Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of ship disposal involving the breaking up of ships for either a source of parts, which can be sold for re-use, or for the extraction of raw materials, chiefly scrap. It may be known as ship dismantling, ship cracking, or ship recycling. Modern ships have a lifespan of 25 to 30 years before corrosion, metal fatigue and a lack of parts render them uneconomical to run. Ship breaking allows the materials from the ship steel, to be recycled and made into new products; this reduces energy use in the steelmaking process. Equipment on board the vessel can be reused. While ship breaking is sustainable, there are concerns about the use of poorer countries without stringent environmental legislation, it is considered one of the world's most dangerous industries and labour-intensive. In 2012 1,250 ocean ships were broken down, their average age was 26 years. In 2013, the world total of demolished ships amounted to 29,052,000 tonnes, 92% of which were demolished in Asia.
India, Bangladesh and Pakistan have the highest market share and are global centres of ship breaking, with Chittagong Ship Breaking Yard in Bangladesh, Alang in India and Gadani in Pakistan being the largest ships' graveyards in the world. The largest sources of ships are states of China and Germany although there is a greater variation in the source of carriers versus their disposal; the ship breaking yards of India, Bangladesh and Pakistan employ 225,000 workers as well as providing a large number of indirect jobs. In Bangladesh, the recycled steel covers 20% of the country's needs and in India it is 10%; as an alternative to ship breaking, ships may be sunk to create artificial reefs after legally-mandated removal of hazardous materials, or sunk in deep ocean waters. Storage is a viable temporary option, whether on land or afloat, though all ships will be scrapped, sunk, or preserved for museums. Wooden-hulled ships were set on fire or'conveniently sunk'. In Tudor times, ships were dismantled and the timber re-used.
This procedure was no longer applicable with the advent of metal-hulled boats. The navy vessel HMS Temeraire had her masts and guns removed and her crew paid off, she was sold by Dutch auction on 16 August 1838 to John Beatson, a shipbreaker based at Rotherhithe for £5,530. Beatson was faced with the task of transporting the ship 55 miles from Sheerness to Rotherhithe, the largest ship to have attempted this voyage. To accomplish this he hired two steam tugs from the Thames Steam Towing Company and employed a Rotherhithe pilot named William Scott and twenty five men to sail her up the Thames, at a cost of £58; the shipbreakers undertook a thorough dismantling, removing all the copper sheathing, rudder pintles and gudgeons, copper bolts and other fastenings to be sold back to the Admiralty. The timber was sold to house builders and shipyard owners, though some was retained for working into specialist commemorative furniture; the ship's final voyage was immortalised by William Turner's painting The Fighting ‘Temeraire’, Tugged to her Last Berth to be Broken Up, 1838.
In 1880, Denny Brothers of Dumbarton used scrap maritime steel in their shipbuilding. Many other nations began to purchase British ships for scrap by the late 19th century, including Germany, the Netherlands and Japan; the Italian industry started in 1892, the Japanese after an 1896 law had been passed to subsidise native shipbuilding. After being damaged or involved in a disaster, liner operators did not want the name of the broken ship to tarnish the brand of their passenger services; the final voyage of many Victorian ships was with the final letter of their name chipped off. In the 1930s, it became cheaper to run her ashore as opposed to using a dry dock; the ship would have to run ashore at full speed. Dismantling operations required a 10 feet rise of close proximity to a steel-works. Electric shears, a wrecking ball and oxy-acetylene torches were used; the technique of the time is identical to that of developing countries today. Thos W Ward Ltd. one of the largest breakers in the United Kingdom in the 1930s, would recondition and sell all furniture and machinery.
Many historical artifacts were sold at public auctions: the Cunarder Mauretania received high bids for her fittings worldwide. However with obsolete technology, any weapons and military information were removed; until the late 20th century, ship breaking took place in port cities of industrialized countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States. Those dismantlers that still remain in the United States work on government surplus vessels. In the mid 20th century, low-cost East Asian countries began to dominate ship breaking, with countries such as Japan Korea and Taiwan and China increasing their world share. For example, in 1977 Taiwan dominated the industry with more than half the market share, followed by Spain and Pakistan. Bangladesh had no capacity at all. However, the sector is volatile and fluctuates wildly, Taiwan processed just 2 ships 13 years as wages across East Asia rose. In 1960, after a severe cyclone, the Greek ship M D Alpine was stranded on the shores of Sitakunda, Chittagong.
