Spirit of St. Louis
The Spirit of St. Claude Ryan, in 1926. The Spirit is now on permanent display in the main entryways Milestones of Flight gallery at the Smithsonian Institutions National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D. C. It is known, that Hawley Bowlus was the manager who oversaw construction of the Ryan NYP. Hall and Ryan Airlines staff worked closely with Lindbergh to design, although what was actually paid to Ryan Airlines for the project is not clear, Mahoney offered to do it at cost. Mahoney was away from the factory, but Ryan answered, Can build plane similar M-1, Lindbergh wired back that due to competition, delivery in less than three months was essential. Many years later, Jon van der Linde, chief mechanic of Ryan Airlines, But nothing fazed B. F. Mahoney, Mahoney telegraphed Lindbergh back the same day, Can complete in two months. Lindbergh arrived in San Diego on February 23 and toured the factory with Mahoney meeting factory manager, chief engineer Donald Hall, and sales manager A. J. After further discussions between Mahoney and Lindbergh, Mahoney offered to build the Spirit for $10,580, Lindbergh himself contributed $2,000 toward the cost of the Spirit that he had saved from his earnings as an Air Mail pilot for Robertson Aircraft Corporation.
Lindbergh was convinced, I believe in Halls ability, I like Mahoneys enthusiasm, I have confidence in the character of the workmen Ive met. He went to the airfield to familiarize himself with a Ryan aircraft, either an M-1 or an M-2, telegraphed his St. Louis backers and recommended the deal, Mahoney lived up to his commitment. Working exclusively on the aircraft and closely with Lindbergh, the completed the Spirit of St. Louis 60 days after Lindbergh arrived in San Diego. Powered by a Wright Whirlwind J-5C 223-hp radial engine, it had a 14 m wingspan,3 m longer than the M-1, Lindbergh believed that multiple engines resulted in a greater risk of failure while a single engine design would give him greater range. To increase fuel efficiency, the Spirit of St. Louis was one of the most advanced, Lindbergh believed that a flight made in a single-seat monoplane designed around the dependable Wright J-5C Whirlwind radial engine provided the best chance of success. The Ryan NYP had a fuel capacity of 450 U. S. gallons or 2,710 pounds of gasoline.
The fuel was stored in five tanks, a forward tank, the main. At Lindberghs request, the main and forward fuel tanks were placed in the forward section of the fuselage, in front of the pilot. This arrangement improved the center of gravity and reduced the risk of the pilot being crushed to death between the tank and the engine in the event of a crash. This design decision meant that there could be no front windshield, and this did not concern Lindbergh as he was used to flying in the rear cockpit of mail planes with mail bags in the front
The Pitts Special is a series of light aerobatic biplanes designed by Curtis Pitts. It has accumulated many competition wins since its first flight in 1944, the Pitts biplanes dominated world aerobatic competition in the 1960s and 1970s and, even today, remain a potent competition aircraft in the lower categories. Curtis Pitts began the design of a single-seat aerobatic biplane in 1943–1944, the design has been refined continuously since the prototypes first flight in September 1944, the current Pitts S2 still remains quite close to the original in concept and in design. Several of the aircraft that Curtis Pitts built had a picture of a skunk on them and were called Stinkers, after she bought it, aerobatic performer Betty Skelton called the second aircraft that Curtis built, Lil Stinker. The prototype S-2, which was the first two-seat Pitts, was Big Stinker, the prototype Model 11 was Super Stinker, in 1962 Curtis Pitts set up Pitts Enterprises to sell plans of the S-1C to homebuilders. Certified versions of the Pitts are now produced by Aviat Aircraft in Afton, Wyoming.
