James Cantey was a Confederate States Army brigadier general during the American Civil War. He was a lawyer, state legislator in South Carolina and officer in the Mexican–American War before the war and a planter in Alabama both before and after the war. James Cantey was born on December 1818 in Camden, South Carolina. After graduating from South Carolina College, where he was a member of the Euphradian Society, he studied law and practiced law in Camden. Cantey was a two-term state legislator in South Carolina. Cantey was an officer in the Palmetto Regiment in the Mexican–American War, rising to the grade of captain, he was wounded during the war. After the end of the Mexican -- American War, Cantey became a planter in Alabama. Cantey served in the Mexican -- American War, he was left among the dead, but his slave servant went to retrieve his body to bury at home, but he saw faint signs of life. His servant's actions saved his life; because of this, his servant was offered his freedom. James Cantey helped form and was elected colonel of the 15th Alabama Infantry Regiment in 1861, in which he organized "Cantey's Rifles".
In 1862, he led the regiment in Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign. At the First Battle of Winchester, on May 25, 1862, Cantey's regiment fought in Brigadier General Isaac Trimble's brigade of Major General Richard S. Ewell's division and helped turn back the Union Army advance. At the Battle of Cross Keys, the 15th Alabama Infantry was nearly cut off from the main force but fought their way back; as part of Trimble's attack, the 15th Regiment Alabama Infantry helped flank the Union force and drive them back. The regiment fought with Jackson in the Seven Days Battles in the Richmond, Virginia area. Thereafter, Cantey was detached and sent to Mobile, Alabama from January 1863 through April 1864, where he organized a brigade of three Alabama regiments and one Mississippi regiment. Cantey was transferred to the Army of Tennessee, he was appointed a brigadier general to rank from January 8, 1863. He was absent from his command due to illness but led a division for short period of time in May and June 1864.
His brigade fought in Franklin -- Nashville Campaign. When present, he led the brigade with distinction, such as when his brigade held off a much larger Union force at the Battle of Resaca, Georgia. Cantey and his brigade fought at General Joseph E. Johnston's last battle, the Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina. Cantey's brigade surrendered with Johnston's forces at North Carolina. Although Longacre states that Cantey surrendered with Johnston and Warner state that no record of Brigadier General Cantey's capture or parole has been found. After the Civil War, James Cantey returned to his plantation near Alabama, he died at the plantation on June 30, 1874. James Cantey is buried in the Crowell family cemetery at Alabama. List of American Civil War generals Boatner, Mark Mayo, III; the Civil War Dictionary. New York: McKay, 1988. ISBN 0-8129-1726-X. First published New York, McKay, 1959. Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
Longacre, Edward G. "Cantey, James" in Historical Times Illustrated History of the Civil War, edited by Patricia L. Faust. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. ISBN 978-0-06-273116-6. P. 112. Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 0-8160-1055-2. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 0-8071-0823-5
Robert Mills (architect)
Robert Mills, a South Carolina architect known for designing both the first Washington Monument, located in Baltimore, Maryland, as well as the better known monument to the first president in the nation's capital, Washington, DC. He is sometimes said to be the first native-born American to be professionally trained as an architect.} Charles Bulfinch of Boston has a clearer claim to this honor. Mills studied in Charleston, South Carolina, as a student of Irish architect James Hoban, worked with him on his commission for the White House; this became the official home of US presidents. Both Hoban and Mills were Freemasons. Mills studied and worked with Benjamin Henry Latrobe of Philadelphia, he designed numerous buildings in Philadelphia and South Carolina, where he was appointed as superintendent of public buildings. His Washington Monument in Washington, DC was not completed until 30 years after his death. Born in Charleston, South Carolina, to Ann and William Mills, Robert received private education as a child.
He attended the College of Charleston, where he graduated at age 19. He had studied with Irish architect James Hoban. Mills followed his mentor Hoban to Washington, DC, as he had gotten the commission for design and construction of the White House in the new capital. During this time, Mills met Thomas Jefferson, who became the first full-term resident of the new presidential residence. In 1802 Mills moved to Philadelphia, where he became an associate and student of Benjamin Henry Latrobe; some Philadelphia buildings that Mills designed are Washington Hall, Samson Street Baptist Church, the Octagon Church for the First Unitarian Church of Philadelphia. He designed the Upper Ferry Bridge covering. Mills designed the First Presbyterian Church in Augusta, Georgia in 1807, built between 1809 and 1812. In 1808 Mills created blueprints for a prison to be used for reform of prisoners. In 1811 the prison was constructed in New Jersey. "With the possible' exception of Eastern States Penitentiary in Philadelphia, it is considered "the most significant prison building in the United States", according to the Historic Burlington County Prison Museum Association.