It could not be re-floated and so remained there for several years. In 1965, the in East Pakistan, Chittagong Steel House bought the ship and had it scrapped, it took years to scrap the vessel. Until 1980 the Gadani ship-breaking yard of Pakistan was the largest ship-breaking yard in the world. Tightening environmental regulations resulted in increased costs of hazardo
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base; the population of the City of Sheffield is 577,800 and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group. Sheffield is the third-largest English district by population; the metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000. The city is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines, the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin and the Sheaf. Sixty-one per cent of Sheffield's entire area is green space, a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. There are more than 250 parks and gardens in the city, estimated to contain around 4.5 million trees. Sheffield played a crucial role in the Industrial Revolution, with many significant inventions and technologies developed in the city.
In the 19th century, the city saw a huge expansion of its traditional cutlery trade, when stainless steel and crucible steel were developed locally, fuelling an tenfold increase in the population. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area; the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield, along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber; the city has a long sporting heritage, is home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F. C. Games between the two professional clubs, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, are known as the Steel City derby; the city is home to the World Snooker Championship and the Sheffield Steelers, the UK's first professional ice hockey team.
The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have been inhabited since at least the late Upper Paleolithic, about 12,800 years ago. The earliest evidence of human occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes, it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts around Sheffield. Following the departure of the Romans, the Sheffield area may have been the southern part of the Brittonic kingdom of Elmet, with the rivers Sheaf and Don forming part of the boundary between this kingdom and the kingdom of Mercia. Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira. A Britonnic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield; the settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, date from the second half of the first millennium, are of Anglo-Saxon and Danish origin.
In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Eanred of Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at the hamlet of Dore in 829, a key event in the unification of the kingdom of England under the House of Wessex. After the Norman conquest of England, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, a small town developed, the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, Sheffield subsequently grew into a small market town. In the 14th century, Sheffield was noted for the production of knives, as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery manufacture in England outside London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. From 1570 to 1584, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had been possible.
In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became known as Sheffield plate. These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town, but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century; the resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832. The population of the town grew throughout the 19th century; the Sheffield and Rotherham railway was constructed in 1838. The town was incorporated as a borough in 1842, was granted a city charter in 1893; the influx of people led to demand for better water supplies, a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town. The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood, which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town; the growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World".
The Great Depression hit the city in the 1930s, but as international tensions increased and the Second
John Fowler & Co.
John Fowler & Co Engineers of Leathley Road, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England produced traction engines and ploughing implements and equipment, as well as railway equipment. Fowler produced the Track Marshall tractor, a tracked version of the Field Marshall. British Railways Engineering Department locomotives ED1 to ED7 were built by Fowler John Fowler was an agricultural engineer and inventor, born in Wiltshire in 1826, he was based in Leeds. He is credited with the invention of steam-driven ploughing engines, he died 4 December 1864, following a hunting accident. After his death, John Fowler & Co. was continued by Robert Fowler and Robert Eddison. In 1886 the limited company of John Fowler & Co. Ltd. was formed. It merged with Sons & Co. Ltd. of Gainsborough in 1947 to form Marshall-Fowler Ltd.. Although not well known for them, Fowler built a small number of steam wagons; these were vertical-boilered, with an unusual single-crank cross-compound vee-twin engine. They featured a gearbox to provide a low drive ratio for climbing steep hills with heavy loads.
At least one was preserved, as part of the Tom Varley collection. During the Second World War, the Hunslet factory produced Matilda and Centaur tanks for the Army. Production ceased in early 1974; some locations of preserved Fowler railway locomotives include: AustraliaBennett Brook Railway, a tourist railway in Perth, Western Australia Leeds Fowler 11277: restored in Bundaberg, Australia Leeds Fowler, 0-6-0T, "Faugh-a Ballagh", preserved at Port Douglas, Australia. BrazilRailway Museum in Jundiaí, SP. Builder plates #1531 from 1870, she's a 4-4-0 for 5 ft 3 in gauge. Built for Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro where she spent all of her active life and as CP's first locomotive she was numbered #1. GermanyOpen Air Museum "Freilichtmuseum am Kiekeberg", near Hamburg, GermanyNew ZealandCanterbury Steam Preservation Society, New Zealand Silver Stream Railway, New Zealand Tokomaru Steam Museum, New ZealandIndiaNational Railway Museum, IndiaPakistanChanga Manga Forest Railway, PakistanUnited KingdomAmberley Museum Railway Bredgar & Wormshill Light Railway East Kent Railway Foxfield Railway Middleton Railway – Two Fowler locomotives Midland Railway Butterley Statfold Barn Railway Vale of Rheidol Railway Museum Collection - Not on public display Swanage Railway- Diesel Shunter'May'- Under Restoration The Iron Maiden, a Fowler & Co.-built Showman's engine, featured in the film, The Iron Maiden, is exhibited as part of the Scarborough Fair Collection of Fairground organs and machinery at events such as the Great Dorset Steam Fair.
