Lake Kaweah is a reservoir near Lemon Cove in Tulare County, California. The lake is formed by Terminus Dam on the Kaweah River; the river originates in the San Joaquin Valley beneath the Sierra Nevada mountains and drains about 560 sq mi into Lake Kaweah. From Lake Kaweah, the river flows toward the city of Visalia, splitting into the Kaweah River and St. Johns River as it flows west into the Tulare Lakebed; the lake has a capacity of 185,000 acre⋅ft. A project to raise the lake 21 ft was completed in 2004; the lake now impounds an additional 42,000 acre⋅ft and downstream flood protection to downstream communities and agricultural land has been increased. Because its primary purpose is flood control, Lake Kaweah is maintained at a low level or empty for most of the year, only fills between May and June. Due to the limited capacity of the reservoir, large spills of floodwater occur after large rain storms. In the winter, water is released as as possible to ensure room for floodwater which can be released at a controlled rate.
During floods in 1997, the reservoir filled and emptied twice because of this operational regimen. At the upper end of Lake Kaweah is the small town of Three Rivers, which sits at the entrance to Sequoia National Park. Lime Kiln Creek List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California U. S. Army Corps of Engineers - Lake Kaweah U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Lake Kaweah
South Fork Kings River
The South Fork Kings River is a 44.1-mile tributary of the Kings River in the Sierra Nevada of Fresno County, California. The river forms part of Kings Canyon, the namesake of Kings Canyon National Park and one of the deepest canyons in North America with a maximum relief of 8,200 feet from rim to river; the South Fork is the largest headwater of the Kings River. It originates at an elevation of 11,601 feet at an unnamed lake in Kings Canyon National Park, south of Mather Pass and west of Split Mountain, in a high alpine basin known as Upper Basin, it flows south, is paralleled for several miles by the combined Pacific Crest Trail/John Muir Trail. The trail and river separate at a point west of Taboose Pass, where the river turns to the southwest through a deep gorge between Cirque Crest to the northwest and Arrow Ridge to the southeast. To the east, the Muro Blanco cliffs rise more than half a mile above the river; the river flows into Paradise Valley, where it flows in a south-southwest direction, receives Woods Creek from the east directly below a footbridge that carries the Woods Creek Trail over the river.
Until this point the river has been less continuous whitewater. Below Paradise Valley the river once again flows through a narrow gorge where it drops 100 feet over Mist Falls, one of the largest waterfalls in the park, it enters Kings Canyon, a glacial valley with a flat meadow floor surrounded by granite cliffs, compared by John Muir and others to Yosemite Valley in terms of appearance and geology. It receives Bubbs Creek, turns due west, flowing through grassy flats including Zumwalt Meadow forming rapids where it breaches ancient glacial moraines, it receives its largest tributary, Roaring River, from the south and passes through Cedar Grove, home to many campgrounds and visitor facilities. Further west the river reaches the deepest part of Kings Canyon, where Highway 180 follows the river for several miles, Boulder Creek enters from the south. Boyden Cavern lies adjacent to the river just above Horseshoe Bend, the steepest and narrowest part of the canyon; the river joins with the Middle Fork Kings River in the Monarch Wilderness, just outside Kings Canyon National Park, to form the main stem of the Kings River.
There are records of Chinook salmon presence 10–12 miles above Pine Flat including the South Fork, before the 1940s. Woodhull and Dill noted that salmon ascend about 10 to 12 mi beyond the present upper extent of the reservoir and salmon migration in the Kings River ascended no farther than the confluence of the North Fork. Yoshiyama and Moyle noted that there is an undocumented note of "a few salmon" having occurred much farther upstream at Cedar Grove in the past. According to the California Department of Fish and Game, "many of the waters in the headwaters of the South Fork Kings River and several tributary streams and lakes were planted with California golden trout from GTC between 1909 and 1914." As of 2012 the California Department of Fish and Game fish data base from their surveys indicate that only rainbow trout, brown trout and Sacramento sucker are found in the South Fork Kings River. The Park Service used to stock rainbow trout in the river, but terminated the practice in the 1980s in favor of letting the fishery return to more natural conditions.
However, the South Fork is still considered excellent water for fly fishing in Kings Canyon. Middle Fork Kings River North Fork Kings River List of rivers of California
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is an American national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, in Fresno and Tulare Counties, California. Established in 1890 as General Grant National Park, the park was expanded and renamed to Kings Canyon National Park on March 4, 1940; the park's namesake, Kings Canyon, is a rugged glacier-carved valley more than a mile deep. Other natural features include multiple 14,000-foot peaks, high mountain meadows, swift-flowing rivers, some of the world's largest stands of giant sequoia trees. Kings Canyon is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park, the two are jointly administered by the National Park Service as the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks; the majority of the 461,901-acre park, drained by the Middle and South Forks of the Kings River and many smaller streams, is designated wilderness. Tourist facilities are concentrated in two areas: Grant Grove, home to General Grant and Cedar Grove, located in the heart of Kings Canyon. Overnight hiking is required to access most of the park's backcountry, or high country, which for much of the year is covered in deep snow.