In 1812, Mills designed the Monumental Church in Virginia. It was built to commemorate the deaths of 72 people in the Richmond Theatre fire. Moving to Baltimore, Mills designed St. John's Episcopal Church, the Maryland House of Industry, the First Baptist Church of Baltimore in 1817, a Greek Revival mansion at the northeast corner of West Franklin and Cathedral streets; the mansion was occupied from 1857 to 1892 by the Maryland Club, a dining and leisure society of Southern-leaning gentlemen. Mills is noted for designing the nation's first Washington Monument, located in Baltimore with four surrounding park squares; these were named Washington Place along the north-south axis of North Charles Street, Mount Vernon Place along East and West Monument streets. This development took place in the new Mount Vernon-Belvedere neighborhood; this land had belonged been part of Howard's Woods, the country estate and mansion "Belvedere" of Col. John Eager Howard, north of old Baltimore Town. Howard was a Revolutionary War commander of the famed "Maryland Line" regiment of the Continental Army.
Construction on Baltimore's signature landmark began in 1815 and was completed in 1829. In 1820, Mills was appointed as acting commissioner of the Board of Public Works in South Carolina. In 1823, he was the superintendent of public buildings. In the next few years, he designed numerous buildings in South Carolina, including court houses, the campus of the University of South Carolina and the Fireproof Building in Charleston. In 1825, he wrote an Atlas of the State of South Carolina. One year he published Statistics of South Carolina, he reputedly designed the Old Horry County Courthouse, Union County Jail, Wilson House, which have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1836 Robert Mills won the competition for the design of the Washington Monument on the future Mall of the National Capital, Washington D. C; this is his best known work. Construction began in 1848, but was interrupted in 1854 and postponed by the outbreak of the American Civil War. Construction of the monument resumed in 1879 after the Reconstruction era.
It was dedicated in thirty years after the architect's death. He designed the Department of Treasury building, east of the Executive Mansion, several other federal buildings in Washington, D. C. including the U. S. Patent Office Building, patterned after the Parthenon, it has been renovated and adapted as two adjoining museums of the Smithsonian Institution: the Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery). He designed the old General Post Office. In South Carolina, Mills designed county courthouses in at least 18 counties, some of the public buildings in the capital Columbia, a few private homes, he designed portions of the Landsford Canal in Chester County, on the Catawba River in South Carolina. Mills was an early advocate of fireproof construction; when a fire broke out in the Kingstree, South Carolina Building, which he designed, the county records on the first floor were protected due to his fireproofing measures. But a fire destroyed much of his Lancaster County, South Carolina Courthouse in August 2008.
Mills died in Washington, D. C. in 1855. He was buried there at the Congressional Cemetery. Mills was inducted into the South Carolina Business Hall of Fame in 2007; the broadest context for Mills' architecture wa
Lawrence Eugene Doby was an American professional baseball player in the Negro leagues and Major League Baseball, the second black player to break baseball's color barrier and the first black player in the American League. A native of Camden, South Carolina and three-sport all-state athlete while in high school in Paterson, New Jersey, Doby accepted a basketball scholarship from Long Island University. At 17 years of age, he began his professional baseball career with the Newark Eagles as the team's second baseman. Doby joined the United States Navy during World War II, his military service complete, Doby returned to baseball in 1946, along with teammate Monte Irvin, helped the Eagles win the Negro League World Series. In July 1947—three months after Jackie Robinson made history with the Brooklyn Dodgers—Doby broke the MLB color barrier in the American League when he signed a contract to play with Bill Veeck's Cleveland Indians. Doby was the first player to go directly to the majors from the Negro leagues.
A seven-time All-Star center fielder and teammate Satchel Paige were the first African-American players to win a World Series championship when the Indians took the crown in 1948. He helped the Indians win a franchise-record 111 games and the AL pennant in 1954, finished second in the AL Most Valuable Player award voting and was the AL's RBI leader and home run champion, he went on to play for the Chicago White Sox, Detroit Tigers, Chunichi Dragons before his retirement as a player in 1962. Doby served as the second black manager in the majors with the Chicago White Sox, in 1995 was appointed to a position in the AL's executive office, he served as a director with the New Jersey Nets of the National Basketball Association. He was selected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1998 by the Hall's Veterans Committee and died in 2003 at the age of 79. Doby was born in South Carolina, to David Doby and Etta Brooks. Doby's father served in World War I, he worked as a horse groomer and played semi-pro baseball, but drowned in an accident at age 37 in New York state.
Doby's mother, who had divorced David before his death, moved to New Jersey. He lived with his grandmother before moving to live with his father's sister and brother-in-law from 1934 to 1938, he attended Jackson School, segregated under South Carolina state law. His first opportunity to play organized baseball came as a student at Boylan-Haven-Mather Academy, a private school affiliated with the Methodist church. Richard Dubose, who had managed Doby's father and was known locally in African-American circles for his baseball expertise, gave Doby some of his first baseball lessons. Reflecting on his years growing up in South Carolina, including how he and playmates used worn down broom handles for bats, Doby said, "Growing up in Camden, we didn't have baseball bats. We'd use a tree here, a tin can there, for bases."After completing eighth grade, Doby moved north to Paterson at the age of 14 to be reunited with his mother. At Paterson Eastside High School, Doby was a multi-sport athlete. After winning a state football championship, the Eastside team was invited to play in Florida, but the promoters would not allow Doby, the only black player on the team, to participate.
The team voted to forgo the trip as a gesture of support for Doby. During summer vacation Doby played baseball with a black semi-pro team, the Smart Sets, where he played with future Hall of Fame shortstop Monte Irvin, he had a brief stint with the Harlem Renaissance, a professional basketball team, as an unpaid substitute player. Upon completing high school, he accepted an athletic scholarship to play basketball at Long Island University Brooklyn. Doby had been dating Eastside classmate Helyn Curvy since his sophomore year and, according to Doby, being able to remain close to Paterson was the "main reason" he selected LIU. In the summer before he enrolled at LIU, Doby accepted an offer to play for the Newark Eagles of the Negro National League for the remainder of the 1942 season, he transferred to Virginia Union University as a result. Negro league umpire Henry Moore advised Newark Eagles' owners Abe and Effa Manley to give Doby a tryout at Hinchliffe Stadium in Paterson, successful; the contract stated.
On May 31, Doby appeared in his first professional game when the Eagles played against the New York Cubans at Yankee Stadium. In the 26 games where box scores have been found, Doby's batting average was.391. Doby recalled a game against catcher Josh Gibson and pitcher Ray Brown of the Homestead Grays: My first time up, Josh said,'We're going to find out if you can hit a fastball.' I singled. Next time up, Josh said,'We're going to find out if you can hit a curveball.' I singled. Third time up, Josh said,'We're going to find out how you do after you're knocked down.' I popped up the first time. The second time, I singled. Doby's career in Newark was interrupted for two years for service in the United States Navy. Doby spent 1943 and part of 1944 at Camp Robert Smalls at the Great Lakes Naval Training School near Chicago, he appeared on an all-black baseball squad and maintained a.342 batting average against teams composed of white players, some of which featured major leaguers. He went to Treasure Island Naval Base
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
South Carolina's 5th congressional district
The 5th Congressional District of South Carolina is a congressional district in northern South Carolina bordering North Carolina. The district includes all of Cherokee, Fairfield, Lancaster, Lee and York counties and parts of Newberry and Sumter counties. Outside the growing cities of Rock Hill, Fort Mill, Lake Wylie the district is rural and agricultural; the district borders were contracted from some of the easternmost counties in the 2012 redistricting. The district's character is similar to other rural districts in the South. Democrats still hold most offices outside Republican-dominated York County. However, few of the area's Democrats can be described as liberal by national standards; the largest blocs of Republican voters are in the fast-growing suburbs of Charlotte, North Carolina and Cherokee County, which shares the Republican tilt of most of the rest of the Upstate. York County is by far the largest county in the district, with one-third of its population, its Republican bent has pushed the district as a whole into the Republican column in recent years.
In November 2010, the Republican Mick Mulvaney defeated longtime Congressman John Spratt and became the first Republican since Robert Smalls and the end of Reconstruction to represent the district. Following Mulvaney's confirmation as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, a special election was held in 2017 to determine his successor. Republican Ralph Norman narrowly won the special election against Archie Parnell. From 2003 to 2013 the district included all of Cherokee, Chesterfield, Dillon, Kershaw, Marlboro and York counties and parts of Florence and Sumter counties. In the first season of House of Cards, protagonist Frank Underwood represents the district in the United States House of Representatives as a Democrat. South Carolina's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Fairfield County, South Carolina
Fairfield County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 23,956, its county seat is Winnsboro. Fairfield County is part of SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is alleged that the county name originated from a statement made by General Cornwallis when he declared "How Fair These Fields" during the British occupation of the area in 1780-81. The house Cornwallis stayed in during the occupation is still standing. Several years before the Revolution, Richard Winn from Virginia moved to what is now called Fairfield County, his lands covered the present site of Winnsboro, as early as 1777 the settlement was known as "Winnsborough". The village was laid out and chartered in 1785 upon petition of Richard Winn, John Winn and John Vanderhorst. John and Minor Winn all served in the Revolutionary War. Richard was a General and he is said to have fought in more battles than any Whig in South Carolina. Fairfield County has numerous churches; the most famous church, built in 1788, is the Old Brick Church, where the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Synod of the Carolinas was organized in 1803.
A note penciled on the wall of the Old Brick Church is testimony to a Union soldier's regret at the church's floor boards being taken up to build a crossing over the nearby river for General Sherman's troops during the American Civil War. The early settlers in the mid-18th century brought cotton to the county, it was soon supported as a commodity crop by the labor of enslaved African Americans. Invention of the cotton gin enabled the cultivation of short-staple cotton through the upcountry regions of the South, it was the chief commodity crop for this county from the early 19th century through the 1920s. In the antebellum era, most of the intensive labor was accomplished by African-American slaves, many of whose descendants still live in this rural area. After the Civil War, many African Americans worked as sharecroppers and tenant farmers. Over time the soil became depleted, but more damaging was infestation in the 20th century by the boll weevil. Together with mechanization of agriculture, the need for labor was reduced.
In the first half of the 20th century through the 1940s, millions of African Americans left the rural South in the Great Migration to northern and midwestern cities for other job opportunities and the chance to escape Jim Crow restrictions. In December 1832 Winnsboro was incorporated as a town to be governed by wardens; the most prominent architectural feature of Fairfield County is the Town Clock in Winnsboro. South Carolina's General Assembly authorized Winnsboro's town fathers to build a market house that "shall not be of greater width than 30 feet" to allow 30 feet of wagon travel on either side; the narrow building was modeled after Independence Hall in Philadelphia and built on the site of a duck pond. A clock was added in 1837, the building has since been known as the Town Clock; the County Courthouse, across from the Town Clock, dates back to 1823. Designed by South Carolina architect Robert Mills, the courthouse houses records dating to the mid-18th century. Granite deposits in the County led to the early development of quarrying.
Winnsboro blue granite, "The Silk of the Trade," is used worldwide in monuments. The county was home to the Carolinas–Virginia Tube Reactor during the 1960s. In 1984 the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Generating Station was built here; the county owns the Fairfield County Airport, in operation since 1975. The Ridgeway gold mine, east of Ridgeway, was in operation from 1988 to 1999. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 710 square miles, of which 686 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water; as of the census of 2000, there were 23,454 people, 8,774 households, 6,387 families residing in the county. The population density was 34 people per square mile. There were 10,383 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 59.09% Black or African American, 39.58% White, 0.19% Asian, 0.15% Native American, 0.44% from other races, 0.55% from two or more races. 1.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,774 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.90% were married couples living together, 20.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.20% were non-families.
24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,376, the median income for a family was $35,943. Males had a median income of $29,033 versus $21,197 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,911. About 17.20% of families and 19.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.70% of those under age 18 and 24.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,956 people, 9,419 households, 6,578 families residing in the county.
The population density was 34.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,681 housing units at an average density of 17.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 59.1% black or African American, 38.6% white, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% American Indi