The Melbourne Steam Traction Engine Club of Melbourne, Australia, a volunteer organisation dealing with the preservation of Australia's mechanical heritage, has a number of Fowler Traction Engines and Steam Rollers in preservation, some owned by members, some owned by the club. Most are demonstrated to the public regularly. Club engines include one of a pair of Z7 ploughing engines. John Fowler 7nhp Steam Road Locomotive, Serial No 13037, in Wellington, New South Wales, Australia. "The Leeds Engine web site", leedsengine.info Fowler traction engines Fowler diesel locomotive Fowler Traction Engine list Leeds Fowler 11277 preserved in Bundaberg Australia Video clip of Leeds Fowler 11277 preserved in Bundaberg Australia The records of the company, to 1974, are held at Reading University - Museum of English Rural Life - John Fowler and Co Ltd Brown, Jonathan. "Fowler, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/10010
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Thos W Ward
Thos. W. Ward Ltd was a Sheffield, steel and cement business which began as coal and coke merchants expanded to recycling metal for Sheffield's steel industry and the supply of machinery. In 1894 as part of the scrap metal operation Ward's began to set up substantial shipbreaking yards in different parts of England and in Scotland and Wales. By 1953 Thos W Ward employed 11,500 people. Ward's business was reorganised at the end of the 1970s when it moved from being an engineering group with a motley assortment of subsidiaries to being principally dependent on cement. In 1982 it was bought by RTZ; this business was founded by Thomas William Ward in 1878 with the name Thos. W. Ward. Ward's provided coal and coke and soon recycling or scrap metal services added dealing in new and used machinery related to the iron, coal and allied industries and manufacturing that machinery. Ward's Constructional Engineering Department manufactured and erected steel frame buildings, collieries, steel works equipment and furnaces.
The Rail Department supplied light and heavy rails, sleepers and crossings and equipped complete sidings. De Lank Quarries produced the granite for Tower Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge, major lighthouses and prestige buildings in London and elsewhere. In 1894 Ward's moved into ship breaking at many different locations. A limited liability company was formed and registered 19 May 1904 to own and continue all the businesses operating under the name Thos. W. Ward. By 1920 when raising further capital from the public the prospectus claimed these notable facts for Thos. W. Ward: "Premier shipbreaking firm in the world, largest stockholders to the iron and machinery trades, constructional engineers, etc." New capital was raised from the public in 1928 to establish a new greenfield Portland cement business at Ketton in Rutland on 1,170 acres of freehold land with oolitic limestone and clays suitable to produce the highest quality rapid-hardening Portland cement. It was a particular project of brother of Thomas Ward.
Ketton Cement Works became the core activity of Ward's in the late 1970s. After 55 years, in 1934, when the employees numbered in excess of 4,000 people, the principal businesses were: Construction and electrical engineering manufacturers Coal coke iron steel metal and machinery factors and merchants Ship and works dismantlers and brokers Wharf owners Machinery and plant valuers Nut and bolt manufacturers Horn handle manufacturers for cutlery Brick manufacturers Dry slag and tar macadam manufacturers Quarry owners Freehold Premises: Albion Works and Millhouses, Sheffield and at Silvertown, Inverkeithing, Wishaw, Briton Ferry, Milford Haven, Silverdale, Low Moor, Albion sand quarries etc and Brickworks at Longton and ApedaleLeasehold Premises: Charlton Works and Effingham Road, Sheffield Liverpool, Cornish Granite Quarries, Preston, Barrow-in-Furness, Pembroke Dock and Scunthorpe. Subsidiaries: Milford Haven Dock & Railway Company, Low Moor Best Yorkshire Iron, The Midland Iron Co, Pengwern and Gwydir Quarries, The Drybrook Quarries, North Lonsdale Tar Macadam.
The Ketton Portland Cement Co This old-established business was bought in 1934. Laycock's made railway carriage and steamship fittings, underframes for locomotives and railway coaches and in 1934 makes automobile axles, propellor shafts and Laycock's own Layrub flexible drive joints. Two years Laycock Engineering was sold to some investors. By 1969 the Ward group was believed to be in metal supply from ship breaking, but producing cement, supplying roadstone, providing rail sidings, building new industrial works and equipping them with the necessary plant and machinery. In October 1981 Thos. W. Ward's was split into three: Thos. W. Ward the former iron and steel division active in processing and merchanting carbon scrap, special steel scrap, non-ferrous scrap metals and steel stockholding. Thos. W. Ward Thos. W. Ward Within a short time RTZ began to buy a substantial shareholding and this takeover was completed in early 1982. RTZ put the Ward cement operation with that of Tunnel Holdings and named the combination RTZ Cement which had about one quarter of the UK cement market.
