps occur. The original wild ancestor of Malus pumila was Malus sieversii, found growing wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Xinjiang, China. Cultivation of the species, most beginning on the forested flanks of the Tian Shan mountains, progressed over a long period of time and permitted secondary introgression of genes from other species into the open-pollinated seeds. Significant exchange with Malus sylvestris, the crabapple, resulted in current populations of apples being more related to crabapples than to the more morphologically similar progenitor Malus sieversii. In strains without recent admixture the contribution of the latter predominates. In 2010, an Italian-led consortium announced they had sequenced the complete genome of the apple in collaboration with horticultural genomicists at Washington State University, using'Golden Delicious'.
It had about 57,000 genes, the highest number of any plant genome studied to date and more genes than the human genome. This new understanding of the apple genome will help scientists identify genes and gene variants that contribute to resistance to disease and drought, other desirable characteristics. Understanding the genes behind these characteristics will help scientists perform more knowledgeable selective breeding; the genome sequence provided proof that Malus sieversii was the wild ancestor of the domestic apple—an issue, long-debated in the scientific community. The center of diversity of the genus Malus is in eastern present-day Turkey; the apple tree may have been the earliest tree that humans cultivated, growers have improved its fruits through selection over thousands of years. Alexander the Great is credited with finding dwarfed apples in Kazakhstan in 328 BCE. Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia.
Of the many Old World plants that the Spanish introduced to Chiloé Archipelago in the 16th century, apple trees became well adapted. Apples were introduced to North America by colonists in the 17th century, the first apple orchard on the North American continent was planted in Boston by Reverend William Blaxton in 1625; the only apples native to North America are crab apples, which were once called "common apples". Apple cultivars brought as seed from Europe were spread along Native American trade routes, as well as being cultivated on colonial farms. An 1845 United States apples nursery catalogue sold 350 of the "best" cultivars, showing the proliferation of new North American cultivars by the early 19th century. In the 20th century, irrigation projects in Eastern Washington began and allowed the development of the multibillion-dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading product; until the 20th century, farmers stored apples in frostproof cellars during the winter for their own use or for sale.
Improved transportation of fresh apples by train and road replaced the necessity for storage. Controlled atmosphere facilities are used to keep apples fresh year-round. Controlled atmosphere facilit
English Gothic architecture
English Gothic is an architectural style originating in France, before flourishing in England from about 1180 until about 1520. As with the Gothic architecture of other parts of Europe, English Gothic is defined by its pointed arches, vaulted roofs, large windows, spires; the Gothic style was introduced from France, where the various elements had first been used together within a single building at the choir of the Basilique Saint-Denis north of Paris, built by the Abbot Suger and dedicated on 11 June 1144. The earliest large-scale applications of Gothic architecture in England are at Canterbury Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. Many features of Gothic architecture had evolved from Romanesque architecture; this evolution can be seen most at the Norman Durham Cathedral, which has the earliest pointed ribbed high vault known. English Gothic was to develop along lines that sometimes paralleled and sometimes diverged from those of continental Europe. Historians traditionally divide English Gothic into a number of different periods, which may be further subdivided to define different styles.
Gothic architecture continued to flourish in England for a hundred years after the precepts of Renaissance architecture were formalised in Florence in the early 15th century. The Gothic style gave way to the Renaissance in the 16th and 17th centuries, but was revived in the late 18th century as an academic style and had great popularity as Gothic Revival architecture throughout the 19th century. Many of the largest and finest works of English architecture, notably the medieval cathedrals of England, are built in the Gothic style. So are castles, great houses and many smaller unpretentious secular buildings, including almshouses and trade halls. Another important group of Gothic buildings in England are the parish churches, like the medieval cathedrals, are of earlier, Norman foundation; the designation of styles in English Gothic architecture follow conventional labels given them by the antiquary Thomas Rickman, who coined the terms in his Attempt to Discriminate the Style of Architecture in England.
