Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed "the Red Devils", the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won more trophies than any other club in English football, with a record 20 League titles, 12 FA Cups, 5 League Cups and a record 21 FA Community Shields. United have won three UEFA Champions Leagues, one UEFA Europa League, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the club became the first in the history of English football to achieve the continental European treble. By winning the UEFA Europa League in 2016–17, they became one of five clubs to have won all three main UEFA club competitions; the 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players.
In 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies as manager, including 13 Premier League titles, 5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, between 1986 and 2013, when he announced his retirement. Manchester United was the highest-earning football club in the world for 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €676.3 million, the world's most valuable football club in 2018, valued at £3.1 billion. As of June 2015, it is the world's most valuable football brand, estimated to be worth $1.2 billion. After being floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1991, the club was purchased by Malcolm Glazer in May 2005 in a deal valuing the club at £800 million, after which the company was taken private again, before going public once more in August 2012, when they made an initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. Manchester United is one of the most supported football clubs in the world, has rivalries with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United.
Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. The team played games against other departments and railway companies, but on 20 November 1880, they competed in their first recorded match. By 1888, the club had become a founding member of a regional football league. Following the league's dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance, which ran for three seasons before being merged with the Football League; this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the "LYR" from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division. In January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £280,000 in 2019 – the club was served with a winding-up order. Captain Harry Stafford found four local businessmen, including John Henry Davies, each willing to invest £500 in return for a direct interest in running the club and who subsequently changed the name.
Under Ernest Mangnall, who assumed managerial duties in 1903, the team finished as Second Division runners-up in 1906 and secured promotion to the First Division, which they won in 1908 – the club's first league title. The following season began with victory in the first Charity Shield and ended with the club's first FA Cup title. Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, where it remained until regaining promotion in 1925. Relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Following the death of principal benefactor John Henry Davies in October 1927, the club's finances deteriorated to the extent that Manchester United would have gone bankrupt had it not been for James W. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000 and assumed control of the club.
In the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. In October 1945, the impending resumption of football led to the managerial appointment of Matt Busby, who demanded an unprecedented level of control over team selection, player transfers and training sessions. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947, 1948 and 1949, to FA Cup victory in 1948. In 1952, the club won its first league title for 41 years, they won back-to-back league titles in 1956 and 1957. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season. En route to the semi-final, which they lost to Real Madrid, the team recorded a 10–0 victory over Belgian champions Anderlecht, which remains the club's biggest victory on record; the following season, on the way home from a European Cup quarter-final victory against Red Star Belgrade, the aircraft carrying the Manchester United players and journalists crashed while attempting to take off after refuelling in Munich, Germany.
Millwall Football Club is a professional football club in Bermondsey, South East London, England. The team competes in the second tier of English football. Founded as Millwall Rovers in 1885, the club has retained its name despite having last played in the Millwall area of the Isle of Dogs in 1910. From until 1993 the club played at what is now called The Old Den in New Cross, before moving to its current home stadium nearby, called The Den; the traditional club crest is a lion rampant, referred to in the team's nickname'The Lions'. Millwall's traditional kit consists of white shorts and blue socks. In Millwall's 91 seasons in the Football League from 1920–21 to 2017–18, the club have been promoted eleven times and relegated nine times, they have spent the majority of their existence yo-yoing between the second and third tier of the Football League. The team spent two seasons in the top flight between 1988 and 1990, in which the club achieved its highest finish of tenth place in the First Division.
In 2004, the team reached the FA Cup final and qualified for the UEFA Cup, playing in Europe for the first time in their history. The club has reached the FA Cup semi-finals in 1900, 1903, 1937, 2013 and the League Cup quarter-finals in 1974, 1977 and 1995. Millwall have won two League One playoff finals in 2010 and 2017, the Football League Group Cup in 1983, finished runners-up in the Football League Trophy in 1999. In the media, Millwall's supporters have been associated with hooliganism, with numerous films having been made fictionalising their notoriety; the fans are renowned for their chant "No one likes us, we don't care". Millwall have a long-standing rivalry with West Ham United; the local derby between the two sides has been contested a hundred times since 1899. The club share a rivalry with Leeds United, contest the South London derby with local rivals Crystal Palace and Charlton Athletic. Millwall Rovers were formed by the workers of J. T. Morton's canning and preserve factory in the Millwall area of the Isle of Dogs in London's East End in 1885.
