International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation
The International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation known by its French name Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme was founded in August 1932 in Chamonix, France when 20 mountaineering associations met for an alpine congress. Count Charles Egmond d’Arcis, from Switzerland, was chosen as the first president and it was decided by the founding members that the UIAA would be an international federation which would be in charge of the "study and solution of all problems regarding mountaineering"; the UIAA Safety Label was created in 1960 and was internationally approved in 1965 and has a global presence on five continents with 86 member associations in 62 countries representing over 3 million people. The UIAA is today the international governing body of climbing and mountaineering and represents climbers and mountaineers around the world on a wide range of issues related to mountain safety and competition sport; the International Climbers’ Meet, the goal of these meets is to foster good will and cultural understanding through our shared passion of climbing by hosting a diverse group of climbing abilities from a multitude of countries.
The UIAA Safety Commission maintains safety standards for climbing equipment. These standards are implemented worldwide by the manufacturers who participate in annual Safety Commission meetings; the Commission has 1,861 products certified. Dynamic Rope UIAA fall count rating The test to determine the fall count uses a 5.1m rope and drops a weight so that it falls 4.8m before experiencing a reaction force from the rope. This means that the weight is falling below the fixed end and there is minimal rope to stretch and absorb the force; the fall count rating is the number of times. For the dynamic rope to be UIAA certified it requires a fall count rating of 5 or more; this number does not indicate that the rope needs to be discarded after this many falls while climbing, since a fall would not have the climber fall beyond the belayer and there is more rope to stretch and absorb the fall. There has been no recorded accidents of a UIAA certified dynamic rope breaking without there being damage from a sharp edge or chemical.
Mountain Medicine Diploma Together with the International Society of Mountain Medicine and the International Commission for Alpine Rescue, the UIAA Medical Commission has established and developed a joint Diploma in Mountain Medicine that establishes minimal requirements for courses in mountain medicine in August 1997. Many course organizers adopted these standards and the Diploma in Mountain Medicine has become a respected qualification; the Medical Commission was founded in 1981. Its history dates back to an earlier time when there were only a few doctors representing the largest mountaineering federations; the commission has grown to include 22 delegated doctors from 18 different mountaineering federations, as well as 16 corresponding members from all over the world. The UIAA Medical Commission has worked closely with the Medical Commission of the International Commission for Alpine Rescue; the current presidents of the UIAA Medical commission and the MedCom ICAR are always on the advisory board of the ISMM.
The UIAA is the world governing body for ice climbing competitions. The annual World Cup circuit and the bi annual World Championship and Youth World Championship are organised on different continents with athletes from over 30 countries participating. Ice climbing The UIAA is the world governing body for ice climbing competitions; the annual UIAA Ice Climbing World Cup circuit and the bi annual World Championship and Youth World Championship are organized in different continents with athletes from over 30 countries participating. There are two ice climbing disciplines and Lead. In Speed, athletes race up an ice face for the best time. In Lead competitions the climbers' ability to master a difficult route in a given time is tested. Anti-Doping Commission The UIAA has adopted the World Anti-Doping Code; the commission oversees the anti-doping testing of athletes who participate in UIAA ice climbing competitions. Global Youth Summit The Global Youth Summit is a series of UIAA youth events where young mountaineers from around the world come together to climb, promote peace and cooperation between countries and work on the protection of the environment.