It is available as the S1 single-seater with an up to 200 hp flat-4 Lycoming engine and a 17 ft 4 in wingspan, or as the S2 two-seater variant featuring a 260 hp flat-6 Lycoming, Pitts Specials have been equipped with engines of up to 450 hp. Plans for the single-seat Pitts S1-S are available from Aviat Aircraft, the S1-C and derivative S1-SS plans and kits are supplied by Steen Aero Lab in Palm Bay, Florida. Many hundreds of homebuilders have successfully completed and flown the Pitts since plans became available in 1960, all single-seat and two-seat Pitts Specials are variations on the basic design from 1944. The aircraft was popularized by Betty Skelton, Caro Bayley and other air show performers, Pitts produced limited numbers of aircraft during the 1940s and 1950s. The Pitts Special became the standard by all other aerobatic aircraft were judged. After a number of aircraft were produced from rough hand-drawn plans produced by Pitts. Factory-built aircraft produced by the Aerotek company at Afton, Wyoming were joined in production by the single-seat S-1S in 1973, in 1972, the US Aerobatic Team won the World Championships flying only Pitts biplanes.
In 1977 Curtis Pitts sold his interests in the Pitts S1 & S2 to Doyle Child, Child sold the rights in 1981 to Frank Christensen, who continued production at the Afton plant under the guise of Christen Industries. The rights for homebuilt versions of the Pitts were sold in 1994 to Steen Aero Lab, with the Afton factory, Curtis Pitts died in 2005 at age 89. The rights to the Pitts name is owned by Aviat which owns the similar model to the Pitts in the Christen Eagle. The current inverted flat spin world record is 98 set on March 20,2016 by air show performer Spencer Suderman over Yuma, Suderman flew the Sunbird S-1x, a Lycoming IO-540-powered experimental variant of the Pitts S1. The maneuver began from 24,500 over the Yuma Proving Grounds and was recovered at 2,000 AGL, S-1 Basic single-seat Pitts aerobatic biplane with a flat M6 aerofoil section and lower wing ailerons only, fitted with a variety of engines
Fantasy of Flight
Fantasy of Flight is an aviation-related attraction in Polk City, United States that takes visitors back to the pioneering days of early flight, World War I, World War II and beyond. The attraction opened in November 1995, and houses the worlds largest private collection on display. On April 6,2014, the attraction was closed to the public, Fantasy of Flight was the only attraction in the world to offer daily aerial demonstrations of aircraft in its collection. Most of Weeks aircraft are airworthy and may still be flying from one of the facilitys grass runways or its seaplane runway. In fact, Fantasy of Flight fields more airworthy aircraft than the air forces of Austria, Denmark, counting strictly fixed-wing aircraft, Fantasy of Flight fields more airworthy fixed-wing aircraft than either the Royal Navy or the Indian Navy. Just outside the building across from the entrance is the facilitys new ropes course. Outside the hangars there is a tarmac and two grass runways. On the north side of the runways are a maintenance hangar, a back lot to the south of the main complex contains warehouses and restoration facilities.
More storage facilities are located across Broadway Blvd and are opened to the public as part of the tour, lake Agnes is on the property to allow for seaplane operations, with a designated landing/takeoff area on 18/36 and a ramp to taxiway on the eastern shore. The airfield is known as the Orlampa Inc. Airport and uses the airport identifier FA08, the field sits at an estimated elevation of 129 feet. It is designated as private use only and special permission is needed to land there, the field is generally closed to all non-company traffic. The airfield consists of two runways, runway 4/22 and runway 14/32. The airfield appears as Orlampa on the Jacksonville sectional chart, the name Orlampa was originated by Kermit Weeks based on the airfield being approximately midway between the cities of Orlando and Tampa. Waldo Wrights Flying Service offers airplane rides for sale from the Fantasy of Flight field during parts of the year and operates a Boeing PT-17 Stearman and a New Standard D-25. The Boeing Stearman is used for 30 minute long hands-on experience flights, the New Standard D-25 is used for 15 minute barnstorming flights, in which up to four customers sit in the forward open cockpit of the aircraft as a qualified pilot flies the aircraft.
