New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts and Lewis B. It houses one of the worlds largest collections of relating to the performing arts. It is one of the four centers of the New York Public Librarys Research library system. Originally the collections that formed The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts were housed in two buildings, a separate center to house performing arts was first proposed by Carleton Sprague Smith in a 1932 report to the library administration, A Worthy Music Center for New York. There were attempts to create partnerships with Rockefeller Center, the Museum of Modern Art, during the late 1930s and early 1940s, the Music Division produced a program of concerts. These concerts were held in conjunction with the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Juilliard School. After Lincoln Center was incorporated in 1956, a mention of a possible library. It was envisioned that a library-museum would serve to interpret and illuminate the entire range of the performing arts, by December of that year, the library had become an accepted component of Lincoln Center planning and fundraising.
Recalling his earlier reports, Smith produced a new report arguing for a move to Lincoln Center, Library administration officially approved of the move in June 1959. The building housing the research collections and the Vivian Beaumont Theater was the third building to be opened at Lincoln Center. Original plans conceived the library as a building, but prohibitive costs necessitated a combination of the Library. As built, the Theater forms the core of the building, the 1st and 2nd floors occupying the southern and western sides. Noted modernist architect Gordon Bunshaft, of the firm of Skidmore and Merrill designed the interiors, the Claire Tow Theater was built on the roof of the Library and opened in June 2012. The third floor, housing the collections, opened to the public on July 19. The entire library was opened to the public on November 30,1965, at its opening, it was called Library and Museum of the Performing Arts. The Librarys museum component was named the Shelby Collum Davis Museum in honor of an investment banker who contributed $1 million to Lincoln Center for museum purposes.
At its opening, the Librarys main lobby at the Lincoln Center Plaza entrance housed a bookstore, a viewing area. The second floor included a childrens performing arts collection as well as the Hecksher Oval, prior to the 2001 renovation, the childrens collection was relocated to the Riverside Branch
Robert Weede /ˈwiːdi/ was an American operatic baritone. Born Robert Wiedefeld in Baltimore, Weede studied voice at the Eastman School of Music and he made his Metropolitan Opera debut in 1937, as Tonio in Pagliacci. His other roles at the Metropolitan included the part in Rigoletto, Manfredo, Shaklovity. It was with Rigoletto that he made his debuts in Chicago, San Francisco, at the New York City Opera, Weede sang in Pagliacci and in the world premiere of William Grant Stills Troubled Island, opposite Marie Powers, Marguerite Piazza and Robert McFerrin. In Mexico City, the baritone appeared with Maria Callas in 1950, in Aïda, later, he sang again with Callas in Chicago, in Il trovatore and Madama Butterfly. In 1956, he scored a success on Broadway as Tony Esposito in the original production of Frank Loessers The Most Happy Fella. He was seen on Broadway in Milk and Honey and Cry for Us All, in 2006, Lebendige Vergangenheit published a Compact Disc of excerpts from his Bizet and Verdi recordings, as well as various live performances from 1948 through 1954.
Weede often gave assistance to younger singers, especially John Alexander, Dominic Cossa, Mario Lanza, Jan Peerce and he died in Walnut Creek, California, in 1972. Spielman, The Stingiest Man In Town VAI The Metropolitan Opera Encyclopedia, edited by David Hamilton, Simon, ISBN 0-671-61732-X Robert Weede at the Internet Broadway Database Robert Weede in an excerpt from Rigoletto on YouTube
Lillian Florence Lilly Hellman was an American dramatist and screenwriter known for her success as a playwright on Broadway, as well as her left-wing sympathies and political activism. She was blacklisted after her appearance before the House Committee on Un-American Activities at the height of the anti-communist campaigns of 1947–52, although she continued to work on Broadway in the 1950s, her blacklisting by the American film industry caused a drop in her income. Many praised Hellman for refusing to answer questions by HUAC, but others believed, despite her denial, that she had belonged to the Communist Party. As a playwright, Hellman had many successes on Broadway, including Watch on the Rhine, The Autumn Garden, Toys in the Attic, Another Part of the Forest, The Childrens Hour and The Little Foxes. She adapted her semi-autobiographical play The Little Foxes into a screenplay, Hellmans accuracy was challenged after she brought a libel suit against Mary McCarthy. In 1979, on the The Dick Cavett Show, McCarthy said that every word she writes is a lie, including and, during the libel suit, investigators found errors in Hellmans popular memoirs such as Pentimento.