First implemented ten years ago, it consists of a series of expeditions and camps offered by UIAA member federations to other UIAA member federations and their members. All UIAA Global Youth Summit events are organised and undertaken in strict accordance with the relevant Federation’s regulations and UIAA Youth Commission Handbook & UIAA Youth Commission criteria and recommendations governing such events. Once approved the National Federation or event organiser and their designated leaders have responsibility for the event; the UIAA Youth Commission and UIAA Office may on occasion appoint other responsible persons such as trainers, event organisers and partners. 1932–1964: Count Charles Egmond d'Arcis 1964–1968: Eduard Wyss-Dunant 1968–1972: Albert Eggler 1972–1976: Jean Juge 1976–1984: Pierre Bossus 1984–1990: Carlo Sganzini 1990–1995: Pietro Segantini 1995–2004: Ian McNaught-Davis 2004–2005: Alan Blackshaw 2005–2011: Mike Mortimer 2012–: Frits Vrijlandt UIAA website
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions. These substances are alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate is less than the polar carboxylate to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water. In most household contexts, the term detergent by itself refers to laundry detergent or dish detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of cleaning agents. Detergents are available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents, like soaps, work because they are amphiphilic: hydrophilic and hydrophobic, their dual nature facilitates the mixture of hydrophobic compounds with water. Because air is not hydrophilic, detergents are foaming agents to varying degrees. Detergents are classified into three broad groupings, depending on the electrical charge of the surfactants. Typical anionic detergents are alkylbenzenesulfonates; the alkylbenzene portion of these anions is lipophilic and the sulfonate is hydrophilic.
Two different varieties have been popularized, those with branched alkyl groups and those with linear alkyl groups. The former were phased out in economically advanced societies because they are poorly biodegradable. An estimated 6 billion kilograms of anionic detergents are produced annually for domestic markets. Bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid, are anionic detergents produced by the liver to aid in digestion and absorption of fats and oils. Cationic detergents that are similar to the anionic ones, with a hydrophilic component, instead of the anionic sulfonate group, the cationic surfactants have quaternary ammonium as the polar end; the ammonium sulfate center is positively charged. Non-ionic detergents are characterized by their hydrophilic headgroups. Typical non-ionic detergents are based on a glycoside. Common examples of the former include Tween and the Brij series; these materials are known as ethoxylates or PEGylates and their metabolites, nonylphenol. Glycosides have a sugar as their uncharged hydrophilic headgroup.
Examples maltosides. HEGA and MEGA series detergents are similar. Zwitterionic detergents possess a net zero charge arising from the presence of equal numbers of +1 and −1 charged chemical groups. Examples include CHAPS. See surfactants for more applications. In World War I, there was a shortage of oils. Synthetic detergents were first made in Germany. One of the largest applications of detergents is for household and shop cleaning including dish washing and washing laundry; the formulations are complex, reflecting the diverse demands of the application and the competitive consumer market. Both carburetors and fuel injector components of Otto engines benefit from detergents in the fuels to prevent fouling. Concentrations are about 300 ppm. Typical detergents are long-chain amines and amides such as polyisobuteneamine and polyisobuteneamide/succinimide. Reagent grade detergents are employed for the isolation and purification of integral membrane proteins found in biological cells. Solubilization of cell membrane bilayers requires a detergent that can enter the inner membrane monolayer.
Advancements in the purity and sophistication of detergents have facilitated structural and biophysical characterization of important membrane proteins such as ion channels the disrupt membrane by binding Lipopolysaccharide, signaling receptors, photosystem II. Soap Cleavable detergent Dishwashing liquid Dispersant Green cleaning Hard-surface cleaner Laundry detergent List of cleaning products Triton X-100 About.com: How Do Detergents Clean Campbell tips for detergents chemistry and history related to laundry washing, destaining methods and soil
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water, on ice or on land over a chosen course, part of a larger plan of navigation. A course defined with respect to the true wind direction is called a point of sail. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from sails on a point of sail, too close into the wind. On a given point of sail, the sailor adjusts the alignment of each sail with respect to the apparent wind direction to mobilize the power of the wind; the forces transmitted via the sails are resisted by forces from the hull and rudder of a sailing craft, by forces from skate runners of an iceboat, or by forces from wheels of a land sailing craft to allow steering the course. In the 21st century, most sailing represents a form of sport. Recreational sailing or yachting can be divided into cruising. Cruising can include extended offshore and ocean-crossing trips, coastal sailing within sight of land, daysailing; until the mid of the 19th century, sailing ships were the primary means for marine commerce, this period is known as Age of Sail.