The combined Pacific Crest Trail/John Muir Trail, a backpacking route, traverses the entire length of the park from north to south. General Grant National Park was created to protect a small area of giant sequoias from logging. Although John Muir's visits brought public attention to the huge wilderness area to the east, it took more than fifty years for the rest of Kings Canyon to be designated a national park. Environmental groups, park visitors and many local politicians wanted to see the area preserved. After President Franklin D. Roosevelt expanded the park in 1940, the fight continued until 1965, when the Cedar Grove and Tehipite Valley dam sites were annexed into the park; as visitation rose post–World War II, further debate took place over whether the park should be developed as a tourist resort, or retained as a more natural environment restricted to simpler recreation such as hiking and camping. The preservation lobby prevailed and today, the park has only limited services and lodgings despite its size.
Due to this and the lack of road access to most of the park, Kings Canyon remains the least visited of the major Sierra parks, with just under 700,000 visitors in 2017 compared to 1.3 million visitors at Sequoia and over 4 million at Yosemite. Kings Canyon National Park, located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada to the east of the San Joaquin Valley, is divided into two distinct sections; the smaller and older western section centers around Grant Grove – home of many of the park's sequoias – and has most of the visitor facilities. The larger eastern section, which accounts for the majority of the park's area, is entirely wilderness, contains the deep canyons of the Middle and South Forks of the Kings River. Cedar Grove, located at the bottom of the Kings Canyon, is the only part of the park's vast eastern portion accessible by road. Although most of the park is forested, much of the eastern section consists of alpine regions above the tree line. Snow free only from late June until late October, the high country is accessible via foot and horse trails.
The Sequoia-Kings Canyon Wilderness encompasses over 768,000 acres in Kings Canyon and Sequoia National Parks, or nearly 90 percent of their combined area. In addition to Sequoia National Park on the south, Kings Canyon is surrounded by multiple national forests and wilderness areas; the Sierra National Forest, Sequoia National Forest and Inyo National Forest border it on the northwest and east, respectively. The John Muir Wilderness wraps around much of the northern half of the park, the Monarch Wilderness preserves much of the area between the park's two sections. Kings Canyon is characterized by some of the steepest vertical relief in North America, with numerous peaks over 14,000 feet on the Sierra Crest along the park's eastern border, falling to 4,500 feet in the valley floor of Cedar Grove just ten miles to the west; the Sierran crest forms the eastern boundary of the park, from Mount Goethe in the north, down to Junction Peak, at the boundary with Sequoia National Park. Several passes cross the crest into the park, including Bishop Pass, Taboose Pass, Sawmill Pass, Kearsarge Pass.
All of these passes are above 11,000 feet in elevation. There are several prominent subranges of the Sierra around the park; the Palisades, along the park's eastern boundary, have four peaks over 14,000 feet including the highest point in the park, 14,248 feet NAVD 88 at the summit of North Palisade. The Great Western Divide extends through the south-central part of the park and has many peaks over 13,000 feet, including Mount Brewer; the Monarch Divide, stretching between the lower Middle and South Forks of the Kings, has some of the most inaccessible terrain in the entire park. In the northwest section of the park are other steep and rugged ranges such as the Goddard Divide, LeConte Divide and Black Divide, all of which are dotted with high mountain lakes and separated by deep chasms. Most of the mountains and canyons, as in other parts of the Sierra Nevada, are formed in igneous intrusive rocks such as granite and monzonite, formed at least 100 million years ago due to subduction along the North American–Pacific Plate boundary.
However, the Sierra itself is a young mountain range, no more than 10 million years old. Huge tectonic forces along the western edge of the Great Basin forced the local crustal block to tilt and uplift, crea
The Tule River called Rio de San Pedro or Rio San Pedro, is a 71.4-mile river in Tulare County in the U. S. state of California. The river originates in the Sierra Nevada east of Porterville and consists of three forks, North and South; the North Fork and Middle Fork meet above Springville. The South Fork meets the others at Lake Success. Downstream of Success Dam, the river flows west through Porterville; the river used to empty into Tulare Lake. However, the river does reach Tulare Lake during floods. Tulare Lake is the terminal sink of an endorheic basin that also received the Kaweah and Kern Rivers as well as southern distributaries of the Kings; the Tule River is named for a common bulrush or cattail known as "tule". The present Tule River was named Rio de San Pedro by Moraga's expedition in 1806. On Derby's map of 1850 it appears as Rio San Pedro; the North Fork, 18.9 miles long, begins high on a ridge facing south towards the Middle Fork Tule River drainage. It plunges southwest down a canyon in the Giant Sequoia National Monument is joined at the same time by Kramer Creek and Backbone Creek as it enters a broader and less inclined valley.