They said that the Julia section of Pentimento, which had been the basis for the Oscar-winning 1977 movie of the name, was actually based on the life of Muriel Gardiner. Martha Gellhorn, Ernest Hemingways ex-wife, said that Hellmans remembrances of Hemingway, McCarthy and others accused Hellman of lying about her membership in the Communist Party and being an unrepentant Stalinist. Lillian Florence Hellman was born in New Orleans, into a Jewish family and her mother was Julia Newhouse of Demopolis and her father was Max Hellman, a New Orleans shoe salesman. Julia Newhouses parents were Sophie Marx, from a banking family, and Leonard Newhouse. During most of her childhood she spent half of year in New Orleans, in a boarding home run by her aunts. She studied for two years at New York University and took courses at Columbia University. On December 31,1925, Hellman married Arthur Kober, a playwright and press agent, in 1929, she traveled around Europe for a time and settled in Bonn to continue her education.
Years she wrote, Then for the first time in my life I thought about being a Jew, beginning in 1930, for about a year she earned $50 a week as a reader for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in Hollywood, writing summaries of novels and periodical literature for potential screenplays. Although she found the job rather dull, it opened doors for her to meet a greater range of creative people while getting involved in more political. While there she met and fell in love with mystery writer Dashiell Hammett and she divorced Kober and returned to New York City in 1932. When she met Hammett in a Hollywood restaurant, she was 24 and they maintained their relationship off and on until his death in January 1961. Hellmans drama The Childrens Hour premiered on Broadway on November 24,1934 and it depicts a false accusation of lesbianism by a schoolgirl against two of her teachers
Equus is a play by Peter Shaffer written in 1973, telling the story of a psychiatrist who attempts to treat a young man who has a pathological religious fascination with horses. Shaffer was inspired to write Equus when he heard of a crime involving a 17-year-old who blinded six horses in a town near Suffolk. He set out to construct a fictional account of what might have caused the incident, the original stage production ran at the National Theatre in London between 1973 and 1975, directed by John Dexter. Alec McCowen played Dysart, and Peter Firth played Alan Strang, came the Broadway productions that starred Anthony Hopkins as Dysart and from the London production, Peter Firth as Alan. When Firth left for Broadway, Dai Bradley took over the role of Alan in the London production, tom Hulce replaced Firth during the Broadway run. The Broadway production ran for 1,209 performances, marian Seldes appeared in every single performance of the Broadway run, first in the role of Hesther and as Dora.
Shaffer adapted his play for a 1977 film of the same name, numerous other issues inform the narrative. Most important are religious and ritual sacrifice themes, and the manner in which character Alan Strang constructs a personal theology involving the horses, Alan sees the horses as representative of God and confuses his adoration of his God with sexual attraction. Also important is Shaffers examination of the conflict between values and satisfaction and societal mores and institutions. In reference to the classical structure and characterisation. Martin Dysart is a psychiatrist in a mental hospital and he begins with a monologue in which he outlines the case of 17-year-old Alan Strang, who blinded six horses. He divulges his feeling that his occupation is not all that he wishes it to be and his feelings of dissatisfaction and he comments that Alan Strangs crime was extreme but adds that just such extremity is needed to break free from the chains of existence. A court magistrate, Hesther Saloman, visits Dysart, believing that he has the skills to help Alan come to terms with what he did.