Historians sometimes refer to the styles as "periods", e.g. "Perpendicular period" in much the same way as an historical era may be referred to as the "Tudor period". The various styles are seen at their most developed in the cathedrals, abbey churches and collegiate buildings, it is, however, a distinctive characteristic of the cathedrals of England that all but one of them, Salisbury Cathedral, show great stylistic diversity and have building dates that range over 400 years. Early English Decorated Perpendicular The Early English Period of English Gothic lasted from the late 12th century until midway through the 13th century, according to most modern scholars, such as Nikolaus Pevsner. According to the originator of the term in 1817, Thomas Rickman, the period ran from 1189 to 1307. In the late 12th century, the Early English Gothic style superseded the Romanesque or Norman style. During the late 13th century, it developed into the Decorated Gothic style, which lasted until the mid-14th century.
With all of these early architectural styles, there is a gradual overlap between the periods. As fashions changed, new elements were used alongside older ones in large buildings such as churches and cathedrals, which were constructed over long periods of time, it is customary, therefore, to recognise a transitional phase between the Romanesque and Early English periods from the middle of the 12th century. Although known as Early English, this new Gothic style had originated in the area around Paris before spreading to England. There it was first known as "the French style", it was first used in the choir or "quire" of the abbey church of St Denis, dedicated in June 1144. Before that, some features had been included in Durham Cathedral, showing a combination of Romanesque and proto-Gothic styles. By 1175, with the completion of the Choir at Canterbury Cathedral by William of Sens, the style was established in England; the most significant and characteristic development of the Early English period was the pointed arch known as the lancet.
Pointed arches were used universally, not only in arches of wide span such as those of the nave arcade, but for doorways and lancet windows. Romanesque builders used round arches, although they had occasionally employed pointed ones, notably at Durham Cathedral, where they are used for structural purposes in the Nave aisles. Compared with the rounded Romanesque style, the pointed arch of the Early English Gothic looks more refined, it allows for much greater variation in proportions, whereas the strength of round arches depends on semicircular form. Through the use of the pointed arch, architects could design less massive walls and provide larger window openings that were grouped more together, so they could achieve a more open and graceful building; the high walls and vaulted stone roofs were supported by flying buttresses: half arches which transmit the outward thrust of the superstructure to supports or buttresses visible on the exterior of the building. The barrel vaults and groin vaults characteristic of Romanesque building were replaced by rib vaults, which made possible a wider range of proportions between height
A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or, designed to hold bells if it has none. Such a tower serves as part of a church, will contain church bells, but there are many secular bell towers part of a municipal building, an educational establishment, or a tower built to house a carillon. Church bell towers incorporate clocks, secular towers do, as a public service; the Italian term campanile, deriving from the word campana meaning "bell", is synonymous with bell tower. A bell tower may in some traditions be called a belfry, though this term may refer to the substructure that houses the bells and the ringers rather than the complete tower; the tallest free-standing bell tower in the world, 113.2 metres high, is the Mortegliano Bell Tower, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, Italy. Bells are rung from a tower to enable them to be heard at a distance. Church bells can signify the time for worshippers to go to church for a communal service, can be an indication of a time to pray, without worshippers coming to the church.
They are rung on special occasions such as a wedding, or a funeral service. In some religious traditions they are used within the liturgy of the church service to signify to people that a particular part of the service has been reached. A bell tower may have a collection of bells which are tuned to a common scale, they may be stationary and chimed, rung randomly by swinging through a small arc, or swung through a full circle to enable the high degree of control of English change ringing. They may house a carillon or chimes, in which the bells are sounded by hammers connected via cables to a keyboard; these can be found in many churches and secular buildings in Europe and America including college and university campuses. A variety of electronic devices exist to simulate the sound of bells, but any substantial tower in which a considerable sum of money has been invested will have a real set of bells; some churches have an exconjuratory in the bell tower, a space where ceremonies were conducted to ward off weather-related calamities, like storms and excessive rain.