The Fantasy of Flight collection contains the aircraft, although the aircraft are not always present at the museum. Some are on loan to other facilities, others may be flown to events, in 2012, the Golden Hill storage facility attraction opened just across the road from the main facility
Purdue University is a public research university located in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the main campus of the Purdue University system. The university was founded in 1869 after Lafayette businessman John Purdue donated land and money to establish a college of science, the first classes were held on September 16,1874, with six instructors and 39 students. The main campus in West Lafayette offers more than 200 majors for undergraduates, over 70 master’s and doctoral programs, in addition, Purdue has 18 intercollegiate sports teams and more than 900 student organizations. In 1865, the Indiana General Assembly voted to take advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862, communities throughout the state offered their facilities and money to bid for the location of the new college. Popular proposals included the addition of a department at Indiana State University or at what is now Butler University. By 1869, Tippecanoe County’s offer included $150,000 from Lafayette business leader and philanthropist John Purdue, $50,000 from the county, and 100 acres of land from local residents.
On May 6,1869, the General Assembly established the institution in Tippecanoe County as Purdue University, classes began at Purdue on September 16,1874, with six instructors and 39 students. Professor John S. Hougham was Purdue’s first faculty member and served as acting president between the administrations of presidents Shortridge and White, a campus of five buildings was completed by the end of 1874. Purdue issued its first degree, a Bachelor of Science in chemistry, in 1875, emerson E. White, the university’s president from 1876 to 1883, followed a strict interpretation of the Morrill Act. He intended not only to students for industrial work, but to prepare them to be good citizens. Part of White’s plan to distinguish Purdue from classical universities included an attempt to ban fraternities. This ban was overturned by the Indiana Supreme Court and led to White’s resignation. The next president, James H. Smart, is remembered for his call in 1894 to rebuild the original Heavilon Hall one brick higher after it had destroyed by a fire.
Purdue’s engineering laboratories included testing facilities for a locomotive and a Corliss steam engine, one of the most efficient engines of the time. The School of Agriculture was sharing its research with farmers throughout the state with its cooperative extension services, programs in education and home economics were soon established, as well as a short-lived school of medicine. By 1925 Purdue had the largest undergraduate engineering enrollment in the country, President Edward C. Elliott oversaw a campus building program between the world wars. Inventor and trustee David E. Ross coordinated several fundraisers, donated lands to the university, ross’s gifts and fundraisers supported such projects as Ross–Ade Stadium, the Memorial Union, a civil engineering surveying camp, and Purdue University Airport. Purdue Airport was the country’s first university-owned airport and the site of the country’s first college-credit flight training courses, amelia Earhart joined the Purdue faculty in 1935 as a consultant for these flight courses and as a counselor on women’s careers
Sedona /sᵻˈdoʊnə/ is a city that straddles the county line between Coconino and Yavapai counties in the northern Verde Valley region of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,031, sedonas main attraction is its array of red sandstone formations. The formations appear to glow in brilliant orange and red when illuminated by the rising or setting sun, the red rocks form a popular backdrop for many activities, ranging from spiritual pursuits to the hundreds of hiking and mountain biking trails. Sedona was named after Sedona Arabella Miller Schnebly, the wife of Theodore Carlton Schnebly, the citys first postmaster and her mother, Amanda Miller, claimed to have made the name up because it sounded pretty. The first documented presence in Sedona area dates to between 11,500 and 9000 B. C. It was not until 1995 that a Clovis projectile point discovered in Honanki revealed the presence of the Paleo-Indians, around 9000 B. C. the pre-historic Archaic people appeared in the Verde Valley.