At the hospital, Dysart has a deal of difficulty making any kind of headway with Alan. Dysart reveals a dream he has had, in a Grecian/Homeric setting, Dysart slices open the viscera of hundreds of children, and pulls out their entrails. He becomes disgusted with what he is doing, but desiring to look professional to the other officials and he learns that, from an early age, Alan has been receiving conflicting viewpoints on religion from his parents. Alans mother, Dora, is a devout Christian who has read to him daily from the Bible and this practice has antagonized Alans father Frank, a non-believer. Slowly, Dysart makes contact with Alan by playing a game each of them asks a question
The Hot l Baltimore
The Hot l Baltimore is a play by Lanford Wilson. Set in the lobby of the Hotel Baltimore, it focuses on the residents of the property who are faced with eviction when the structure is condemned. The play draws its title from the neon marquee with a burned-out letter e that was never replaced. The Hot I Baltimore was produced by the Circle Repertory Company on February 4,1973 and it closed on January 4,1976, after 1166 performances. Directed by Marshall W. Mason, the cast included Trish Hawkins, Conchata Ferrell, Judd Hirsch, Jonathan Hogan and Mari Gorman. The play won the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best American Play of 1972–73, the Obie Award, the John Gassner Playwriting Award, the play was produced by the Steppenwolf Theatre Company in March to May 2011, directed by Tina Landau. In 1975, producer Norman Lear adapted the play for a half-hour ABC sitcom, the cast included Conchata Ferrell, James Cromwell, Richard Masur, Al Freeman, Jr. Gloria LeRoy, Jeannie Linero, and Charlotte Rae.
The network supported the show and gave it a publicity campaign. In 1976, a version with the title Hôtel Baltimore was produced for television in France, the series, which featured Dora Doll, lasted for only a single season. Mel Gussow, in his review for The New York Times wrote that Wilson writes with understanding, there are moments in this play. When Wilson - with his passion for idiosyncratic characters, atmospheric details and invented homilies - reminds me of William Saroyan, there is little plot or action but there is emotion. 1973 Drama Critics Circle Award for Best American Play 1973 Obie Award for Best American Play The Hot l Baltimore at the Internet off-Broadway Database The Hot l Baltimore at ThatTheatreSite
Thomas Clayton Wolfe was an American novelist of the early twentieth century. Wolfe wrote four novels, plus many short stories, dramatic works. He is known for mixing highly original, rhapsodic and he became widely known during his own lifetime. After Wolfes death, his contemporary William Faulkner said that Wolfe may have had the best talent of their generation, Wolfes influence extends to the writings of beat generation writer Jack Kerouac, and of authors Ray Bradbury and Philip Roth, among others. He remains an important writer in modern American literature, as one of the first masters of autobiographical fiction, Wolfe was born in Asheville, North Carolina, the youngest of eight children of William Oliver Wolfe and Julia Elizabeth Westall. His siblings were sister Leslie E. Wolfe, Effie Nelson Wolfe, Frank Cecil Wolfe, Mabel Elizabeth Wolfe, Grover Cleveland Wolfe, Benjamin Harrison Wolfe, six of the children lived to adulthood. The Wolfes lived at 92 Woodfin Street, where Tom was born and his father, a successful stone carver, ran a gravestone business.
His mother took in boarders and was active in acquiring real estate, in 1904, she opened a boarding house in St. Louis, for the Worlds Fair. While the family was in St. Louis, 12-year-old Grover died of typhoid fever, Wolfe lived in the boarding house on Spruce Street until he went to college in 1916. It is now the Thomas Wolfe Memorial, Wolfe was closest to his brother Ben, whose early death at age 26 is chronicled in Look Homeward, Angel. Julia Wolfe bought and sold many properties, eventually becoming a real estate speculator. Wolfe began to study at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill when he was 15 years old, aspiring to be a playwright, in 1919 Wolfe enrolled in a playwriting course. His one-act play, The Return of Buck Gavin, was performed by the newly formed Carolina Playmakers, composed of classmates in Frederick Kochs playwriting class, with Wolfe acting the title role. He edited UNCs student newspaper The Daily Tar Heel and won the Worth Prize for Philosophy for an essay titled The Crisis in Industry, another of his plays, The Third Night, was performed by the Playmakers in December 1919.