Throughout history sailing has been instrumental in the development of civilization, affording humanity greater mobility than travel over land, whether for trade, transport or warfare, the capacity for fishing. The earliest representation of a ship under sail appears on a painted disc found in Kuwait dating between 5500 and 5000 BCE. Polynesian oceanfarers traveled vast distances of open ocean in outrigger canoes using navigation methods such as stick charts. Advances in sailing technology from the Middle Ages onward enabled Arab, Chinese and European explorers to make longer voyages into regions with extreme weather and climatic conditions. There were improvements in sails and rigging. From the 15th century onwards, European ships went further north, stayed longer on the Grand Banks and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, began to explore the Pacific Northwest and the Western Arctic. Sailing has contributed to many great explorations in the world. According to Jett, the Egyptians used a bipod mast to support a sail that allowed a reed craft to travel upriver with a following wind, as late as 3,500 BCE.
Such sails evolved into the square-sail rig. Such rigs could not sail much closer than 80° to the wind. Fore-and-aft rigs appear to have evolved in Southeast Asia—dates are uncertain—allowing for rigs that could sail as close as 60–75° off the wind; the physics of sailing arises from a balance of forces between the wind powering the sailing craft as it passes over its sails and the resistance by the sailing craft against being blown off course, provided in the water by the keel, underwater foils and other elements of the underbody of a sailboat, on ice by the runners of an ice boat, or on land by the wheels of a sail-powered land vehicle. Forces on sails depend on the speed and direction of the craft; the speed of the craft at a given point of sail contributes to the "apparent wind"—the wind speed and direction as measured on the moving craft. The apparent wind on the sail creates a total aerodynamic force, which may be resolved into drag—the force component in the direction of the apparent wind—and lift—the force component normal to the apparent wind.
Depending on the alignment of the sail with the apparent wind, lift or drag may be the predominant propulsive component. Depending on the angle of attack of a set of sails with respect to the apparent wind, each sail is providing motive force to the sailing craft either from lift-dominant attached flow or drag-dominant separated flow. Additionally, sails may interact with one another to create forces that are different from the sum of the individual contributions each sail, when used alone; the term "velocity" refers both to direction. As applied to wind, apparent wind velocity is the air velocity acting upon the leading edge of the most forward sail or as experienced by instrumentation or crew on a moving sailing craft. In nautical terminology, wind speeds are expressed in knots and wind angles in degrees. All sailing craft reach a constant forward velocity for a given true wind velocity and point of sail; the craft's point of sail affects its velocity for a given true wind velocity. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from the wind in a "no-go" zone, 40° to 50° away from the true wind, depending on the craft.
The directly downwind speed of all conventional sailing craft is limited to the true wind speed. As a sailboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind becomes smaller and the lateral component becomes less. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on a sailboat is sheeted further out as the course is further off the wind; as an iceboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind increases and the boat speed is highest on the broad reach. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on an iceboat is sheeted in for all three points of sail. Lift on a sail, acting as an airfoil, occurs in a direction perpendicular to the incident airstream and is a result of pressure differences between the windward and leeward surfaces and depends on angle of attack, sail shape, air density, speed of the apparent wind; the lift force results from the average pressure on the windward surface of the sail being higher than the ave
In the textile arts, plying is a process used to create a strong, balanced yarn. It is done by taking two or more strands of yarn that each have a twist to them and putting them together; the strands are twisted together, in the direction opposite. When just the right amount of twist is added, this creates a balanced yarn, one which has no tendency to twist upon itself. All store-bought yarns are balanced, plied yarns; the word ply derives from the French verb plier, "to fold", from the Latin verb plico, from the ancient Greek verb πλέκω. A two-ply is thus a yarn plied from two strands, a six-ply is one from six strands, so on. Most commercial yarns are more than a two ply. Embroidery floss is a six-ply yarn, for example; the creation of two-ply yarn requires two separate spools of singles and either a lazy kate or something to hold the spools in place. On a wheel, two-ply is created by taking two spools of singles, placing them on a lazy kate, tying the ends together onto the spool attached to the wheel, spinning the wheel in the opposite direction to that in which the singles were spun, while feeding the yarn onto the spool on the wheel.