These were hunter-gatherers and their presence in the area was longer than in areas of the Southwest, most likely because of the ecological diversity. There is an assortment of art left by the Archaic people in places near Sedona such as Palatki and Honanki. Around 650 A. D. the Sinagua people entered the Verde Valley and their culture is known for its art such as pottery and their masonry. They left rock art and cliff dwellings such as Montezuma Castle, Honanki and Tuzigoot, the Sinagua abandoned the Verde Valley about 1400 A. D. Researchers believe the Sinagua and other clans moved to the Hopi mesas in Arizona, the Yavapai came from the west when the Sinagua were still there in the Verde Valley around 1300 A. D. Some archaeologists place the Apache arrival in the Verde Valley around 1450 A. D, many Apache groups were nomadic or seminomadic and traveled over large areas. The Yavapai and Apache tribes were removed from the Verde Valley in 1876. About 1,500 people were marched, in midwinter, to San Carlos, the survivors were interned for 25 years.
About 200 Yavapai and Apache people returned to the Verde Valley in 1900 and have since intermingled as a political entity although culturally distinct residing in the Yavapai-Apache Nation. The first Anglo settler, John J. Thompson, moved to Oak Creek Canyon in 1876, the early settlers were farmers and ranchers. Oak Creek Canyon was well known for its peach and apple orchards, in 1902, when the Sedona post office was established, there were 55 residents. In the mid-1950s, the first telephone directory listed 155 names, some parts of the Sedona area were not electrified until the 1960s
Grumman J2F Duck
The Grumman J2F Duck was an American single-engine amphibious biplane. It was used by each branch of the U. S. armed forces from the mid-1930s until just after World War II, primarily for utility. It was used by the Argentine Navy, who took delivery of their first Duck in 1937, after the war, J2F Ducks saw service with independent civilian operators, as well as the armed forces of Colombia and Mexico. The J2F was a version of the earlier JF Duck. The J2F-1 Duck first flew on 2 April 1936, powered by a 750 hp Wright R-1820 Cyclone, the J2F-2 had a Wright Cyclone engine which was boosted to 790 hp. Twenty J2F-3 variants were built in 1939 for use by the Navy as executive transports with plush interiors, due to pressure of work following the United States entry into the war in 1941, production of the J2F Duck was transferred to the Columbia Aircraft Corp of New York. They produced 330 aircraft for the Navy and U. S. Coast Guard, if standard Navy nomenclature practice had been followed, these would have been designated JL-1s, but it was not, and all Columbia-produced airframes were delivered as J2F-6s.
Several surplus Navy Ducks were converted for use by the United States Air Force in the rescue role as the OA-12 in 1948. The aircraft had strut-mounted stabilizer floats beneath each lower wing, a crew of two or three were carried in tandem cockpits, forward for the pilot and rear for an observer with room for a radio operator if required. It had a cabin in the fuselage for two passengers or a stretcher, the Ducks main pontoon was blended into the fuselage, making it almost a flying boat despite its similarity to a conventional landplane which has been float-equipped. This configuration was shared with the earlier Loening OL, Grumman having acquired the rights to Loenings hull, like the F4F Wildcat, its narrow-tracked landing gear was hand-cranked. The J2F was used by the U. S. Navy, Army Air Forces, j2Fs of the utility squadron of US Patrol Wing 10 were destroyed at Mariveles Bay, Philippines, by a Japanese air raid on 5 January 1942. Among its passengers was Carlos P. Romulo, who recounted the flight in his 1942 best-selling book I Saw the Fall of the Philippines, J2F-1 Initial production version with 750 hp R-1820-20 engines,29 built.