The main bell tower of the Cathedral of Murcia has four. In Christianity, many Anglican and Lutheran churches ring their bells from belltowers three times a day, at 6 a.m. noon, 6 p.m. summoning the Christian faithful to recite the Lord’s Prayer, or the Angelus, a prayer recited in honour of the Incarnation of God. In addition, most Christian denominations ring church bells to call the faithful to worship, signalling the start of a mass or service of worship. In many historic Christian churches, church bells are rung during the processions of Candlemas and Palm Sunday; the Christian tradition of the ringing of church bells from a belltower is analogous to Islamic tradition of the adhan from a minaret. Old bell towers which are no longer used for their original purpose may be kept for their historic or architectural value, though in countries with a strong campanological tradition they continue to have the bells rung. In AD 400, Paulinus of Nola introduced church bells into the Christian Church.
By the 11th century, bells housed in belltowers became commonplace. Historic bell towers exist throughout Europe; the Irish round towers are thought to have functioned in part as bell towers. Famous medieval European examples include Bruges, Ghent; the most famous European free-standing bell tower, however, is the so-called "Leaning Tower of Pisa", the campanile of the Duomo di Pisa in Pisa, Italy. In 1999 thirty-two Belgian belfries were added to the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites. In 2005 this list was extended with one Belgian and twenty-three Northern French belfries and is since known as Belfries of Belgium and France. Most of these were attached to civil buildings city halls, as symbols of the greater power the cities in the region got in the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages, cities sometimes kept their important documents in belfries. Not all are on a large scale. Archaic wooden bell towers survive adjoining churches in Lithuania and as well as in some parts of Poland. In Orthodox Eastern Europe bell ringing have a strong cultural significance, churches were constructed with bell towers.
Bell towers are common in the countries of related cultures. They may appear both as part of a temple complex and as an independent civic building paired with a drum tower, as well as in local church buildings. Among the best known examples are the Bell Tower of Beijing and the Bell Tower of Xi'an. Bell towers and campaniles by date Bell-gable Clock tower Conjuratory Octagon on cube Zvonnitsa Belfries of Belgium and France, UNESCO World Heritage Centre entry Les Beffrois - France, Pays-Bas, blog describing several bell towers All Saints Bell Tower
Benjamin Ferrey, FSA, FRIBA was an English architect who worked in the Gothic Revival. Benjamin Ferrey was the youngest son of Benjamin Ferrey Snr, a draper who became Mayor of Christchurch, he was educated at Wimborne Grammar School. In 1836 Benjamin married Ann Lucas, they had two daughters and Annie, one son, Benjamin Edmund Ferrey. Benjamin Edmund became an architect, studying under his father and assisting in his work. After grammar school, Ferrey went to London to study under Augustus Charles Pugin and alongside Pugin's son Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin. In his early twenties Ferrey toured continental Europe studied further in the office of William Wilkins, he started his own architectural practice in 1834, in Great Russell Street, London. Some of the earliest work of his practice was in the design of the new seaside resort of Bournemouth; the business grew and was successful, with Ferrey designing and restoring or rebuilding many Church of England parish churches. Ferrey designed private houses and public buildings, including a number of Tudor Revival ones in the earlier part of his career.