On a drop spindle, two-ply is created by placing the spools on a lazy kate, tying the ends together onto the drop spindle, holding equal lengths of singles together and dropping the spindle. The weight of the drop spindle combined with the twist in the singles, causes the drop spindle to turn in the opposite direction that the singles were twisted in until the two singles are plied together; when hand-spinning, there are two common ways to ply a balanced yarn: Navajo. When spinning fleece into yarn, the fleece must be scoured and vegetable matter removed; the fleece is carded or combed and spun into singles. These singles are used to create the finished yarn in a process known as plying; the purpose of plying singles is to strengthen them so that they do not break while knitting or crocheting them. Most spinners ply from bobbins; this is easier than plying from balls because there is less chance for the yarn to become tangled and knotted if it is unwound from the bobbins. So that the bobbins can unwind they are put in a device called a Lazy Kate, or sometimes kate.
The simplest lazy kate consists of wooden bars with a metal rod running between them. Most hold four bobbins; the bobbin sits on the metal rod. Other lazy kates are built with devices that create an adjustable amount of tension, so that if the yarn is jerked, a whole bunch of yarn is not wound off wound up again in the opposite direction; some spinning wheels come with a built-in lazy kate. Regular plying consists of twisting them together, the opposite way; this can be done on either a spindle. The most important thing to remember though is. If in spinning the single the wheel was spinning clockwise, in order to ply it the wheel must spin counter-clockwise; this is. The concept is similar to when a twisted piece of yarn is folded, it twists up on itself, it is most common for singles to be spun with a "Z" twist, plied with an "S" twist. FORMULA FOR S / Z TWIST: CONSIDERING PRIMARY TWIST IS S AND SECONDARY TWIST IS Z, The relationship between S and Z twist is as follows: S:Z = 1:0.8 in regular plying, this formula will make the final thread balanced.
When plying, the singles are kept separate, either with a tool. This tool can be anything from the top of a salt dispenser, the singles threaded through the holes, or a specially carved piece of wood with holes in it; the singles are kept separate to ensure that they do not get tangled and so the tension can be controlled. Navajo plying consists of making large loops, similar to crocheting. Only one single is necessary, if the single is dyed, this technique allows it to be plied without ruining the color scheme; the spinner first makes an 8-inch loop through the loop on the end of the leader. The spinner starts spinning all three strands together in the opposite direction than that they were spun in; when only 2 to 3 inches remain of the loop, a new, 7-inch loop of yarn is pulled through the loop, spinning continues. This process is repeated; this technique allows the spinner to try to match up thick and thin spots in the yarn, thus making for a smoother end product. Machines that ply yarn use the'regular' method mentioned above.
The main difference is that gears control the intake, making sure that the strands all have the same tension and the same length. Other than that, the process for plying is the same as when hand done. Many novelty yarns make use of special plying techniques to gain their special effects. By varying the tension in the strands, or the relative sizes of the strands, or many other factors different effects can be achieved. For example, when a soft, thick strand is plied against a twisted thin strand, the resulting yarn spirals. Another example is bouclé, a yarn where one strand is held loosely and allowed to make loops on the other yarn while plying. Abby Franquemont, Respect the Spindle, spin infinite yarns with one amazing tool, Interweave ISBN 9781596681552, pp100–111
A yacht is a watercraft used for pleasure or sports. The term originates from the Dutch word jacht, was referencing light fast sailing vessels that the Dutch Republic navy used to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries; the yacht was popularized by Charles II of England as a pleasure or recreation vessel following his restoration in 1660. Today's yachts differ from other vessels by their leisure purpose. A yacht is any power vessel used for pleasure, cruising or racing. A yacht does not have to have luxury accommodations to be a yacht, in fact many racing yachts are stripped out vessels with the minimum of accommodations; the term'sailboat' is sometimes used in America to differentiate sail from powerboat. See also'yachting'. There are about 6,500 yacht over 24m on the market. Charter yachts are a subset of yachts used for pleasure, cruising or racing, but run as a business for profit. Ownership can be corporate; the paid crews of these vessels call themselves'yachties'.
