Kaspersky Lab is a multinational cybersecurity and anti-virus provider headquartered in Moscow and operated by a holding company in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1997 by Eugene Kaspersky, Natalya Kaspersky, Alexey De-Monderik. Kaspersky Lab develops and sells antivirus, internet security, password management, endpoint security, other cybersecurity products and services. Kaspersky expanded abroad from 2005–2010 and grew to $698 million in annual revenues by 2017, up 8% from 2016, though annual revenues were down 8% in North America due to U. S. government security concerns. As of 2016, the software has about 400 million users and has the largest market-share of cybersecurity software vendors in Europe. Kaspersky Lab ranks fourth in the global ranking of antivirus vendors by revenue, it was the first Russian company to be included into the rating of the world's leading software companies, called the Software Top 100. Kaspersky Lab is ranked 4th in Endpoint Security segment according to IDC data for 2010.
According to Gartner, Kaspersky Lab is the third largest vendor of consumer IT security software worldwide and the fifth largest vendor of Enterprise Endpoint Protection. Kaspersky Lab has been named a "Leader" in the Gartner Magic Quadrant for Endpoint Protection Platforms; the Kaspersky Global Research and Analysis Team has discovered sophisticated espionage platforms linked to U. S. intelligence, such as Equation Group and the Stuxnet worm. Various covert government-sponsored cyber-espionage efforts were uncovered through their research. Kaspersky publishes the annual Global IT Security Risks Survey; as of 2014, Kaspersky's research hubs analyze more than 350,000 malware samples per day. Kaspersky has faced controversy over allegations that it has engaged with the Russian Federal Security Service —ties which the company has denied; the U. S. Department of Homeland Security banned Kaspersky products from all government departments on 13 September 2017. In October 2017, subsequent reports alleged that hackers working for the Russian government stole confidential data from the home computer of a National Security Agency contractor via Kaspersky antivirus software.
Kaspersky denied the allegations, reporting that the software had detected Equation Group malware samples which it uploaded to its servers for analysis in its normal course of operation. The company has since announced commitments to increased accountability, such as soliciting independent reviews and verification of its software's source code, announcing that it would migrate some of its core infrastructure for foreign customers from Russia to Switzerland; the first version of Kaspersky Lab's antivirus software was developed by Eugene Kaspersky in 1989 in response to the Cascade Virus. Early versions had just 40 virus definitions and were distributed to friends and family members. Eugene continued developing the software at KAMI, resulting in the AntiViral Toolkit Pro product released in 1992, it was popularized in 1994 after a competitive analysis by Hamburg University gave Eugene's software first place. In 1997, Eugene Kaspersky, his wife Natalya Kaspersky, Alexey De-Monderik left KAMI to form Kaspersky Lab, to continue developing the antivirus product called AVP.
The product was renamed Kaspersky Anti-Virus after an American company registered the AVP trademark in the US. In 1998 a Taiwanese student released a virus called CIH. During the first three weeks of the outbreak, Kaspersky Lab's AVP was the only software at the time able to remove it; this increased demand and led to deals with antivirus companies in Japan and Germany to integrate AVP into their software. According to WIRED, Kaspersky's software was "advanced for the time." For example, it was the first software to monitor viruses in an isolated quarantine. The company's revenue grew 280 percent from 1998 to 2000, with about 60 percent of its revenue coming from foreign sales. Natalya localize the software, it opened offices in the UK, Poland and China. It expanded to Germany, the US and Japan. By 2000 the company had 65 sales in more than 40 countries. Kaspersky opened new offices in South East Asia and the Middle East in 2008 and in South Africa in 2009, it expanded in India, the Middle East and Africa in 2010.
In 2009, retail sales of Kaspersky Lab's antivirus products reached 4.5 million copies per year. In 2011 General Atlantic bought a 20 percent share of Kaspersky Lab for $200 million, with the expectation of helping the company go public. A few months the decision was made to keep the firm private and Kaspersky re-purchased the shares from General Atlantic; this was followed by numerous executive departures in 2011 and 2014 regarding disputes over going public and over Eugene's management style. On January 1, 2012, Kaspersky Lab left the Business Software Alliance over SOPA; the BSA had supported the controversial anti-piracy bill, but Kaspersky Lab did not support it stating, "we believe that such measures will be used contrary to the modern advances in technology and the needs of consumers," and to show their disapproval, announced their intent to leave on December 5, 2011. By 2013, the company had an unaudited $667 million in annual revenues. In 2014, Kaspersky Lab signed a distribution deal with Ingram Micro, which expanded its reseller program.