Charles Eastlake in his History of the Gothic Revival described Ferrey as "one of the earliest and most zealous pioneers of the modern Gothic school" and said his work "possessed the rare charm of simplicity, without lacking interest". Ferrey was twice Vice-President of the Royal Institute of British Architects and in 1870 was awarded a Royal Gold Medal, he was Diocesan Architect to the Diocese of Bath and Wells from 1841 until his death, carrying out much of the restoration work on Wells Cathedral and the Bishop's Palace. He was appointed Honorary Secretary to the Architects' Committee for the Houses of Parliament. Tarrant Hinton, Dorset: Old Rectory, 1836 Westover, Hampshire: estate of villas, 1836 Royal Bath Hotel, Hampshire, 1837–38 St Thomas of Canterbury parish church, Compton Valence, Dorset: rebuilding of church, 1839–40 Dorset County Hospital, Dorset, 1839 onwards Clyffe House, Dorset, 1842 Parish church of St James, Somerset, 1842 Parish church of St Nicholas, Somerset, 1842 All Saints' parish church, Hampshire, 1843 All Saints' parish church, High East Street, Dorset, 1843–45 St James' parish church, Northumberland, 1843–46 St Nicholas' parish church, Wiltshire, 1844 St Mary's parish church, Winterborne Whitchurch, Dorset: rebuilt nave, added south aisle and south transept, 1844 St Thomas' parish church, Coventry, 1844–45 St Mary's parish church, Chilton Foliat, Wiltshire: restoration, 1845 Holy Trinity parish church, Oxfordshire: restored chancel, 1845 St Stephen's parish church, Hampshire, 1845 Christ Church parish church, Dorset, 1845–46 St Swithin's parish church, Berkshire, 1845–49: nave and upper part of bell-tower Holy Trinity parish church, Somerset, 1843–46 St Osmund's parish church, Dorset: reconstruction, 1846 St Barnabas' parish church, Hampshire, 1846 St Edmund's parish church, Somerset, 1846 St Mary's parish church, Berkshire, 1846 St Peter's parish church West Lydford, Somerset, 1846 Saints Peter and Paul chapel, Bishop's Palace, Oxfordshire, 1846 Market cross, Somerset, 1846 Christ Church, Somerset, 1847 Town Hall, Dorset, 1847–48 St Boniface' parish church, Isle of Wight, 1847–48 St Peter's College, Birmingham, 1847–52 St Barnabas' parish church, Bedfordshire, 1848 St John the Baptist parish church, Dorset, 1848 Holy Trinity parish church, Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, 1848 St Mary the Virgin parish church, Northumberland: restoration, 1848 Christchurch Priory, Hampshire: pulpitum, 1848 Stafford House, West Stafford, Dorset: west front, 1848–50 St Margaret's parish church, Oxfordshire: extended nave, added aisle and bell tower, 1848–54 Holy Trinity parish church, Penn Street, Buckinghamshire, 1849 St John the Evangelist parish church, Dorset, 1849 Holy Trinity parish church, Wood Green, Oxfordshire, 1849 St Peter's parish church, Berkshire, 1849 All Saints' parish church, Berkshire: restoration, 1849 All Saints' parish church, Oxfordshire: restoration, 1849 St Thomas' parish church, Buckinghamshire, 1849–52 Holy Trinity parish church, Berkshire, 1850 St Michael's parish church, Dorset: rebuilding of church and addition of spire, 1850 St Botolph's parish church, Oxfordshire: restoration, 1850 St Teilo's Church, Merthyr Mawr, 1851 St Laurence's parish church, Slough, Buckinghamshire: south aisle, 1852 St Mark's parish church, Buckinghamshire, 1852 St Mary's parish church, Oxfordshire: rebuilt tower, 1853 Holy Trinity parish church, Northamptonshire, 1853 St Paul's parish church, Banbury, Oxfordshire, 1853 Parish church of St Mary, Buckland St Mary, Somerset, 1853–63 Battleford Hall, Lincolnshire.
Old Rectory, 1854 St Mark's parish church, Worcestershire, 1854 All Saints parish church, Devon, 1854–56 Parish church of All Saints, Castle Cary, Somerset: rebuilding, 1855 Christ Church, Gwynedd, 1855. St Giles' parish church, Leicestershire, 1855 St Paul's parish church, Derbyshire, 1855–56 All Saints' parish church, Somerset, 1856 Chapels at Ocklynge cemetery, East Sussex, 1857 All Saints parish church, London, 1857–67 Christ Church, East Sussex, 1859 Grammar School, Northumberland, 1859 Chase Cliffe house, Cric