Penitentes, or nieves penitentes, are snow formations found at high altitudes. They take the form of elongated, thin blades of hardened snow or ice spaced and pointing towards the general direction of the sun; the name comes from the resemblance of a field of penitentes to a crowd of kneeling people doing penance. The formation evokes the tall, pointed habits and hoods worn by brothers of religious orders in the Processions of Penance during Spanish Holy Week. In particular the brothers' hats are tall and white, with a pointed top; these spires of snow and ice grow over all glaciated and snow-covered areas in the Dry Andes above 4,000 metres or 13,120 feet. They range in length from a few centimetres to 16 feet. Penitentes were first described in scientific literature by Charles Darwin in 1839. On March 22, 1835, he had to squeeze his way through snowfields covered in penitentes near the Piuquenes Pass, on the way from Santiago de Chile to the Argentine city of Mendoza, reported the local belief that they were formed by the strong winds of the Andes.
Louis Lliboutry noted that the key climatic condition behind the differential ablation that leads to the formation of penitentes is a dew point that remains below freezing. This combined with dry air will cause snow to sublimate. Once the process of differential ablation starts, the surface geometry of the evolving penitente produces a positive feedback mechanism, radiation is trapped by multiple reflections between the walls; the hollows become a black body for radiation, while decreased wind leads to air saturation, increasing dew point temperature and the onset of melting. In this way peaks, where mass loss is due to sublimation alone, will remain, as well as the steep walls, which intercept only a minimum of solar radiation. In the troughs, the ablation is enhanced. A mathematical model of the process has been developed by Betterton, although the physical processes at the initial stage of penitente growth, from granular snow to micropenitentes, still remain unclear; the effect of penitentes on the energy balance of the snow surface, therefore their effect on snow melt and water resources has been studied.
Penitentes up to 15 m high are suggested to be present in the tropics zone on Europa, a satellite of Jupiter. According to a recent study, NASA's New Horizons has discovered penitentes on Pluto, in a region informally named Tartarus Dorsa. Hoar frost Rime ice Suncup Bergeron, Vance. "Controlled Irradiative Formation of Penitentes". Physical Review Letters. 96: 098502. ArXiv:physics/0601184. Doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.098502. PMID 16606324. Kotlyakov, V. M.. M.. "Nieve and ice penitentes, their way of formation and indicative significance". Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie. X: 111–127. Describes appearance and formation of these ablation features, with reference to those observed in eastern Pamir, U. S. S. K. Lliboutry, L.. "Glaciers of the Dry Andes". In Williams, R. S. J.. Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World. South America, United States Geological Survey Professional Paper. USGS-p1386i. Media related to Ice and snow penitents at Wikimedia Commons "Spiky glaciers are slower to melt", New Scientist
The New Routemaster referred to as the New Bus for London, is a hybrid diesel-electric double-decker bus operated in London, England. Designed by Heatherwick Studio and manufactured by Wrightbus, it is notable for featuring a "hop-on hop-off" rear open platform similar to the original Routemaster bus design but updated to meet requirements for modern buses to be accessible, they first entered service in February 2012. The original AEC Routemaster was used as the standard London bus type, with a rear open platform and crewed by both a driver and conductor. After half a century it was withdrawn from service at the end of 2005, in favour of a accessible one-person-operated modern fleet, none of which featured a rear open platform; the withdrawal of the Routemaster became an issue during the 2008 London mayoral election with Boris Johnson elected mayor with a campaign pledge being to introduce a new Routemaster. Following an open design competition in 2008, Wrightbus was awarded the contract to build the bus at the end of 2009, the final design was announced in May 2010.
The design for the new double-decker bus is inspired by the original AEC Routemaster, features three doors and two staircases to allow accessible boarding. Unlike the AEC Routemaster, the new bus has a full front end rather than the protruding, bonneted'half cab' design, a rear platform with a door that can be closed, rather than being permanently open; the layout of the new bus allows it to be operated by one person. The cost of each bus was £355,000 over the four year procurement period; the last of the 1,000 New Routemasters was delivered in December 2017. The final design has doors at the front and rear; the front and rear doors lead to staircases to the upper deck. The rear entrance had a platform and pole similar to the original Routemaster, with a door, kept open for hop-on, hop-off operation when a conductor was on board. Readers for the contactless Oyster card used for payment for transport in London are provided at each of the three boarding points. Other types of ticket must be presented to the driver.
This applied when a conductor was on board, as the conductors did not take fares or check tickets. There is a new pattern of moquette for the seating, manufactured by Camira Fabrics; the internal lighting is provided by LED clusters, there is a climate-controlled ventilation system. There is a system to display text and provide audio announcements via loudspeakers, T-loop for users of hearing aids; the bus is a hybrid diesel-electric driven by a battery-powered electric motor, charged by a diesel fuelled generator and recovering energy during braking by regenerative braking. In 2020 Transport for London announced that the New Routemasters would be converted so passengers only enter by the front door, with the middle and rear doors becoming exit-only; this was done to reduce fare evasion, double that of other London buses. Designed for and operated in London, over 2,800 AEC Routemasters were built between 1956 and 1968, with a design so robust that the Routemaster outlasted newer buses intended to replace it, remaining in use until 2005, well into the deregulated era.