In August 2015, two former Kaspersky employees alleged that the company introduced modified files into the VirusTotal antivirus database to trick software from Kaspersky competitors into triggering false positives in virus and malware scans. A possible motive is that Euge
Avast Software s.r.o. is a Czech multinational cybersecurity software company headquartered in Prague, Czech Republic that researches and develops computer security software, machine learning and artificial intelligence. Avast has more than 435 million monthly active users and the largest market share among anti-malware application vendors worldwide as of January 2018; the company has 1,700 employees across its 25 offices worldwide. Avast was founded by Eduard Kučera in 1988 as a cooperative, it had been a private company since 2010 and had its IPO in May 2018. In July 2016, Avast acquired competitor AVG Technologies for $1.3 billion. At the time, AVG was the third-ranked antivirus product, it is dual-listed on the Prague Stock Exchange and on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Avast was founded by Eduard Kučera and Pavel Baudiš in 1988; the founders met each other at the Research Institute for Mathematical Machines in Czechoslovakia. They studied math and computer science, because the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia would require them to join the communist party to study physics.
At the Institute, Pavel Baudiš discovered the Vienna virus on a floppy disk and developed the first program to remove it. Afterwards, he asked Eduard Kucera to join him in cofounding Avast as a cooperative; the cooperative was called Alwil and only the software was named Avast. The cooperative was changed to a joint partnership in 1991, two years after the velvet revolution caused a regime change in Czechoslovakia; the new regime severed ties with the Soviet Union and reverted the country's economic system to a market economy. In 1995, Avast employee Ondřej Vlček wrote the first antivirus program for the Windows 95 operating system. In the 1990s security researchers at the Virus Bulletin, an IT security testing organization, gave the Avast an award in every category tested, increasing the popularity of the software. However, by the late 1990s, the company was struggling financially. Alwil rebuffed acquisition offers by McAfee, licensing the Avast antivirus engine. By 2001, Alwil was experiencing financial difficulties, when it converted to a freemium model, offering a base Avast software product at no cost.
As a result of the freemium model, the number of users of the software grew to one million by 2004 and 20 million by 2006. Former Symantec executive Vince Steckler was appointed CEO of Avast in 2009. In 2010, Alwil changed its name to Avast, adopting the name of the software, raised $100 million in venture capital investments; the following December, Avast filed for an initial public offering, but withdrew its application the following July, citing changes in market conditions. In 2012, Avast fired its outsourced tech support service iYogi, after it was discovered that iYogi was using misleading sales tactics to persuade customers to buy unnecessary services. By 2013, Avast had been translated into 43 languages. At the time, the company had 350 employees. In 2014, CVC Capital bought an interest in Avast for an undisclosed sum; the purchase valued Avast at $1 billion. That year, Avast acquired mobile app developer Inmite in order to build Avast's mobile apps. Additionally, in 2014 Avast's online support forum was compromised, exposing 400,000 names and email addresses.
By 2015, Avast had the largest share of the market for antivirus software. In July 2016, Avast reached an agreement to buy AVG for $1.3 billion. AVG was a large IT security company that sold software for mobile devices. In July 2017, Avast acquired UK-based Piriform for an undisclosed sum. Piriform was the developer of CCleaner. Shortly afterwards it was disclosed that someone may have created a malicious version of CCleaner with a backdoor for hackers. Avast had its IPO on the London Stock Exchange in May 2018, which valued it at £2.4bn and was one of the UK’s biggest technology listings. Avast develops and markets business and consumer IT security products for servers and mobile devices; the company sells both the acquired AVG-branded products. As of late 2017, the company had merged the AVG and Avast business product lines and were working to integrate the corporate departments from both companies. Additionally, Avast has developed utility software products to improve battery life on mobile devices, cleanup unnecessary files on a hard drive, find secure wireless networks or create a VPN connection to the internet.
Avast and AVG consumer security software are sold on a freemium model, where basic security features are free, but more advanced features require purchasing a premium version. The free version is supported by ads. Additionally, all Avast users provide data about their PC or mobile device to Avast, used to identify new security threats. Antivirus scanning, browser cleanup, a secure browser, password management, network security features are provided for free, while firewall, anti-spam, online banking features have to be purchased. According to PC Pro, the software does not "nag" users about upgrading. About 3% of Avast's users pay for a premium version; the Avast business product family includes features for endpoint protection, Wi-Fi security, identity protection, password management, data protection. For example, the desktop product will look for vulnerabilities in the wi-fi network and run applications suspect of having malicious hardware in an isolated sandbox; the Avast Business Managed Workplace monitors and manages desktops, assesses on-site security protocols.
The company sells management software for IT administrators to deploy and manage Avast installations. PC Magazine gave the Avast free antivirus software an overall score of 8.8 out of 10 and gave AVG a score of 8.4
Stack (abstract data type)
In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations: push, which adds an element to the collection, pop, which removes the most added element, not yet removed. The order in which elements come off a stack gives rise to its alternative name, LIFO. Additionally, a peek operation may give access to the top without modifying the stack; the name "stack" for this type of structure comes from the analogy to a set of physical items stacked on top of each other, which makes it easy to take an item off the top of the stack, while getting to an item deeper in the stack may require taking off multiple other items first. Considered as a linear data structure, or more abstractly a sequential collection, the push and pop operations occur only at one end of the structure, referred to as the top of the stack; this makes it possible to implement a stack as a singly linked list and a pointer to the top element. A stack may be implemented to have a bounded capacity.
If the stack is full and does not contain enough space to accept an entity to be pushed, the stack is considered to be in an overflow state. The pop operation removes an item from the top of the stack. Stacks entered the computer science literature in 1946, when Alan M. Turing used the terms "bury" and "unbury" as a means of calling and returning from subroutines. Subroutines had been implemented in Konrad Zuse's Z4 in 1945. Klaus Samelson and Friedrich L. Bauer of Technical University Munich proposed the idea in 1955 and filed a patent in 1957, in March 1988 Bauer received the Computer Pioneer Award for the invention of the stack principle; the same concept was developed, independently, by the Australian Charles Leonard Hamblin in the first half of 1954. Stacks are described by analogy to a spring-loaded stack of plates in a cafeteria. Clean plates are placed on top of the stack, pushing down any there; when a plate is removed from the stack, the one below it pops up to become the new top. In many implementations, a stack has more operations than "push" and "pop".
An example is "top of stack", or "peek", which observes the top-most element without removing it from the stack. Since this can be done with a "pop" and a "push" with the same data, it is not essential. An underflow condition can occur in the "stack top" operation if the stack is empty, the same as "pop". Implementations have a function which just returns whether the stack is empty. A stack can be implemented either through an array or a linked list. What identifies the data structure as a stack in either case is not the implementation but the interface: the user is only allowed to pop or push items onto the array or linked list, with few other helper operations; the following will demonstrate both implementations. An array can be used to implement a stack; the first element is the bottom, resulting in array being the first element pushed onto the stack and the last element popped off. The program must keep track of the size of the stack, using a variable top that records the number of items pushed so far, therefore pointing to the place in the array where the next element is to be inserted.
Thus, the stack itself can be implemented as a three-element structure: structure stack: maxsize: integer top: integer items: array of item procedure initialize: stk.items ← new array of size items empty stk.maxsize ← size stk.top ← 0 The push operation adds an element and increments the top index, after checking for overflow: procedure push: if stk.top = stk.maxsize: report overflow error else: stk.items ← x stk.top ← stk.top + 1 Similarly, pop decrements the top index after checking for underflow, returns the item, the top one: procedure pop: if stk.top = 0: report underflow error else: stk.top ← stk.top − 1 r ← stk.items return r Using a dynamic array, it is possible to implement a stack that can grow or shrink as much as needed. The size of the stack is the size of the dynamic array, a efficient implementation of a stack since adding items to or removing items from the end of a dynamic array requires amortized O time. Another option for implementing stacks is to use a singly linked list.