Yacht lengths range from 7 metres up to dozens of meters. A luxury craft smaller than 12 metres is more called a cabin cruiser or a cruiser. A superyacht refers to any yacht above 24 m and a megayacht refers to any yacht over 50 metres. A few countries have a special flag worn by recreational boats or ships, which indicates the nationality of the ship. Although inspired by the national flag, the yacht ensign does not always correspond with the civil or merchant ensign of the state in question; the US yacht ensign for example, has a circle of 13 stars and a fouled anchor in the canton instead of the 50 stars, being quite different from the ensign of the United States, the flag of the United States. Yacht ensigns differ from merchant ensigns in order to signal that the yacht is not carrying cargo that requires a customs declaration. Carrying commercial cargo on a boat with a yacht ensign is deemed to be smuggling in many jurisdictions; until the 1950s all yachts were made of wood or steel, but a much wider range of materials is used today.
Although wood hulls are still in production, the most common construction material is fibreglass, followed by aluminium, carbon fibre, ferrocement. The use of wood has changed and is no longer limited to traditional board-based methods, but include modern products such as plywood, skinned balsa and epoxy resins. Wood is used by hobbyists or wooden boat purists when building an individual boat. Apart from materials like carbon fibre and aramid fibre, spruce veneers laminated with epoxy resins have the best weight-to-strength ratios of all boatbuilding materials. Sailing yachts can range in overall length from about 6 metres to well over 30 metres, where the distinction between a yacht and a ship becomes blurred. Most owned yachts fall in the range of about 7 metres -14 metres. In the United States, sailors tend to refer to smaller yachts as sailboats, while referring to the general sport of sailing as yachting. Within the limited context of sailboat racing, a yacht is any sailing vessel taking part in a race, regardless of size.
Many modern racing sail yachts have efficient sail-plans, most notably the Bermuda rig, that allow them to sail close to the wind. This capability is the result of a hull design oriented towards this capability. Day sailing yachts are small, at under 6 metres in length. Sometimes called sailing dinghies, they have a retractable keel, centreboard, or daggerboard. Most day sailing yachts do not have a cabin, as they are designed for hourly or daily use and not for overnight journeys, they may have a'cuddy' cabin, where the front part of the hull has a raised solid roof to provide a place to store equipment or to offer shelter from wind or spray. Weekender yachts are larger, at under 9.5 metres in length. They may have twin keels or lifting keels such as in trailer sailers; this allows them to operate in shallow waters, if needed "dry out"—become beached as the tide falls. This is important in UK waters; the hull shape allows the boat to sit upright. Such boats are designed to undertake short journeys lasting more than 2 or 3 days.
In coastal areas, long trips may be undertaken in a series of short hops. Weekenders have only a simple cabin consisting of a single "saloon" with bedspace for two to four people. Clever use of ergonomics allows space in the saloon for a galley and navigation equipment. There is limited space for stores of food. Most are single-masted "Bermuda sloops", with a single foresail of the jib or genoa type and a single mainsail; some are gaff rigged. The smallest of this type called pocket yachts or pocket cruisers, trailer sailers can be transported on special trailers. Cruising yachts are by far the most common yacht in private use, making up most of the 7–14-metre range; these vessels can be quite complex in design, as they need a balance between docile handling qualities, interior space, good light-wind performance and on-board comfort. The huge range of such craft, from dozens of builders worldwide, makes it hard to give a single illustrative description. However, most favor a teardrop-planform hull, with a fine bow, a wide, flat bottom and deep single-fin keel with ample beam to give good stability.