At Milo, the river parallels the Springville-Milo Road. Sycamore and Whitney Creeks join the river from the east and west before it meets the Middle Fork at Springville; the 6.9-mile-long Middle Fork is formed by the confluence of the short South Fork Middle Fork Tule River and the North Fork Middle Fork Tule River. The South Fork flows northwest and west, paralleling California State Route 190, from its headwaters near Camp Nelson; the larger North Fork flows south from inside Sequoia National Park, plunges over North Fork of the Middle Fork of the Tule River Falls, flows southwest to join the South Fork. After the confluence of the North and South forks, the Middle Fork Tule River flows more or less south and southwest, parallel to State Route 190, to join the North Fork and form the Tule River; the 27.8-mile-long South Fork Tule River joins the main Tule at Lake Success. Formed by the confluence of Blue Creek, Rocky Creek, Pigeon Creek and Bond Creek near Soda Springs, the river winds west-southwest through a narrow canyon.
It bends northwest, receiving Long Branch Creek from the left and Crew Creek from the right. It forms an arm of Lake Success, crossed by State Route 190. From the confluence, the Tule River flows about 10 miles south and west, still following State Route 190, to Lake Success. Before emptying into the lake, it is joined by Campbell Creek from the north, Graham Creek from the east; the South Fork of the Tule River joins the river in Lake Success. The river exits the Success Dam and flows west into Porterville, wind west to the former bed of Tulare Lake, it passes the cities of Tipton and Corcoran, splits into many channels disappearing into multiple agricultural irrigation and drainage channels. The river terminates about 9 miles east-northeast of Kettleman City in Kings County at a junction with a canal carrying water from the Kings River; the Tule River
A canyon or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales. Rivers have a natural tendency to cut through underlying surfaces wearing away rock layers as sediments are removed downstream. A river bed will reach a baseline elevation, the same elevation as the body of water into which the river drains; the processes of weathering and erosion will form canyons when the river's headwaters and estuary are at different elevations through regions where softer rock layers are intermingled with harder layers more resistant to weathering. A canyon may refer to a rift between two mountain peaks, such as those in ranges including the Rocky Mountains, the Alps, the Himalayas or the Andes. A river or stream and erosion carve out such splits between mountains. Examples of mountain-type canyons are Provo Canyon in Utah or Yosemite Valley in California's Sierra Nevada. Canyons within mountains, or gorges that have an opening on only one side, are called box canyons.
Slot canyons are narrow canyons that have smooth walls. Steep-sided valleys in the seabed of the continental slope are referred to as submarine canyons. Unlike canyons on land, submarine canyons are thought to be formed by turbidity currents and landslides; the word canyon is Spanish in origin, with the same meaning. The word canyon is used in North America while the words gorge and ravine are used in Europe and Oceania, though gorge and ravine are used in some parts of North America. In the United States, place names use canyon in the southwest and gorge in the northeast, with the rest of the country graduating between these two according to geography. In Canada, a gorge is narrow while a ravine is more open and wooded; the military-derived word defile is used in the United Kingdom. Most canyons were formed by a process of long-time erosion from table-land level; the cliffs form because harder rock strata that are resistant to erosion and weathering remain exposed on the valley walls. Canyons are much more common in arid than in wet areas because physical weathering has a more localized effect in arid zones.
The wind and water from the river combine to erode and cut away less resistant materials such as shales. The freezing and expansion of water serves to help form canyons. Water seeps into cracks between the rocks and freezes, pushing the rocks apart and causing large chunks to break off the canyon walls, in a process known as frost wedging. Canyon walls are formed of resistant sandstones or granite. Sometimes large rivers run through canyons as the result of gradual geological uplift; these are called entrenched rivers, because they are unable to alter their course. In the United States, the Colorado River in the Southwest and the Snake River in the Northwest are two examples of tectonic uplift. Canyons form in areas of limestone rock; as limestone is soluble to a certain extent, cave systems form in the rock. When these collapse, a canyon is left, as in the Mendip Hills in Somerset and Yorkshire Dales in Yorkshire, England. A box canyon is a small canyon, shorter and narrower than a river canyon, with steep walls on three sides, allowing access and egress only through the mouth of the canyon.