J2F-2 United States Marine Corps version with nose and dorsal guns, j2F-2A As J2F-2 with minor changes for use in the United States Virgin Islands, nine built. J2F-3 J2F-2 but powered by an 850 hp R-1820-26 engine,20 built, j2F-4 J2F-2 but powered by an 850 hp R-1820-30 engine and fitted with target towing equipment,32 built. J2F-5 J2F-2 but powered by a 1,050 hp R-1820-54 engine,144 built, J2F-6 Columbia Aircraft built version of the J2F-5 with a 1,050 hp R-1820-64 engine in a long-chord cowling, fitted with underwing bomb racks and provision for target towing gear,330 built. OA-12 Air-sea rescue conversion for the United States Army Air Forces, argentina Argentine Naval Aviation received four new-build Grumman G-15s in 1939, to supplement the eight Grumman G-20s received in 1937. In 1946–1947,32 ex-US Navy Ducks were acquired, with the last examples remaining in use until 1958, two Coast Guard airmen were lost along with a rescued U. S. Army Air Forces passenger from a downed B-17 searching for a downed C-53 with five on board
Hurricane Andrew was, at the time of its occurrence in August 1992, the most destructive hurricane in United States history. Passing directly through the town of Homestead, Florida, a city south of Miami, Andrew obliterated entire blocks of homes, over 25,000 houses were destroyed in Miami-Dade County alone, and nearly 100,000 more were severely damaged. 65 people were killed and the total across the affected regions exceeded $26 billion. Andrew originated from a wave over the central Atlantic, becoming the fourth tropical cyclone. In Miami-Dade County alone, damage was estimated at $25 billion. Several hours later, the hurricane emerged over the Gulf of Mexico at Category 4 strength, with the Gulf Coast of the United States in its projected path, after weakening slightly, Andrew moved ashore near Morgan City, Louisiana, as low-end Category 3 storm. The effects of land caused the hurricane to rapidly lose its intensity. The next day, Andrew merged with a system over the southern Appalachian Mountains.
In the Bahamas, Andrew brought storm surge, hurricane-force winds, about 800 houses were destroyed in the archipelago, and there was substantial damage to the transport, sanitation and fishing sectors. Overall, Andrew left four dead and $250 million in damage throughout the Bahamas, in parts of southern Florida, Andrew produced severe winds, a wind gust of 177 mph was observed at a house in Perrine. These winds wreaked catastrophic damage in Florida—Miami-Dade County cities of Florida City, Homestead, a total of 63,000 homes were destroyed and more than 101,000 others were damaged, leaving roughly 175,000 people homeless. As many as 1.4 million people lost power at the height of the storm, in the Everglades,70,000 acres of trees were downed. Rainfall in Florida was substantial, peaking at 13.98 in in western Miami-Dade County, Andrew killed 44 and left a record $25 billion in damage in the state. Before moving ashore Andrew caused extensive damage to oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico and it produced hurricane-force winds along its path through Louisiana, leaving about 152,000 without electricity.
Over 80% of trees in the Atchafalaya River Basin were downed, throughout the basin and Bayou Lafourche,187 million freshwater fish were killed in the hurricane. An F3 tornado in St. John the Baptist Parish wrecked 163 structures, with 23,000 houses damaged,985 others destroyed, and 1,951 mobile homes demolished, property losses in Louisiana exceeded $1.5 billion. The hurricane caused the deaths of 17 people in the state, Andrew spawned at least 28 tornadoes along the Gulf Coast, especially in Alabama and Mississippi. A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on August 14, under the influence of a ridge of high pressure to its north, the wave tracked quickly westward
EAA AirVenture Oshkosh
EAA AirVenture Oshkosh is an annual gathering of aviation enthusiasts held each summer at Wittman Regional Airport in Oshkosh, United States. The airshow is sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association, an organization based in Oshkosh. The show lasts a week, usually beginning on the last Monday in July, during the gathering, the airports control tower is the busiest in the world. EAA was founded in Hales Corners, Wisconsin in 1953 by Paul Poberezny, although homebuilding is still a large part of the organizations activities, it has grown to include almost every aspect of recreational aviation and aeronautics. In 1959, the EAA fly-in grew too large for the Air Pageant and moved to Rockford, in 1970, when it outgrew its facilities at the Rockford airport, it moved to Oshkosh, Wisconsin. For many years the name of the event was The EAA Annual Convention. In 1998, the name was changed to AirVenture Oshkosh, for many years, access to the flight line was restricted to EAA members. In 1997, the fee structure for the show was changed allowing all visitors access to the entire grounds, EAA AirVenture holds nearly 1,000 forums and workshops.