Most are single-masted Bermuda rigged sloops, with a single fo
Hemp, or industrial hemp found in the northern hemisphere, is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species, grown for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago, it can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, clothing, biodegradable plastics, insulation, biofuel and animal feed. Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol, they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol, which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects; the legality of industrial hemp varies between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp, bred with an low THC content; the etymology is uncertain but there appears to be no common Proto-Indo-European source for the various forms of the word.
It appears to have been borrowed into Latin, separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic and Germanic languages. Following Grimm's law, the "k" would have changed to "h" with the first Germanic sound shift, after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep. However, this theory assumes that hemp was not spread among different societies until after it was being used as a psychoactive drug, which Adams and Mallory believe to be unlikely based on archaeological evidence. Barber however, argued that the spread of the name "kannabis" was due to its more recent drug use, starting from the south, around Iran, whereas non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric. Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, the name for a source of oil and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. Cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages include Dutch hennep and Norwegian hamp, German Hanf, Swedish hampa. Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, clothing, food, bioplastics and biofuel.
The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. The inner two fibers of the plant are more woody and have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter; when oxidized, hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well. A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. Hemp seeds can be sprouted or made into dried sprout powder. Hemp seeds can be made into a liquid and used for baking or for beverages such as hemp milk and tisanes. Hemp oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids; the leaves of the hemp plant, while not as nutritional as the seeds, are edible and can be consumed raw as leafy vegetables in salads, pressed to make juice.
In 2011, the U. S. imported $11.5 million worth of hemp products driven by growth in the demand for hemp seed and hemp oil for use as ingredients in foods such as granola. In the UK, the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0.2% THC concentration, hemp seeds can be imported for sowing or for sale as a food or food ingredient. In the U. S. imported hemp can be used in food products and, as of 2000, was sold in health food stores or through mail order. A 100-gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 586 calories, they contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value of protein per 100-gram serving. Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber, B vitamins, the dietary minerals manganese, magnesium and iron. About 73% of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.
Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk and soy. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores, which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hempseed meal, 0.63–0.66 for hulled hempseed. Hemp oil oxidizes and turns rancid within a short period of time. Both light and heat can degrade hemp oil. Hemp fiber has been used extensively throughout history, with production climaxing soon after being introduced to the New World. For centuries, items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials were made from hemp fiber. Hemp was commonly used to make sail canvas; the word "canvas" is derived from the word cannabis. Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen; because of its versatility for use in a variety of products, today hemp is used in a number of consumer goods, including clothing, accessories, dog collars, ho
A chain sinnet is a method of shortening a rope or other cable while in use or for storage. It is formed by making a series of simple crochet-like stitches in the line, it can reduce tangling while a rope is being washed in a washing machine. To tie: Create a loop in the rope. Pull a bight of the working part through the loop, creating an overhand noose knot. Pull another bight of the working part through the loop of the previous stitch. Tighten the stitch to the desired degree by pulling on the both sides of the loop. Adjust the loop by pulling on the working end to keep it a reasonable size. Repeat steps 2–3 until the rope has been sufficiently shortened. To lock the sinnet, pass the working end through the final loop. To restore the rope to its original length, pull the end passed in the last step back through the final loop and pull on the free end; the sinnet will unravel. As an alternative for long ropes the rope can be doubled one or more times before chaining. All one needs to do is keep hold of one end and feed through out of the pile of rope to the other end start from the two conjoined ends, or keep hold of the two ends, feed back to the middle and start chaining.
This can be done in confined spaces or dangling in mid-air if need be, is a common way to manage caving ropes without introducing troublesome twist. List of knots Chain stitch Coil knot Daisy chain Sennit Sling Chain stitch with animation Boater's Tip: The Chain Sinnet Knot