Box canyons were used in the western United States as convenient corrals, with their entrances fenced. The definition of "largest canyon" is imprecise, because a canyon can be large by its depth, its length, or the total area of the canyon system; the inaccessibility of the major canyons in the Himalaya contributes to their not being regarded as candidates for the biggest canyon. The definition of "deepest canyon" is imprecise if one includes mountain canyons as well as canyons cut through flat plateaus; the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet, is regarded by some as the deepest canyon in the world at 5,500 m. It is longer than the Grand Canyon in the United States. Others consider the Kali Gandaki Gorge in midwest Nepal to be the deepest canyon, with a 6400 m difference between the level of the river and the peaks surrounding it. Vying for deepest canyon in the Americas are the Cotahuasi Canyon and Colca Canyon, in southern Peru. Both have been measured at over 3500 m deep.
The Grand Canyon of northern Arizona in the United States, with an average depth of 1,600 m and a volume of 4.17 trillion cubic metres, is one of the world's largest canyons. It was among the 28 finalists of the New7Wonders of Nature worldwide poll; the largest canyon in Africa is the Fish River Canyon in Namibia. In August 2013, the discovery of Greenland's Grand Canyon was reported, based on the analysis of data from Operation IceBridge, it is located under an ice sheet. At 750 kilometres long, it is believed to be the longest canyon in the world; the Capertee Valley in Australia is reported as being the second largest canyon in the world. Some canyons have notable cultural significance. Evidence of early humanoids has been discovered in Africa's Olduvai Gorge. In the southwestern United States, canyons are important archeologically because of the many cliff-dwellings built in such areas by the ancient Pueblo people who were their first inhabitants; the following list contains only the most notable canyons of the world, arranged by continent and country.
Fish River Canyon Blyde Riv
Dinkey Creek (California)
Dinkey Creek is a large stream in the southern Sierra Nevada, in Fresno County, California. The creek is 29.2 miles long, flowing undamed in a southerly direction through the Sierra National Forest. It is a tributary of the North Fork Kings River, in turn part of the Kings River system which drains into the de-watered Tulare Lake bed. Dinkey Creek originates in the Dinkey Lakes Wilderness, along the Three Sisters peaks, at an elevation of 10,152 feet above sea level, it flows southwest, dropping over Dinkey Falls turning south a short distance below Dinkey Dome. It flows past the community of Dinkey Creek and receives its largest tributary, Deer Creek, from the left; the creek empties at an elevation of 1,240 feet. The creek was named in 1863 by a group of hunters; the hunters' dog, tried to fight the bear, but was fatally injured. One of the men was able to grab his gun and shoot the bear, they named the nearby stream Dinkey Creek to honor the dog's bravery. A hydroelectric project was proposed by the Kings River Conservation District ( in 1978 on Dinkey Creek, but was canceled just two months before the start of construction in 1986 because PG&E withdrew from the power purchase agreement.
That was caused in part by delays caused by environmental litigation challenging parts of the plan, as well as a dispute between PG&E and the California Public Utilities Commission over related environmental issues. The KRCD's "Dinkey Creek Hydroelectric Project" would have consisted of a 380-foot high rock fill dam with a spillway at elevation 5,710 ft, a 90,000 acre⋅ft reservoir, two separate 60 megawatt power stations. Construction would have included 7.9 miles of power tunnels, four vertical shafts, a 4.5 miles long diversion tunnel in hard, granitic rock. The Dinkey Creek Inn in the community of Dinkey Creek is located at 5,710 ft elevation. According to the Bureau of Reclamation. In particular, a reservoir at Dinkey Creek would fundamentally alter the existing recreation-based community." List of rivers of California
Buena Vista Lake
Buena Vista Lake was a fresh-water lake in Kern County, California, in the Tulare Lake Basin in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Buena Vista Lake was the second largest of several similar lakes in the Tulare Lake basin, was fed by the waters of the Kern River; the Kern River's flow went into Buena Vista Lake southwest through the site of Bakersfield via its main distributary channels or south through the Kern River Slough distributary into Kern Lake and into Buena Vista Lake via Connecting Slough. In times when Buena Vista Lake overflowed it first backed up into Kern Lake making one large lake; when this larger lake overflowed it flowed out through the Buena Vista Slough and Kern River channel northwest of Buena Vista Lake through tule marshland and Goose Lake, into Tulare Lake. Today Lake Webb and Lake Evans occupy the lakebed on the northern shore of the former Buena Vista Lake. List of lakes in California Buena Vista Yokuts David A. Fredrickson, BUENA VISTA LAKE REVISITED, This article appeared in Symposium: A New Look at some Old Sites, Papers from the Symposium Organized by Francis A. Riddell, Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for California Archaeology, March 23-26, 1983, San Diego, California.
Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory 6:75-81, 1986. Fishing In Lake Buena Vista, California LIVESTRONG. COM THE PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE 2008 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE BEAD HILL SITE, BUENA VISTA LAKE, CALIFORNIA.