The Railway Engineers department of Thos. W Ward was bought by Henry Boot. RTZ sold Thos. W. Ward to Ready Mixed Concrete in June 1988. Works dismantled before 1926: Abbott's Works, Gateshead. HMS Akbar HMS Benbow HMS Boadicea HMS Centurion HMS Colossus HMS Devastation HMS Edinburgh HMS Narcissus HMS Nile HMS Prince Albert HMS Sans Pareil HMS Warspite SS Adriatic SS Alaska SS Arabic SS Britannia SS Cleopatra Cordoba RMS Etruria SS Furnessia SS Leviathan RMS Lucania SS Majestic SS Munchen SS Servia SS Syrian Terec SS Vancouver RMS Saragossa RMS Cherbourg HMS Magnificent HMS Dreadnought HMS Mars SS Zeeland HMS Tiger RMS Cedric RMS Olympic RMS Majestic/HMS Caledonia HMAS/M Otway HMS/M Uproar HMS/M Unruly HMS/M Unsparing HMS Revenge HMS Royal Sovereign HMS Nelson HMS Rodney RMS Empress of Australia RMS Maloja HM
Reinforced concrete is a composite material in which concrete's low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is though not steel reinforcing bars and is embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may be permanently stressed, so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning. For a strong and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the following properties at least: High relative strength High toleration of tensile strain Good bond to the concrete, irrespective of pH, similar factors Thermal compatibility, not causing unacceptable stresses in response to changing temperatures.
Durability in the concrete environment, irrespective of corrosion or sustained stress for example. François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete as a technique for constructing building structures. In 1853, Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four-story house at 72 rue Charles Michels in the suburbs of Paris. Coignet's descriptions of reinforcing concrete suggests that he did not do it for means of adding strength to the concrete but for keeping walls in monolithic construction from overturning. In 1854, English builder William B. Wilkinson reinforced the concrete roof and floors in the two-storey house he was constructing, his positioning of the reinforcement demonstrated that, unlike his predecessors, he had knowledge of tensile stresses. Joseph Monier was a French gardener of the nineteenth century, a pioneer in the development of structural and reinforced concrete when dissatified with existing materials available for making durable flowerpots, he was granted a patent for reinforced flowerpots by means of mixing a wire mesh to a mortar shell.
In 1877, Monier was granted another patent for a more advanced technique of reinforcing concrete columns and girders with iron rods placed in a grid pattern. Though Monier undoubtedly knew reinforcing concrete would improve its inner cohesion, it is less known if he knew how much reinforcing improved concrete's tensile strength. Before 1877 the use of concrete construction, though dating back to the Roman Empire, having been reintroduced in the early 1800s, was not yet a proven scientific technology. American New Yorker Thaddeus Hyatt published a report titled An Account of Some Experiments with Portland-Cement-Concrete Combined with Iron as a Building Material, with Reference to Economy of Metal in Construction and for Security against Fire in the Making of Roofs and Walking Surfaces where he reported his experiments on the behavior of reinforced concrete, his work played a major role in the evolution of concrete construction as a proven and studied science. Without Hyatt's work, more dangerous trial and error methods would have been depended on for the advancement in the technology.
Ernest L. Ransome was an English-born engineer and early innovator of the reinforced concrete techniques in the end of the 19th century. With the knowledge of reinforced concrete developed during the previous 50 years, Ransome innovated nearly all styles and techniques of the previous known inventors of reinforced concrete. Ransome's key innovation was to twist the reinforcing steel bar improving bonding with the concrete. Gaining increasing fame from his concrete constructed buildings, Ransome was able to build two of the first reinforced concrete bridges in North America. One of the first concrete buildings constructed in the United States, was a private home, designed by William Ward in 1871; the home was designed to be fireproof for his wife. G. A. Wayss was a pioneer of the iron and steel concrete construction. In 1879, Wayss bought the German rights to Monier's patents and in 1884, he started the first commercial use for reinforced concrete in his firm Wayss & Freytag. Up until the 1890s, Wayss and his firm contributed to the advancement of Monier's system of reinforcing and established it as a well-developed scientific technology.
One of the first skyscrapers made with reinforced concrete was the 16-story Ingalls Building in Cincinnati, constructed in 1904. The first reinforced concrete building in Southern California was the Laughlin Annex in Downtown Los Angeles, constructed in 1905. In 1906, 16 building permits were issued for reinforced concrete buildings in the City of Los Angeles, including the Temple Auditorium and 8-story Hayward Hotel. On April 18, 1906 a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck San Francisco. The strong ground shaking and subsequent fire killed thousands; the use of reinforced concrete after the earthquake was promoted within the U. S. construction industry due to its non-combustibility and perceived superior seismic performance relative to masonry. In 1906, a partial collapse of the Bixby Hotel in Long Beach killed 10 workers during construction when shoring was removed prematurely; this event spurred a scrutiny of concrete erection practices and building inspections. The structure was constructed of reinforced concrete frames with hollow clay tile ribbed flooring and hollow clay