A stack is a pointer to the "head" of the list, with a counter to keep track of the size of the list: structure frame: data: item next: frame or nil structure stack: head: frame or nil size: integer procedure initialize: stk.head ← nil stk.size ← 0 Pushing and popping items happens at the head of the list. Some languages, notably those in the Forth family, are designed around language-defined stacks that are directly visible to and manipulated by the programmer; the following is an example of manipulating a stack in Common Lisp: Several of the C
Antivirus software, or anti-virus software known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent and remove malware. Antivirus software was developed to detect and remove computer viruses, hence the name. However, with the proliferation of other kinds of malware, antivirus software started to provide protection from other computer threats. In particular, modern antivirus software can protect users from: malicious browser helper objects, browser hijackers, keyloggers, rootkits, trojan horses, malicious LSPs, fraudtools and spyware; some products include protection from other computer threats, such as infected and malicious URLs, spam and phishing attacks, online identity, online banking attacks, social engineering techniques, advanced persistent threat and botnet DDoS attacks. Although the roots of the computer virus date back as early as 1949, when the Hungarian scientist John von Neumann published the "Theory of self-reproducing automata", the first known computer virus appeared in 1971 and was dubbed the "Creeper virus".
This computer virus infected Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP-10 mainframe computers running the TENEX operating system. The Creeper virus was deleted by a program created by Ray Tomlinson and known as "The Reaper"; some people consider "The Reaper" the first antivirus software written – it may be the case, but it is important to note that the Reaper was a virus itself designed to remove the Creeper virus. The Creeper virus was followed by several other viruses; the first known that appeared "in the wild" was "Elk Cloner", in 1981, which infected Apple II computers. In 1983, the term "computer virus" was coined by Fred Cohen in one of the first published academic papers on computer viruses. Cohen used the term "computer virus" to describe a program that: "affect other computer programs by modifying them in such a way as to include a copy of itself." The first IBM PC compatible "in the wild" computer virus, one of the first real widespread infections, was "Brain" in 1986. From the number of viruses has grown exponentially.
Most of the computer viruses written in the early and mid-1980s were limited to self-reproduction and had no specific damage routine built into the code. That changed when more and more programmers became acquainted with computer virus programming and created viruses that manipulated or destroyed data on infected computers. Before internet connectivity was widespread, computer viruses were spread by infected floppy disks. Antivirus software came into use, but was updated infrequently. During this time, virus checkers had to check executable files and the boot sectors of floppy disks and hard disks. However, as internet usage became common, viruses began to spread online. There are competing claims for the innovator of the first antivirus product; the first publicly documented removal of an "in the wild" computer virus was performed by Bernd Fix in 1987. In 1987, Andreas Lüning and Kai Figge, who founded G Data Software in 1985, released their first antivirus product for the Atari ST platform. In 1987, the Ultimate Virus Killer was released.
This was the de facto industry standard virus killer for the Atari ST and Atari Falcon, the last version of, released in April 2004. In 1987, in the United States, John McAfee founded the McAfee company and, at the end of that year, he released the first version of VirusScan. In 1987, Peter Paško, Rudolf Hrubý, Miroslav Trnka created the first version of NOD antivirus. In 1987, Fred Cohen wrote that there is no algorithm that can detect all possible computer viruses. At the end of 1987, the first two heuristic antivirus utilities were released: Flushot Plus by Ross Greenberg and Anti4us by Erwin Lanting. In his O'Reilly book, Malicious Mobile Code: Virus Protection for Windows, Roger Grimes described Flushot Plus as "the first holistic program to fight malicious mobile code."However, the kind of heuristic used by early AV engines was different from those used today. The first product with a heuristic engine resembling modern ones was F-PROT in 1991. Early heuristic engines were based on dividing the binary in different sections: data section, code section.
Indeed, the initial viruses re-organized the layout of the sections, or overrode the initial portion of section in order to jump to the end of the file where malicious code was located—only going back to resume execution of the original code. This was a specific pattern, not used at the time by any legitimate software, which represented an elegant heuristic to catch suspicious code. Other kinds of more advanced heuristics were added, such as suspicious section names, incorrect header size, regular expressions, partial pattern in-memory matching. In 1988, the growth of antivirus companies continued. In Germany, Tjark Auerbach released the first version of AntiVir. In Bulgaria, Dr. Vesselin Bontchev released his first freeware antivirus program. Frans Veldman released the first version of ThunderByte Antivirus known as TBAV. In Czechoslovakia, Pavel Baudiš and Eduard Kučera started avast! (at th
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Sophos Group plc is a British security software and hardware company. Sophos develops products for communication endpoint, network security, email security, mobile security and unified threat management. Sophos is focused on providing security software to the mid market and pragmatic enterprise from 100- to 5,000-seat organizations. Whilst not a primary focus, Sophos protects home users, through free antivirus software intended to demonstrate product functionality, it is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Sophos was founded by Jan Hruska and Peter Lammer and began producing its first antivirus and encryption products in 1985. During the late 1980s and into the 1990s, Sophos developed and sold a range of security technologies in the UK, including encryption tools available for most users. In the late 1990s, Sophos concentrated its efforts on the development and sale of antivirus technology, embarked on a program of international expansion. In 2003 Sophos acquired ActiveState, a North American software company that developed anti-spam software.
At that time viruses were being spread through email spam and this allowed Sophos to produce a combined anti-spam and antivirus solution. In 2006, Peter Gyenes and Steve Munford were named CEO of Sophos, respectively. Jan Hruska and Peter Lammer remain as members of the board of directors. In 2010, the majority interest of Sophos was sold to Apax. In 2010, Nick Bray Group CFO at Micro Focus International, was named CFO of Sophos. In 2011, Utimaco Safeware AG were accused of supplying data monitoring and tracking software to partners that have sold to governments such as Syria. Sophos issued a statement of apology and confirmed that they had suspended their relationship with the partners in question and launched an investigation. In 2012, Kris Hagerman CEO at Corel Corporation, was named CEO of Sophos and joined the company's board. Former CEO Steve Munford became non-executive chairman of the board. In February 2014, Sophos announced that it had acquired Cyberoam Technologies, a provider of network security products.
In June 2015, Sophos announced plans to raise $US100 million on the London Stock Exchange. From September 2003 to February 2006, Sophos served as the parent company of ActiveState, a developer of programming tools for dynamic programming languages: in February 2006, ActiveState became an independent company when it was sold to Vancouver-based venture capitalist firm Pender Financial. In 2007, Sophos acquired ENDFORCE, a company based in Ohio, United States, which developed and sold security policy compliance and Network Access Control software. In July 2008, Sophos announced its intention to acquire Utimaco Safeware AG. In July 2009, Sophos completed integration of Utimaco Safeware AG. In May 2010, Sophos reached a definitive agreement to sell a majority interest in the company to Apax Partners, a global private equity group. In May 2011, Sophos announced it had entered into an agreement to acquire Astaro, a held provider of network security solutions, headquartered in Wilmington, United States.
In 2012, Sophos acquired what remained of VirusBuster – a Hungarian antivirus firm – after the company had closed. In April 2012, Sophos acquired DIALOGS, a held provider of mobile management solutions headquartered in Germany. In February 2014, Sophos announced that it had acquired Cyberoam Technologies, a leading global provider of network security products. In October 2014, Sophos acquired a leading cloud-based security startup. On December 14, 2015, Sophos acquired SurfRight, a small Dutch company behind HitmanPro to strengthen their endpoint protection products. In November 2016 Sophos acquired Barricade, a pioneering start-up with a powerful behavior-based analytics engine built on machine learning techniques, to strengthen synchronized security capabilities and next-generation network and endpoint protection. In February 2017, Sophos acquired Invincea, a software company that provides malware threat detection and pre-breach forensic intelligence. Antivirus software Comparison of antivirus software Comparison of computer viruses Comparison of firewalls Cryptography Identity-based security Official website Official Gold Partner Latin America Colombia
David Allen Gewirtz is an American journalist, U. S. policy advisor who has written more than 900 articles about technology and national security policy. Gewirtz was featured on The History Channel television special The President's Book of Secrets, which detailed secret information privy only to the President of the United States, he serves as director of the U. S. Strategic Perspective Institute. Gewirtz is a CNN contributor, a CBS contributing editor, the ZDNet Government blogger, he is best known for his non-partisan investigative reporting on the Bush White House e-mail controversy. He is the author of the book Where Have All The E-mails Gone? How Something as Seemingly Benign as White House E-mail Can Have Freaky National Security Consequences which explores the controversy from a technical perspective and, according to The Intelligence Daily, is "the definitive account about the circumstances that led to the loss of administration emails."Gewirtz is the cyberwarfare advisor for the International Association for Counterterrorism & Security Professionals, a columnist for The Journal of Counterterrorism and Homeland Security, has been a guest commentator for the Nieman Watchdog of the Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University.