From 31 December 2000, it became mandatory for all new buses delivered in the UK to comply with the Disability Discrimination Act 1995, leading to the development of the wheelchair-accessible low-floor bus. Older buses were allowed to continue operating in London until 23 October 2009, in the rest of United Kingdom until 22 October 2014. Through the TfL contract renewal process, after 2000, the Routemaster began to be identified as the most common example of a non-wheelchair-accessible bus type used on TfL routes; the first Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, supported the Routemaster during his first term, indicating the type would be retained in a limited capacity on contract renewals as before. He promised to convert the whole London bus fleet to low-floor with an original targeted timeline of 23 October 2009, pushed earlier to 1 January 2006, requiring the withdrawal of the Routemaster from London. Contributory factors to the withdrawal were said to be the risk of litigation over accidents arising from using the rear platform, the cost savings of one-person operation and the fact that passengers preferred the comfort levels of modern buses to the vintage Routemaster.
Livingstone said that the Routemasters were too dangerous, with twelve people per year dying after falling from them during his mayoralty. The last examples were withdrawn from regular London passenger service in December 2005; the Routemaster continued in operation on heritage routes 9 and 15, with the former discontinued in July 2014. The heritage routes, shorter than the full 9 and 15 routes, were awarded as tendered routes by TfL and did not contravene the TfL accessible public transport policy requirement, as frequent wheelchair-accessible buses operate on these routes; the provision of Routemaster buses was drastically curtailed on 2 March 2019 to availability on weekends only for 60 days a year. An attempt to design a rear-engined front-entrance version of the Routemaster in 1964/65 led to the construction of the FRM1 in 1966; the prototype shared 60% of its components with a standard Routemaster and was the first integrally-constructed rear-engined double-decker built in Britain. Because of its single door and continued mechanical problems associated with its unique design, the FRM was considered a dead end although it provided proof of concept.
In 1968, London Tra
The École nationale d'administration publique is a graduate school in Quebec City, Canada. It was established in 1969 by the Quebec provincial government as a means of encouraging people to study professional public administration during a period when a number of social and structural changes were taking place within the province; the enabling legislation is An Act respecting educational institutions at the university level. The school is unique in that it is a pragmatic learning environment geared to educating Quebecers for positions within the public administration and a traditional university. ENAP has five campuses throughout Quebec, with two major campuses in Quebec City and Montreal, three campuses in Gatineau and Trois-Rivières; the mission of ENAP is to contribute to the development of public administration both theoretically and in practice. Training, services to organizations and services are offered in partnership. ENAP seeks to set the standard for public administration in Quebec.
The Quebec City campus is 555, boulevard Charest Est Québec G1K 9E5. The Montreal campus is 4750, avenue Henri-Julien, 5e étage Montréal H2T 3E5; the Gatineau campus is 283, boulevard Alexandre-Taché Gatineau J8X 3X7. The Saguenay campus is 637, boulevard Talbot Saguenay G7H 6A4; the Trois-Rivières campus is 3351, boulevard des Forges Pavillon Ringuet, C. P. 500 Trois-Rivières G9A 5H7. ENAP offers a variety of programs: Specialized Graduate Diplomas in Public administration, International administration and Regional administration. Master of Public Administration for Analysts in International administration, Organizational analysis and development, Program evaluation and Human resource management. Master of Urban Management Analysis for Analysts Master of Public Administration for Managers in Public management, International management and Municipal management PhD in Public policy analysis and management and Organizational theory and public management 12 short 15 credit courses Canada School of Public Service École nationale d'administration Official website
"I Can Take It from There" is a song co-written and recorded by American country music artist Chris Young. It was released in October 2012 as the final single from his 2011 album Neon; the song was written by Rhett Akins and Ben Hayslip. Billy Dukes of Taste of Country gave the song three and a half stars out of five, writing that "it’s a perfect radio track, but it’s not one of the best three Chris Young songs of all time." Matt Bjorke of Roughstock gave the song a favorable review, saying that "the melody of the opening track to Neon is pretty much stock and trade of most mainstream country studio sessions of the past 10-15 years but that doesn't mean this is a bad song for any song that has Chris Young singing is gonna rise above the pack." Ben Foster of Country Universe gave the song a B+ grade, writing that the song "illustrates how solid song structure and an inspired performance can lift standard country radio fodder from rote to memorable," calling it "a most delicious nugget of catchiness."
"I Can Take It from There" debuted at number 48 on the U. S. Billboard Country Airplay chart for the week of November 3, 2012, it debuted at number 48 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Songs chart for the week of December 1, 2012, it debuted at number 97 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 chart for the week of February 23, 2013, it debuted at number 95 on the Canadian Hot 100 chart for the week of April 6, 2013. It peaked at number 4 on the Country Airplay chart in April 2013, making it Young's first Top 10 country single to miss the Number One spot. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Garuda Indonesia Flight 035 was a domestic Garuda Indonesia flight that struck a pylon and crashed on approach to Medan-Polonia Airport on 4 April 1987. 23 of the 45 passengers and crew on board were killed in the accident. The aircraft was on an Instrument Landing System approach to Medan Airport in a thunderstorm; the aircraft crashed short of the runway. The aircraft broke up and the tail section separated and fire broke out. Most of the survivors escaped through breaks in the fuselage and 11 were flung free of the aircraft. Four of the eight crew died and 19 passengers suffered fatal injuries due to smoke inhalation and burns. Four crew and 18 passengers suffered serious injuries. All of the fatalities were a result of the fire and not due to the impact with the ground; the flight was carried out by a 1976-built Douglas DC-9-32 registered PK-GNQ. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair