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A ketene is an organic compound of the form R′R″C=C=O, where R and R' are two arbitrary monovalent chemical groups. The name may refers to the specific compound ethenone H2C=C=O, the simplest ketene. Although they are useful, most ketenes are unstable; when used as reagents in a chemical procedure, they are generated when needed, consumed as soon as they are produced. Ketenes were first studied as a class by Hermann Staudinger before 1905. Ketenes were systematically investigated by Hermann Staudinger in 1905 in the form of diphenylketene. Staudinger was inspired by the first examples of reactive organic intermediates and stable radicals discovered by Moses Gomberg in 1900. Ethenone, the simplest ketene can be generated by pyrolysis of acetone: CH3−CO−CH3 → CH2=C=O + CH4This reaction is called the Schmidlin ketene synthesis. Other ketenes can be prepared from acyl chlorides by an elimination reaction in which HCl is lost: In this reaction, a base triethylamine, removes the acidic proton alpha to the carbonyl group, inducing the formation of the carbon-carbon double bond and the loss of a chloride ion: Ketenes can be formed from α-diazoketones by Wolff rearrangement.

Another way to generate ketenes is through flash vacuum thermolysis with 2-pyridylamines. Plüg and Wentrup developed a method in 1997 that improved on FVT reactions to produce ketenes with a stable FVT, moisture insensitive, using mild conditions; the N-pyridylamines are prepared via a condensation with R-malonates with N-amino and DCC as the solvent. A more robust method for preparing ketenes is the carbonylation of metal-carbenes, “in situ” reaction of the thus produced reactive ketenes with suitable reagents such as imines, amines, or alcohols; this method is an efficient one‐pot tandem protocol of the carbonylation of α‐diazocarbonyl compounds and a variety of N‐tosylhydrazones catalysed by Co–porphyrin metalloradicals leading to the formation of ketenes, which subsequently react with a variety of nucleophiles and imines to form esters, amides and β‐lactams. This system has a broad substrate scope and can be applied to various combinations of carbene precursors and imines. Due to their cumulated double bonds, ketenes are reactive.

By reaction with alcohols, carboxylic acid esters are formed: Ketenes react with a carboxylic acids to form carboxylic acid anhydrides: Ketenes react with ammonia to primary amides: The reaction of ketenes with primary amines produces secondary amides: Ketenes react with secondary amines to give tertiary amides: By reaction with water, carboxylic acids are formed from ketenes Enolacetates are formed from ketenes with enolisable carbonyl compounds. The following example shows the reaction of ethenone with acetone to form a propen-2-yl acetate: At room temperature, ketene dimerizes to diketene, but the ketene can be recovered by heating: Ketenes can react with alkenes, carbonyl compounds and imines in the cycloaddition; the example shows the synthesis of a β-lactam by the reaction of a ketene with an imine: Ketenes are very reactive, participate in various cycloadditions. One important process is the dimerization to give propiolactones. A specific example is the dimerization of the ketene of stearic acid to afford alkyl ketene dimers, which are used in the paper industry.

AKD's react with the hydroxyl groups on the celluose via esterification reaction. They will undergo cycloaddition reactions with electron-rich alkynes to form cyclobutenones, or carbonyl groups to form beta-lactones. With imines beta-lactams are formed; this is a facile route to this important class of compounds. With acetone, ketene reacts to give Isopropenyl acetate. A variety of hydroxylic compounds can add as nucleophiles, forming either ester products; as examples, a water molecule adds to ketene to give 1,1-dihydroxyethene and acetic anhydride is produced by the reaction of acetic acid with ketene. Reactions between diols and bis-ketenes yield polyesters with a repeat unit of. Ethyl acetoacetate, an important starting material in organic synthesis, can be prepared using a diketene in reaction with ethanol, they directly form ethyl acetoacetate, the yield is high when carried out under controlled circumstances. Ynol Thioketene Media related to Ketenes at Wikimedia Commons


Jeolpyeon is a type of tteok made of non-glutinous rice flour. Unlike when making siru-tteok or baekseolgi, the rice flour steamed in siru is pounded into a dough, divided into small pieces, patterned with a tteoksal; the stamps can be wooden, ceramic, or bangjja, with various patterns including flowers, letters, or a cartwheel. When served, sesame oil is brushed over jeolpyeon. If white seolgi is pounded, it becomes white jeolpyeon. Sometimes, the tteok is steamed and pounded with Korean mugwort, resulting in dark green ssuk-jeolpyeon. Another dark-green jeolpyeon, made with deltoid synurus, is called surichwi-jeolpyeon and is traditionally served during the Dano festival. Pink-colored jeolpyeon, called songgi-jeolpyeon, is made by pounding tteok with pine endodermis. Jeungpyeon Songpyeon Surichwi

Goodbye Charlie

Goodbye Charlie is a 1964 American comedy film directed by Vincente Minnelli and starring Debbie Reynolds and Tony Curtis. The film is about a callous womanizer, it was adapted from Charlie. The play provided the basis with Ellen Barkin and Jimmy Smits. Philandering Hollywood writer Charlie Sorrel is shot and killed by Hungarian film producer Sir Leopold Sartori when he is caught fooling around with Sartori's wife, Rusty. Novelist George Tracy, Charlie’s best and only friend, arrives at Charlie's Malibu beach house just in time for the memorial service, after an exhausting series of flights from Paris that have left him broke. There are only three people there, two ex-girlfriends. George does his best to eulogize his friend but there is little to be said in favor of Charlie, whose final bad joke on George has been to make him executor of his estate—which is a mess of debts and unpaid taxes; the guests leave, George collapses, exhausted, on the sofa. He is soon awakened by a knock at the terrace door and the appearance of a petite blonde woman swathed in a huge brown overcoat.

At the front door is Bruce Minton III, who came to her aid when he found her dazed and wandering on the road naked. She does not remember much, but she recognized Charlie's house as they drove past it and it made her feel safe. Minton rushes off to a dinner engagement, leaving a sleep-deprived George to cope with the now-unconscious woman; the next morning, George awakes to her screams. It all comes back to her: She is Charlie, brought back to life. After getting over the shock, she convinces George of her identity by telling him about a dirty trick that s/he had played on him. George figures out that this must be a case of reincarnation, Providence’s way of getting justice for all of the women Charlie has used and betrayed. All manner of complications arise as Charlie first accepts the situation, decides to take advantage of it. George helps her by establishing her as Charlie’s widow, figuring out their finances —they are both broke—and boosting her morale. From the beginning, Charlie finds herself subject to a whole new set of sensations.

Her masculine mannerisms begin to fade because Charlie is a consummate actor, but because the change is more than skin deep. At one point, she bursts into uncontrollable tears. George comforts her as he would comfort a weeping girl, wiping her tears and stroking her hair to calm her down, pulls back, appalled at the moment of tenderness. Meanwhile Sir Leopold gets off by claiming the traditional justification that he was defending his home. Although Charlie has changed his sex, he cannot or will not change his ways: He decides to solve his money problems by using his intimate knowledge for blackmail and by marrying well—Minton for starters; the plans fall apart. Charlie takes. In a grim role reversal that he recognizes all too well when it happens, Charlie ends up being chased around the house by Sir Leopold, who cheerfully spouts amorous nonsense but is, in fact, intent on rape. Rusty arrives, gun in hand, just as Charlie climbs onto the terrace railing to jump, she shoots him. George, who has arrived in the midst of the mélée, leaps after Charlie, but there is no sign of a body.

George tells Sir Leopold to go away and never say anything about it again. The Sartoris reconcile, Sir Leopold promises eternal gratitude to George. George is asleep in a chair; this time there are two beings on the terrace -- her Great Dane, Charlie. George establishes her bona fides as a real person, Virginia Mason, she decides he needs food. She commands Charlie to stay. Virginia and George talk in the kitchen; the dog goes into the living room, to the bookcase, to Charlie’s secret cache of vodka. The bottle breaks. Tony Curtis as George Wellington Tracy Debbie Reynolds as Virginia Mason Pat Boone as Bruce Minton, III Ellen Burstyn as Franny Salzman Joanna Barnes as Janine Highland Laura Devon as Rusty Sartori Martin Gabel as Morton Craft Roger C. Carmel as the inspector Harry Madden as Charles Sorel Myrna Hansen as starlet Michael Romanoff as patron Anthony Eustrel as the butler Walter Matthau as Sir Leopold Sartori Michael Jackson as himself Donna Michelle as "twisting" guest on yacht George Axelrod's play debuted on Broadway in 1959 starring Lauren Bacall and Sydney Chaplin, produced by Leland Hayward, directed by Axelrod himself.

It was not a big success, running for only 109 performances. The New York Times wrote it played like "an extended vaudeville sketch". Film rights to the play were bought before it premiered by 20th Century Fox for $150,000 plus a percentage of the profits. James Garner and Marilyn Monroe were discussed as stars. Darryl F. Zanuck offered the project to Billy Wilder after he returned to Fox, but Wilder turned it down, saying "no self-respecting picture maker would want to work for your company".. Playwright Harry Kurnitz was hired to write the script and Tony Curtis was attached early. Vincente Minnelli was hired to direct, his first movie away from MGM since 1942. According to Fox records, the film needed to e

Forbidden Warrior

Forbidden Warrior is a 2005 martial arts fantasy action film starring Marie Matiko, Sung Kang and Karl Yune. It was directed by Jimmy Nickerson, produced by Glen Hartford and Daniel Toll; the film is notable in resembling a low-budget Hong Kong action film, despite its American production and cast. A review in Variety noted that characters from a Chinese myth are given Japanese names and played by caucasians. In a 2006 interview, the writer/producer Glen Hartford claims he based the story on "a piece of mythological history, from over 4000 years ago", calls the movie an "Asian film". Marie Matiko - Seki Sung Kang - Doran Karl Yune - Locust Tony Amendola - Ajis-Aka James Hong - Muraji, The Warlord Andrew Divoff - Ujis-Aka Musetta Vander - Reza Chris Coppola - Jibberish Bruce Locke - Miyamoto Kay E. Kuter - Yawn Ron Yuan - Lank Kristina Wayborn - Sorceress Vladimir Cuk - Tall Tall Forbidden Warrior on IMDb

Jhamu Sughand

Jhamu Sughand was an Indian film financier and distributor, in mainstream Bollywood, as well parallel cinema, He is most known as producer of Academy Award-nominated Lagaan, Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam, Aks. He started Jhamu Sughand Productions produced films in Marathi and Bengali, was awarded the 2000 National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Marathi as the producer of Astitva directed by Mahesh Manjrekar, subsequently National Film Award for Best Feature Film for Kaalpurush directed by Buddhadeb Dasgupta. Sughand started his career joining his family cloth trading business in Deolali, his hometown, in 1979 he moved to Mumbai. Here started a printing press specialising in film merchandise for some years, before shifting to film distribution in 1988. In the coming years, he distributed over 100 films, but it was Mani Ratnam's, Bombay which first got him acclaim. In years, he stopped producing films selling one of his last films, Gulaal directed by Anurag Kashyap, released in 2009, he died on 26 May 2008, of cardiac arrest at the age of 57.

He had suffered a brain stroke a few days earlier. He is survived by his wife and daughter. Rangeela Bombay Hindustani Daud Chachi 420 Earth Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam Khoobsurat Astitva Lagaan Aks Filhaal... Swapner Din Kalpurush Secrets and Lies Janmadata Black Friday Janmadata National Film Awards 2000 Best Feature Film in Marathi: Astitva 2005: Best Feature Film: Kaalpurush IIFA Awards 2000: Best Movie: Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam Jhamu Sughand on IMDb

Damitha Abeyratne

Sedhavi Mudiyanselage Damitha Buddhini Abeyratne Bandara, popularly as Damitha Abeyratne, is a Sri Lankan film and teledrama actress. She schooled at Nugegoda and St. Paul's Girls School, Milagiriya. In 1987, she made her acting debut as an eight-year-old in the teledrama Passe Gena Manamali and appeared in her first film Meeharaka directed by I. Hewawasam in 1993. However, she only played a significant role with Inoka Sathyangani's 2003 film Sulang Kirilli; this won her the Sarasaviya Best Actress Award, SIGNIS Best Actress Award and many other international awards. She was won awards for the dramatic roles of Dandubasnamanaya television series and Mee Haraka film. Abeyratne plays her debut role as director with the teledrama serial Sasara Sarani, where she is the producer as well. Abeyratne played as main role in Batti teledrama, which broadcast on ITN In 2013, fellow actress Semini Iddamalgoda sued Abeyratne for Rs 50 million having defamed her during an interview with a Ran FM radio channel on January 13, 2013.

In 2014, Abeyratne demanded Rs. 100 million as damages from Iddamalgoda for defaming her. The case was taken at the Colombo District Court on 24 February 2014. On 14 October 2014, both withdrew their civil suits. On 5 November 2015, she was asked to make a statement due to a complaint on fraud and corruption at Sri Lanka Airlines, she went to Presidential Commission of Inquiry to Investigate and Inquire into Serious Acts of Fraud and Abuse of Power and State Resources and Privileges and made a statement regarding a irregularity in food supply for a show. No. Denotes the Number of Sri Lankan film in the Sri Lankan cinema, she has won several awards at the local theater and film festivals. 2005 - Vishva Keerthi Award For Winning Two International Awards for film Sulang kirilli 2005 - Outstanding Young Personality Junior Chamber Sri Lanka for the contribution to the Art Damitha Abeyratne's Biography in Sinhala Cinema Database Damitha Abeyratne on IMDb National Film Corporation of Sri Lanka - Official Website Sulang Kirilli on IMDb "Sulang Kirilli" Sathyangani of "Wind bird's" fame claims wings Artistes airs their views in ‘Sundara Sandawe’ Padmasiri: Two different feilds