Founded in Aberdeen in 1849 to supply sailing ships with food, the company opened their first English cannery and food processing plant at Millwall dock in 1872 and attracted a workforce from across the country, including the east coast of Scotland Dundee. The club secretary was 17-year-old Jasper Sexton, the son of the landlord of The Islander pub in Tooke Street where Millwall held their club meetings. Millwall Rovers' first fixture was held on a piece of waste ground on Glengall Road, on 3 October 1885 against Fillebrook, a team that played in Leytonstone; the newly formed team were beaten 5–0. Rovers found a better playing surface for the 1886–87 season, at the rear of the Lord Nelson pub and it became known as the Lord Nelson Ground. In November 1886, the East End Football Association was formed, along with the Senior Cup Competition. Millwall made it to the final against London Caledonians, played at Leyton Cricket Ground; the match finished the teams shared the cup for six months each.
Millwall won the East London Senior Cup at the first attempt. The club won the cup in the following two years, the trophy became their property. In April 1889, a resolution was passed for Millwall to drop "Rovers" from their name, they began playing under the name Millwall Athletic, inspired by their move to their new home The Athletic Grounds, they were founding members of the Southern Football League which they won for the first two years of its existence, were runners-up in its third. They were forced to move to a new ground North Greenwich in 1901, as the Millwall Dock Company wanted to use their land as a timberyard. Millwall Athletic reached the semi-finals of the FA Cup in 1900 and 1903, were champions of the Western Football League in 1908 and 1909. Millwall moved to a new stadium, named The Den, in New Cross, South London in 1910; the club had occupied four different grounds in the 25 years since their formation in East London. The estimated cost of The Den was £10,000; the first match played at the new ground was on 22 October 1910 against reigning Southern League champions Brighton & Hove Albion, who won 1–0.
Millwall, who had now dropped "Athletic" from their name, were invited to join the Football League in 1920 for the 1920–21 season, along with 22 other clubs, through the creation of the new Football League Third Division. The Southern League was shorn of its status, with all its clubs deciding to leave—Millwall followed suit. Millwall's first Football League match was on 28 August 1920 at The Den, they were 2–0 winners against Bristol Rovers. In the 1925–26 season Millwall had 11 consecutive clean sheets, a Football League record, which they hold jointly with York City and Reading. Millwall became known as a hard-fighting Cup team and competed in various memorable matches, notably defeating three-time league winners and reigning champions Huddersfield Town 3–1 in the third round of the 1926–27 FA Cup. In the 1927–28 season Millwall won the Third Division South title and scored 87 goals at home in the league, an English record which still stands. Matches against Sunderland and Derby County saw packed crowds of 48,000-plus in the 1940s.
Their 1937 FA Cup run saw Millwall reach the semi-finals for the third time, a fifth-round game against Derby still stands as Millwall's record attendance of 48,762. Millwall were the 11th best supported team in England despite being in the Second Division. Millwall were one of the most financially wealthy clubs in England; the club proposed signed international players. Wi
The FA Cup known as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout football competition in men's domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest national football competition in the world, it is named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2019 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent women's tournament is held, the FA Women's Cup; the competition is open to any eligible club down to Level 10 of the English football league system – all 92 professional clubs in the Premier League and the English Football League, several hundred "non-league" teams in Steps 1 to 6 of the National League System. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12; the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the final. Entrants are not seeded, although a system of byes based on league level ensures higher ranked teams enter in rounds – the minimum number of games needed to win, depending on which round a team enters the competition, ranges from six to fourteen.
The first six rounds are the Qualifying Competition, from which 32 teams progress to the first round of the Competition Proper, meeting the first of the 48 professional teams from Leagues One and Two. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper. In the modern era, only one non-league team has reached the quarter-finals, teams below Level 2 have never reached the final; as a result, significant focus is given to those "minnows" who progress furthest if they achieve an unlikely "giant-killing" victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have been five actual cups. Winners qualify for the Europa League and a place in the FA Community Shield match. Chelsea are the current holders. Arsenal are the most successful club with 13 titles. Arsène Wenger is the most successful manager in the history of the competition, having won seven finals as manager of Arsenal. In 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then.
On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the FA Secretary C. W. Alcock proposed to the FA committee that "it is desirable that a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association for which all clubs belonging to the Association should be invited to compete"; the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, on 16 March 1872. Wanderers retained the trophy the following year; the modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, when qualifying rounds were introduced. Following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, did not resume until 1919–20; the 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium. Due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Due to the wartime breaks, the competition did not celebrate its centenary year until 1980–81.
Having featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the 2001–2006 finals being played at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff; the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria. All clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the next six levels are eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup, FA Trophy or FA Vase competitions in the previous season. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and 2006–07, may not therefore play in the FA Cup in their first season. All clubs entering the competition must have a suitable stadium, it is rare for top clubs to miss the competition, although it can happen in exceptional circumstances.
Manchester United did not defend their title in 1999–2000, as they were in the inaugural Club World Championship. The club stated that entering both tournaments would overload their fixture schedule and make it more difficult to defend their Champions League and Premier League titles; the club claimed. The move benefited United as they received a two-week break and won the 1999–2000 league title by an 18-point margin, although they did not progress past the group stage of the Club World Championship; the withdrawal from the FA Cup, drew considerable criticism as this weakened the tournament's prestige and Sir Alex Ferguson admitted his regret regarding their handling of the situation. Welsh sides that play in English leagues are eligible, although since the creation of the League of Wales there are only six clubs remaining: Cardiff City, Swansea City, Newport County, Merthyr Town and Colwyn Bay. In the early years other teams from Wales, Ireland a
Kenneth William "Ken" Bates is a British businessman, football executive and hotelier. He was involved in forming the Premier League, the development of Wembley Stadium and is the former owner and chairman of football clubs Chelsea and Leeds United. Bates spent five years as chairman of Oldham Athletic during the 1960s and had a spell at Wigan Athletic. In 1982, he purchased Chelsea for £1. During his tenure, he helped the club win a long-running battle with property developers who were attempting to evict them from their Stamford Bridge home. By the end of his reign, Chelsea were finishing in the top six of the Premier League and had won their first major trophies since the 1970s, although they had a debt burden of around £80 million. In July 2003, he sold the club to Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich from whom he received £18 million. In January 2005, Bates bought a 50% stake in Leeds United, another club struggling under a heavy debt burden. In May 2007, Leeds entered administration, were relegated to League One.
The Club regained Championship status in 2010 and, in May 2011, it was confirmed that Bates had become the sole owner. In November 2012, Bates sold his holdings in Leeds United to GFH Capital. Bates was born in Ealing in 1931, his mother died shortly afterwards and his father absconded, so he was raised by his grandparents in a council flat. He grew up supporting Queens Park Rangers but was unsuccessful in pursuing a playing career in football, he made his personal fortune in the haulage industry and moved into quarrying, ready-mix concrete and dairy farming. Bates was involved with various other enterprises during the 1960s and 1970s, including projects on the British Virgin Islands and in Rhodesia; the Leeds United fanzine Square Ball has published a photograph of Bates with Rhodesian PM Ian Smith during a 1967 tour by Oldham Athletic, when Rhodesia was subject to UN sanctions. Square Ball has reported, having worked with a documentary made in the British Virgin Islands, that Bates attempted to purchase the island of Tortola on a 199-year lease, but was thwarted after protests by islanders caused the local government to change its decision and investigations began by the British government.
The original agreement to lease the island was known as the Bates-Hill Agreement. Today, a park on Tortola is named after Noel Lloyd, a resident of the island who led the opposition to the agreement. In 1976, he set up the Irish Trust Bank, but it was wound up leaving thousands of investors out-of-pocket. After having been chairman of Oldham Athletic for five years in the 1960s, in 1980 Bates became co-owner and vice chairman of Wigan Athletic with his old business associate Feddie Pye, he provided significant finance by way of bank guarantees that enabled the manager, Larry Lloyd, to sign a number of players, not the least of, Eamonn O'Keefe from Everton for £65,000. The Latics duly gained promotion under Lloyd to the Third Division in May 1982. In 1982, Bates purchased Chelsea for £1; when he purchased the club they were in serious financial trouble, as well as being tarnished by a notorious hooligan element among their support. They were struggling in the Football League Second Division, a stark contrast to their successful era from 1955 to 1971, when they had won a Football League First Division title, an FA Cup, Football League Cup and European Cup Winners' Cup.
After narrowly escaping relegation to the Third Division in the 1982–83 season, Bates made the funds available to manager John Neal to sign players including Kerry Dixon, David Speedie, Pat Nevin, Mickey Thomas, Eddie Niedzwiecki and Nigel Spackman, who helped the club win promotion and re-establish themselves in the top-flight with consecutive top six finishes. Chelsea have spent all but one season in the top flight of English football since 1984, by the time Bates stepped down as chairman in 2003 they were re-established as one of English football's leading sides, having achieved seven successive top six finishes in the Premier League and won several major trophies as well as signing a succession of high-profile players, including many foreign international stars. In the early years, he fought a successful and long-running legal battle with property developers, Marler Estates, who had purchased a substantial portion of the freehold of Stamford Bridge, Chelsea's home ground, he re-united the freehold with the club after Marler's bankruptcy following a market crash, which allowed him to do a deal with their banks and create the Chelsea Pitch Owners, an organisation set-up to stave off future developers and attempted to make the club more financially viable.
He had Stamford Bridge rebuilt as an all-seater stadium by 1995, by 2001 it had a capacity of more than 42,000. In the mid-1980s, he famously erected an electric perimeter fence around the pitch at Stamford Bridge to prevent pitch invasions, but the fence was soon dismantled after the local council refused him permission to turn the electricity on. Bates spent 21 years at Chelsea, during which time he attracted the headlines on many occasions and employed no fewer than nine managers, his match-day programme notes, in which he attacked various individuals, were controversial. In 2002, he was sued for libel by Chelsea supporter David Johnstone after describing fans' group, the Chelsea Independent Supporters Association, as parasites. During the 1990s, he was involved in a bitter dispute with Chelsea benefactor and vice-chairman, Matthew Harding, over the club's direction, which led to Harding's being banned from the Chelsea boardroom; the dispute was ended by Harding'
1986 FIFA World Cup
The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from 31 May to 29 June 1986. The tournament was the second to feature a 24-team format. With European nations not allowed to host after the previous World Cup in Spain, Colombia had been chosen to host the competition by FIFA but due to economic reasons, was not able to do so and resigned in 1982. Mexico was selected as the new host in May 1983, thus becoming the first country to host the World Cup more than once; this was the third FIFA World Cup tournament in succession, hosted by a Spanish-speaking country, after Argentina 1978, Spain 1982. It was won by Argentina. Argentina was captained by the 25-year old Diego Maradona, who played a large part in his team's success. Maradona scored the "Hand of God" goal, as well as another voted "Goal of the Century", in the same quarter-final against England; these were two of the five goals that Maradona scored during the tournament, he created another five for his teammates. Argentina beat West Germany 3–2 in the final at Mexico City's Estadio Azteca.
Total attendance was 2,394,031, an average per match of 46,039. Canada and Iraq made their first appearances at the final stage; the format of the competition changed from 1982. The final pair of matches in each group started at the same time and the second round was played on a knock-out basis rather than groups; the 24 teams qualified were divided into six groups of four. The top two teams and the four best third-place finishers from the six groups advanced to the knockout round of 16 teams. Italy were the defending champions, but were eliminated by France in the Round of 16; the 1986 World Cup saw the appearance of an audience phenomenon dubbed the Mexican wave, popularised worldwide after featuring during the tournament. Colombia was chosen as hosts by FIFA in June 1974. However, the Colombian authorities declared on 5 November 1982 that they could not afford to host the World Cup under the terms that FIFA demanded because of economic concerns. Mexico was selected on 20 May 1983 as the replacement hosts, beating the bids of Canada and the United States, thereby became the first nation to host two World Cups.
This second World Cup in Mexico came 16 years after the first one in 1970. A severe earthquake in September 1985, eight months before the tournament, cast doubt over Mexico's ability to organize the event, but the stadia were not affected and it was decided to go ahead with the preparations; as 1986 had been declared the International Year of Peace by the United Nations, the advertising boards of all the stadia displayed the FIFA and United Nations logos along with the legend "Football for Peace – Peace Year". For the design of the logo an unofficial motto was adopted: "El Mundo Unido por Un Balón"; the official mascot of the 1986 World Cup was Pique, a jalapeño pepper, characteristic of Mexican cuisine, with a moustache, a Colimote sombrero, Mexican football team colours. Its name comes from picante, Spanish for spicy, was a pun on the "PK" abbreviation of the football term penalty kick; the character caused a degree of controversy within Mexico for its ethnic stereotypes. Three teams qualified for the World Cup for the first time: Canada and Iraq.
Canada clinched its spot after winning the final match against Honduras 2–1 in St. John's, Newfoundland. Iraq played. South Korea qualified for the first time since 1954, Paraguay for the first time since 1958, Portugal for the first time since 1966 and Bulgaria and Uruguay for the first time since 1974; as of 2018, this was the last time that Hungary, Canada and Northern Ireland qualified for the finals. In addition, this was the last time that the United States did not qualify for the finals until the 2018 tournament; the following 24 teams qualified for the final tournament. Eleven cities hosted the tournament; the Azteca Stadium in Mexico City, the largest stadium used for the tournament, hosted nine matches, more than any other stadium used. Mexico City hosted. Guadalajara, Mexico's second largest city hosted 10 total matches, Monterrey hosted 8 matches, the Cuauhtémoc Stadium in Puebla hosted 5 matches; the hot and rainy summer weather in Mexico varied from humid desert locations like Monterrey to tropical locations such as Guadalajara.
With the exception of the 93-104 °F temperatures of Monterrey, all of the stadia were located in cities that varied anywhere from Guadalajara being 5,138 feet above sea level to Toluca being 8,730 feet above sea level, making conditions difficult for the players running around in these stadia- but the higher the cities, the less intense the heat. Mexico City, the location of the final match and the location where the most matches were played was 7,380 feet above sea level and the weather there was not as hot as in other cities used in this World Cup. All of these venues except Monterrey were located in central Mexico, as this tournament was organized with the the
Liverpool Football Club is a professional football club in Liverpool, that competes in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. The club has won 5 European Cups, more than any other English club, 3 UEFA Cups, 3 UEFA Super Cups, 18 League titles, 7 FA Cups, a record 8 League Cups, 15 FA Community Shields. Founded in 1892, the club joined the Football League the following year and has played at Anfield since its formation. Liverpool established itself as a major force in English and European football in the 1970s and 1980s when Bill Shankly and Bob Paisley led the club to 11 League titles and seven European trophies. Under the management of Rafael Benítez and captained by Steven Gerrard, Liverpool became European champions for the fifth time in 2005. Liverpool was the ninth highest-earning football club in the world in 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €424.2 million, the world's eighth most valuable football club in 2018, valued at $1.944 billion. The club is one of the best supported teams in the world.
Liverpool has long-standing rivalries with Manchester Everton. The club's supporters have been involved in two major tragedies: the Heysel Stadium disaster, where escaping fans were pressed against a collapsing wall at the 1985 European Cup Final in Brussels, with 39 people – Italians and Juventus fans – dying, after which English clubs were given a five-year ban from European competition, the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, where 96 Liverpool supporters died in a crush against perimeter fencing; the team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964, used since. The club's anthem is "You'll Never Walk Alone". Liverpool F. C. was founded following a dispute between the Everton committee and John Houlding, club president and owner of the land at Anfield. After eight years at the stadium, Everton relocated to Goodison Park in 1892 and Houlding founded Liverpool F. C. to play at Anfield. Named "Everton F. C. and Athletic Grounds Ltd", the club became Liverpool F. C. in March 1892 and gained official recognition three months after The Football Association refused to recognise the club as Everton.
The team won the Lancashire League in its début season, joined the Football League Second Division at the start of the 1893–94 season. After finishing in first place the club was promoted to the First Division, which it won in 1901 and again in 1906. Liverpool reached its first FA Cup Final in 1914, it won consecutive League championships in 1922 and 1923, but did not win another trophy until the 1946–47 season, when the club won the First Division for a fifth time under the control of ex-West Ham Utd centre half George Kay. Liverpool suffered its second Cup Final defeat in 1950; the club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1953–54 season. Soon after Liverpool lost 2–1 to non-league Worcester City in the 1958–59 FA Cup, Bill Shankly was appointed manager. Upon his arrival he released 24 players and converted a boot storage room at Anfield into a room where the coaches could discuss strategy; the club was promoted back into the First Division in 1962 and won it in 1964, for the first time in 17 years.
In 1965, the club won its first FA Cup. In 1966, the club won the First Division but lost to Borussia Dortmund in the European Cup Winners' Cup final. Liverpool won both the League and the UEFA Cup during the 1972–73 season, the FA Cup again a year later. Shankly was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley. In 1976, Paisley's second season as manager, the club won another UEFA Cup double; the following season, the club retained the League title and won the European Cup for the first time, but it lost in the 1977 FA Cup Final. Liverpool retained the European Cup in 1978 and regained the First Division title in 1979. During Paisley's nine seasons as manager Liverpool won 21 trophies, including three European Cups, a UEFA Cup, six League titles and three consecutive League Cups. Paisley was replaced by his assistant, Joe Fagan. Liverpool won the League, League Cup and European Cup in Fagan's first season, becoming the first English side to win three trophies in a season. Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985, against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium.
Before kick-off, Liverpool fans breached a fence which separated the two groups of supporters, charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a retaining wall to collapse, killing 39 fans Italians; the incident became known as the Heysel Stadium disaster. The match was played in spite of protests by both managers, Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus; as a result of the tragedy, English clubs were banned from participating in European competition for five years. Fourteen Liverpool fans received convictions for involuntary manslaughter. Fagan had announced his retirement just before the disaster and Kenny Dalglish was appointed as player-manager. During his tenure, the club won another three league titles and two FA Cups, including a League and Cup "Double" in the 1985–86 season. Liverpool's success was overshadowed by the Hillsborough disaster: in an FA Cup semi-final against Nottingham Forest on 15 April 1989, hundreds of Liverpool fans were crushed against perimeter fencing. Ninety-four fans died that day.
After the Hillsborough disaster there was a government review of stadium saf