He is a member of the FBI InfraGard program and is a member of the U. S. Naval Institute. Gewirtz has been awarded the Sigma Xi Research Award in Engineering, he is the author of five books including How To Save Jobs and Where Have All The E-mails Gone?. Gewirtz is an advisory board member for the Technical Communications and Management Certificate program and a member of the instructional faculty at the University of California, Berkeley extension. Gewirtz is a former professor of computer science and has lectured at Princeton University, the University of California, Berkeley, UCLA, Stanford, he is the editor-in-chief of ZATZ Publishing, an independent digital magazine and book publisher. As his main premise, Gewirtz claims that White House e-mail needs to be fixed, he identifies five areas of concern: He first claims the White House's e-mail archiving system is inadequate to the point of negligence. He reports, based on Congressional testimony by White House Chief Information Officer Theresa Payton, that the White House stores its e-mail archives in Microsoft Outlook.
PST files. Based on Payton's testimony and Microsoft's guidelines for Outlook files, Gewirtz claims these files are above their safe storage capacity, his second claim is that the White House has given no technically sound reason for switching e-mail systems from IBM Lotus Notes to Microsoft Outlook. During Payton's testimony phase, Congressman Darrell Issa asked, "Lotus Notes no longer exists, right?" Payton replied, "It is no longer supported. Some groups may still use it, but it is no longer supported." Since Notes is still an supported, high-profile IBM product, Gewirtz asks why such a critical migration was done during a build-up to war. Gewirtz takes issue with the Hatch Act of 1939 for two reasons. First, he claims that since the Hatch Act bans White House staffers from using government e-mail resources for political communication, White House aides used political party e-mail resources instead bypassing the record-keeping requirements of the Presidential Records Act, he claims in the 2,072 days between September 11, 2001 and May 15, 2007, a minimum of 103.6 million messages were sent by White House staffers on Republican National Committee servers.
He claims that insecure messaging puts national security at risk. He claims that since the White House staffers must bypass government servers, their email is traveling across the Internet without necessary security, he cites numerous national security risk scenarios that could occur due to possible interception of White House email messages. Gewirtz cites Congressional testimony by Susan Ralston, one-time aide to Karl Rove, who stated before Congress that Rove had lost his BlackBerry device on more than one occasion. Gewirtz claims that because BlackBerry devices can store significant data, losing these devices poses another security risk; this concern was proven true during the week of April 21, 2008 when Rafael Quintero Curiel, lead press advance man for the Mexican delegation, was caught stealing BlackBerry devices belonging to White House staffers who were attending meetings between U. S. President George W. Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Mexican President Felipe Calderón, who were at the 2008 North American Leaders' Summit.
In a subsequent article after the publication of the book, Gewirtz cites additional Payton statements that show an alarming lack of security for personal computers within the White House and for portable media such as flash drives. Gewirtz makes a series of recommendations, he recommends the Hatch Act be modified to require White House workers to use secured government systems for all communication. He recommends the establishment of a professional, administration-spanning "Electronic Communications Protection Detail" reporting to the United States Secret Service, he recommends the Electronic Communications Protection Detail manage all email and messaging security for White House staff. Gewirtz claims to have voted for both Democrats and Republicans and acknowledges voting for Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton. According to Gewirtz, "At various times in my life, I've called myself a Republican and at other times, a Democrat; these days, both parties have sufficiently pissed me off that I'm pretty much an independent."
Gewirtz writes analysis and commentary for the CNN prime-time program Anderson Cooper 360 and is listed among the program website's official contributors. He is a CBS contributing