Wolfe was inducted into the Golden Fleece honor society, Wolfe graduated from UNC with a B. A. in June 1920. In September of that year, he entered the Graduate School for Arts and Sciences at Harvard University, two versions of his play The Mountains were performed by Bakers 47 Workshop in 1921. In 1922, Wolfe received his masters degree from Harvard and his father died in Asheville in June of that year, an event that would strongly influence his writing. Wolfe continued to study for year with Baker in the 47 Workshop
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Another Part of the Forest
For the article about the 1948 film adaptation of this play, see Another Part of the Forest. Another Part of the Forest is a 1946 play by Lillian Hellman, set in the fictional town of Bowden, Alabama, in June 1880, the plot focuses on the wealthy and innately evil Hubbard family and their rise to prominence. Patriarch Marcus Hubbard was born into poverty and toiled at menial labor while teaching himself Greek philosophy and he ultimately made his fortune by exploiting his fellow Southerners during the American Civil War. The only people in the household with any sense of morality are the servants, Hellman herself directed the Broadway production that opened on November 20,1946 at the Fulton Theatre, where it ran for 182 performances. Incidental music was composed by Marc Blitzstein, the scenic and lighting design were by Jo Mielziner, margaret Phillips won the Clarence Derwent Award for Most Promising Female. Vladimir Pozner adapted Hellmans play for a 1948 feature film directed by Michael Gordon, Another Part of the Forest at the Internet Broadway Database Forest and its connections to Demopolis, Alabama
The Music Man
The Music Man is a musical with book and lyrics by Meredith Willson, based on a story by Willson and Franklin Lacey. But Harold is no musician and plans to skip town without giving any music lessons, prim librarian and piano teacher Marian sees through him, but when Harold helps her younger brother overcome his lisp and social awkwardness, Marian begins to fall in love. Harold risks being caught to win her, in 1957, the show became a hit on Broadway, winning five Tony Awards, including Best Musical, and running for 1,375 performances. The cast album won the first Grammy Award for Best Musical Theater Album, the shows success led to revivals, including a long-running 2000 Broadway revival, a popular 1962 film adaptation and a 2003 television adaptation. It is frequently produced by professional and amateur theater companies. Meredith Willson was inspired by his boyhood in Mason City, Iowa, to write and compose his first musical, Willson began developing this theme in his 1948 memoir, And There I Stood With My Piccolo.
He first approached producers Cy Feuer and Ernest Martin for a television special, after these and other unsuccessful attempts, Willson invited Franklin Lacey to help him edit and simplify the libretto. At this time, Willson considered eliminating a long piece of dialogue about the serious trouble facing River City parents, Willson realized it sounded like a lyric, and transformed it into the song Ya Got Trouble. Willson wrote about his trials and tribulations in getting the show to Broadway in his book But He Doesnt Know The Territory. The character Marian Paroo was inspired by Marian Seeley of Provo, who met Willson during World War II, when Seeley was a medical records librarian. Robert Preston claimed that he got the role of Harold Hill despite his limited singing range because, the producers felt it would be the most difficult song to sing, but with his acting background, it was the easiest for Preston. It opened on December 19,1957 at the Majestic Theatre and it remained at the Majestic for nearly three years before transferring to The Broadway Theatre to complete its 1, 375-performance run on April 15,1961.
Eddie Albert and Bert Parks each replaced Preston as Hill in the run, the musical won five Tony Awards, including Best Musical, winning in the same year that West Side Story was nominated for the award. Preston and Burns won, the first US national tour opened in 1958. The first UK production opened at Bristol Hippodrome, transferring to Londons West End at the Adelphi Theatre on March 16,1961, starring Van Johnson, Patricia Lambert, denier Warren, Ruth Kettlewell and Dennis Waterman. It ran for 395 performances at the Adelphi, a two-week revival at New York City Center ran in June 1965, directed by Gus Schirmer, Jr. and starring Bert Parks as Harold Hill. Doro Merande and Sandy Duncan played, respectively and Zaneeta Shinn, a three-week revival and choreographed by Michael Kidd, ran in June 1980, at the New York City Center. The cast included Dick Van Dyke as Hill, Meg Bussert as Marian, Christian Slater as Winthrop, Carol Arthur as Mrs. Paroo, in 1987, a Chinese translation of the musical was staged at Beijings Central Opera Theater
The Children's Hour (play)
The Childrens Hour is a 1934 American play by Lillian Hellman. It is a set in an all-girls boarding school run by two women, Karen Wright and Martha Dobie. An angry student, Mary Tilford, runs away from the school, the accusation proceeds to destroy the womens careers and lives. The play was first staged on Broadway at the Maxine Elliott Theatre in 1934, in 1936 it was presented in Paris and at Londons Gate Theatre Studio. Two women, Karen Wright and Martha Dobie, have worked hard to build a boarding school in a refurbished farmhouse. They run and teach the school with the somewhat unwelcome help of Lily Mortar, one pupil, Mary Tilford, is mischievous and untruthful, and often leads the other girls into trouble. Lily becomes angry and starts shouting about how, whenever Joe is around, Martha becomes irritable and jealous, two of Marys friends, listening at the door trying to discover Marys condition, overhear Lilys outburst. Mary is found healthy and is sent to her room and squeezes the information out of the girls.
Mary plans to ask her grandmother, Amelia Tilford—who not only indulges her but who helped Karen, when Amelia refuses, Mary cleverly twists what the girls had overheard. With the help of several well-crafted lies and a book that the girls have been reading in secret, Mary convinces her grandmother that Karen, on hearing this, Amelia Tilford begins contacting the parents of Marys classmates. Shortly, most of Marys friends have been pulled out of school, Rosalie Wells, a student whose mother is abroad, stays with Mary. On discovering that Rosalie is vulnerable, Mary blackmails her into corroborating everything she says, when Karen and Martha realize why all their pupils were pulled out of their school in a single night, they go to Mrs. Tilfords residence to confront her. Amelia tells Mary to repeat her story, when Karen points out an inconsistency, Mary pretends to have been covering for Rosalie, who reluctantly corroborates Marys story for fear of being exposed herself. Resolving to take Amelia to court and Karen leave, seven months later, after Martha and Karen have lost the case, everyone still believes that they were lovers.
When Lily returns from abroad to take care of her niece, Joe, who has remained loyal throughout, has found a job in a distant location. He tries to convince Karen and Martha to come with him, at Karens insistence, Joe reluctantly asks her whether she and Martha had ever been lovers. When Karen says that they were not, he believes her. Nevertheless, Karen decides that she and Joe must part and she explains that things can never be the same between them after all that they have been through
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a Census-estimated 2,636,735 residents in 2015. It borders the borough of Queens at the end of Long Island. Today, if New York City dissolved, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous city in the U. S. behind Los Angeles, the borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves, Brooklyns official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght which translates from early modern Dutch as Unity makes strength. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms. The history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years, the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North Americas first tidal mill. It was built by the Dutch, and the foundation can be seen today, the area was not formally settled as a town. Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furmans early compilation, what is today Brooklyn left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War.
The English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1,1683 and this tract of land was recognized as a political entity for the first time, and the municipal groundwork was laid for a expansive idea of Brooklyn identity. On August 27,1776 was fought the Battle of Long Island, the first major engagement fought in the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared, and the largest of the entire conflict. British troops forced Continental Army troops under George Washington off the heights near the sites of Green-Wood Cemetery, Prospect Park. The fortified American positions at Brooklyn Heights consequently became untenable and were evacuated a few days later, One result of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was the evacuation of the British from New York City, celebrated by residents into the 20th century. The New York Navy Yard operated in Wallabout Bay for the entire 19th century, the first center of urbanization sprang up in the Town of Brooklyn, directly across from Lower Manhattan, which saw the incorporation of the Village of Brooklyn in 1817.
Reliable steam ferry service across the East River to Fulton Landing converted Brooklyn Heights into a town for Wall Street. Ferry Road to Jamaica Pass became Fulton Street to East New York and Village were combined to form the first, kernel incarnation of the City of Brooklyn in 1834. Industrial deconcentration in mid-century was bringing shipbuilding and other manufacturing to the part of the county. Each of the two cities and six towns in Kings County remained independent municipalities, and purposely created non-aligning street grids with different naming systems and it became the most popular and highest circulation afternoon paper in America. The publisher changed to L. Van Anden on April 19,1842, on May 14,1849 the name was shortened to The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, on September 5,1938 it was further shortened to Brooklyn Eagle