AirVenture has been the breeding ground throughout history for the debuts of numerous revolutionary designs. Richard VanGrunsven debuted his Vans RV-3 at the 1972 AirVenture Oshkosh, VanGrunsven would eventually go on to build more homebuilts than anyone else in the world, exceeding the annual production of all commercial general aviation companies combined. Other past notable designs introduced at AirVenture include Frank Christensens Christen Eagle II aerobatic kit biplane in 1978, Tom Hamiltons Glasair 1 in 1980, the EAA estimated the attendance in 2014 at over 500,000, with 2,081 visitors registered from 69 nations. There were approximately 10,000 aircraft,2,000 show planes, in the past, attendance at the event is tabulated on daily basis rather than an individual basis. For example, in 2006 the Oshkosh Northwestern reported that attendance was estimated at 625,000 by the EAA, the estimate was for total attendees each day, so one person attending 7 days would count as 7 attendees. The paper estimated that between 200,000 and 300,000 individuals attended the event and it is unclear whether this practice still exists at EAA Airventure.
The large number of arrivals and departures during the fly-in week makes the Wittman Field FAA Control Tower the busiest in the world for that week in number of movements. To accommodate the flow of aircraft around the airport and the nearby airspace. More than 4,000 volunteers contribute approximately 250,000 hours before, the EAA AirVenture fly-in has a large economic impact to the Oshkosh area as well as the state of Wisconsin. In 1982, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel reported that the fly-in had an economic benefit to the Fox Valley region
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Curtiss P-40 Warhawk
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk is an American single-engined, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground-attack aircraft that first flew in 1938. The P-40 design was a modification of the previous Curtiss P-36 Hawk which reduced development time and enabled a rapid entry into production, the Warhawk was used by most Allied powers during World War II, and remained in frontline service until the end of the war. P-40 Warhawk was the name the United States Army Air Corps and after June 1941, USAAF-adopted name for all models, making it the official name in the U. S. for all P-40s. The British Commonwealth and Soviet air forces used the name Tomahawk for models equivalent to the P-40B and P-40C, P-40s first saw combat with the British Commonwealth squadrons of the Desert Air Force in the Middle East and North African campaigns, during June 1941. However, between 1941 and 1944, the P-40 played a role with Allied air forces in three major theaters, North Africa, the Southwest Pacific, and China. It had a significant role in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, the P-40s performance at high altitudes was not as important in those theaters, where it served as an air superiority fighter, bomber escort and fighter-bomber.
The P-40 offered the advantage of low cost, which kept it in production as a ground-attack aircraft long after it was obsolete as a fighter. On 14 October 1938, Curtiss test pilot Edward Elliott flew the prototype XP-40 on its first flight in Buffalo, the first prototype placed the glycol coolant radiator in an underbelly position on the fighter, just aft of the wings trailing edge. USAAC Fighter Projects Officer Lieutenant Benjamin S. Kelsey flew this prototype some 300 miles in 57 minutes, hiding his disappointment, he told reporters that future versions would likely go 100 miles per hour faster. Kelsey was interested in the Allison engine because it was sturdy and dependable, Curtiss engineers worked to improve the XP-40s speed by moving the radiator forward in steps. Seeing little gain, Kelsey ordered the aircraft to be evaluated in a NACA wind tunnel to identify solutions for better aerodynamic qualities, from 28 March to 11 April 1939, the prototype was studied by NACA. Based on the data obtained, Curtiss moved the glycol coolant radiator forward to the chin, other improvements to the landing gear doors and the exhaust manifold combined to give performance that was satisfactory to the USAAC.
Without beneficial tail winds, Kelsey flew the XP-40 from Wright Field back to Curtisss plant in Buffalo at an speed of 354 mph. Further tests in December 1939 proved the fighter could reach 366 mph, an unusual production feature was a special truck rig to speed delivery at the main Curtiss plant in Buffalo, New York. The rig moved the newly built P-40s in two components, the main wing and the fuselage, the eight miles from the plant to the airport where the two units were mated for flight and delivery. The P-40 was conceived as an aircraft and was agile at low and medium altitudes. At medium and high speeds it was one of the tightest-turning early monoplane designs of the war, and it could out turn most opponents it faced in North Africa and the Russian Front. In the Pacific Theater it was out-turned at lower speeds by the lightweight fighters A6M Zero, the American Volunteer Group Commander Claire Chennault advised against prolonged dog-fighting with the Japanese fighters due to speed reduction favouring the Japanese
Grumman F4F Wildcat
The Grumman F4F Wildcat is an American carrier-based fighter aircraft that began service with both the United States Navy and the British Royal Navy in 1940. With a top speed of 318 mph, the Wildcat was outperformed by the faster 331 mph, more maneuverable, and longer-ranged Mitsubishi A6M Zero. However, the F4Fs ruggedness, coupled with such as the Thach Weave. Lessons learned from the Wildcat were applied to the faster F6F Hellcat, while the Wildcat had better range and maneuverability at low speed, the Hellcat could rely on superior power and high speed performance to outperform the Zero. The Wildcat continued to be throughout the remainder of the war to serve on escort carriers. I would still assess the Wildcat as the naval fighter of the early years of World War II. I can vouch as a matter of experience, this Grumman fighter was one of the finest shipboard aeroplanes ever created. Grumman fighter development began with the two-seat Grumman FF biplane, the FF was the first U. S. naval fighter with a retractable landing gear.
The wheels retracted into the fuselage, leaving the tires visibly exposed, two single-seat biplane designs followed, the F2F and F3F, which established the general fuselage outlines of what would become the F4F Wildcat. In 1935, while the F3F was still undergoing testing, Grumman started work on its next biplane fighter. At the time, the U. S. Navy favored a monoplane design, however, an order was placed for Grummans G-16 as a backup in case the Brewster monoplane proved to be unsatisfactory. It was clear to Grumman that the XF4F-1 would be inferior to the Brewster monoplane, so Grumman abandoned the XF4F-1, designing instead a new monoplane fighter, the XF4F-2 would retain the same, fuselage-mounted, hand-cranked main landing gear as the F3F, with its relatively narrow track. Landing accidents caused by failure of the gear to fully lock into place were distressingly common. The overall performance of Grummans new monoplane was felt to be inferior to that of the Brewster Buffalo, the XF4F-2 was marginally faster, but the Buffalo was more maneuverable.
It was judged superior and was chosen for production, after losing out to Brewster, Grumman completely rebuilt the prototype as the XF4F-3 with new wings and tail and a supercharged version of the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp radial engine. Testing of the new XF4F-3 led to an order for F4F-3 production models, the U. S. Navy officially adopted the aircraft type on 1 October 1941 as the Wildcat. The Royal Navys and U. S. Navys F4F-3s, armed with four.50 in Browning machine guns and this was the first fatality in the type. Even before the Wildcat had been purchased by U. S. Navy, the French Navy, the F4F Wildcat was taken on by the FAA as an interim replacement for the Fairey Fulmar
Aviation is the practical aspect or art of aeronautics, being the design, production and use of aircraft, especially heavier than air aircraft. The word aviation was coined by French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863, from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21,1783, the practicality of balloons was limited because they could only travel downwind. It was immediately recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required, jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances, the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin and it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929.
However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, the Golden Age of the airships ended on May 6,1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed the coating used to protect the material over the frame was highly flammable. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents, although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799 Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion. Seven years later, on 14 October 1897, Aders Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry, the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910, as they had been a military secret. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a flight on 14 October 1897.
Although widely believed at the time, these claims were discredited, the most widely accepted date is December 17,1903 by the Wright brothers. The Wright brothers were the first to fly in a powered and controlled aircraft, previous flights were gliders or free flight, but the Wright brothers combined both, setting the new standard in aviation records. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew larger, the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14,1908. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide aircraft for the new middle-class market