Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 449,300 in 2016. The district has the 10th largest population in England, while the Bristol metropolitan area is the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, the city borders North Somerset and South Gloucestershire, with the cities of Bath and Gloucester to the south-east and north-east, respectively. Iron Age hill forts and Roman villas were built near the confluence of the rivers Frome and Avon, Bristol received a royal charter in 1155 and was historically divided between Gloucestershire and Somerset until 1373, when it became a county of itself. From the 13th to the 18th century, Bristol was among the top three English cities after London in tax receipts, Bristol was surpassed by the rapid rise of Manchester and Birmingham in the Industrial Revolution. Bristol was a place for early voyages of exploration to the New World. On a ship out of Bristol in 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, in 1499 William Weston, a Bristol merchant, was the first Englishman to lead an exploration to North America.
At the height of the Bristol slave trade, from 1700 to 1807, the Port of Bristol has since moved from Bristol Harbour in the city centre to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth and Royal Portbury Dock. Bristols modern economy is built on the media and aerospace industries. The city has the largest circulating community currency in the U. K. - the Bristol pound, which is pegged to the Pound sterling. It is connected to London and other major UK cities by road, rail and air by the M5 and M4, Bristol Temple Meads and Bristol Parkway mainline rail stations, and Bristol Airport. The Sunday Times named it as the best city in Britain in which to live in 2014 and 2017, the most ancient recorded name for Bristol is the archaic Welsh Caer Odor, which is consistent with modern understanding that early Bristol developed between the River Frome and Avon Gorge. It is most commonly stated that the Saxon name Bricstow was a calque of the existing Celtic name, with Bric a literal translation of Odor. Alternative etymologies are supported with the numerous variations in Medieval documents with Samuel Seyer enumerating 47 alternative forms.
The Old English form Brycgstow is commonly used to derive the meaning place at the bridge, utilizing another form, Rev. Dr. Shaw derived the name from the Celtic words bras, or braos and tuile. The poet Thomas Chatterton popularised a derivation from Brictricstow linking the town to Brictric and it appears that the form Bricstow prevailed until 1204, and the Bristolian L is what eventually changed the name to Bristol. Iron Age hill forts near the city are at Leigh Woods and Clifton Down, on the side of the Avon Gorge, a Roman settlement, existed at what is now Sea Mills, another was at the present-day Inns Court. Isolated Roman villas and small forts and settlements were scattered throughout the area. Bristol was founded by 1000, by about 1020, it was a centre with a mint producing silver pennies bearing its name
Minnie the Minx
Minnie the Minx, whose real name is Hermione Makepeace, is a British comic strip and comic strip character published in the comic book magazine The Beano. Like Desperate Dan from The Dandy, she has a statue in Dundee, minne the Minx and drawn by Leo Baxendale, first appeared in The Beano in December 1953. Her first strip introduced her as wild as wild can be, taking the book, Minnie proceeds to beat her classmates during a revenge scheme using the Scrap Book as a weapon. The closing panel shows her thanking her mother for the book stating she has won nine scraps with it. Most of Minnies earlier strips consisted of six boxes, however, as her popularity grew. This introduced her trademark flaming red hair and red and black jersey, like many other Beano stars at the time, many of her strips showed Minnie to get her comeuppance towards the end be it a cane, slipper or simply a case of karma. Minnie appeared alongside Dennis the Menace in his own strip in the edition of 23 January 1954 of The Beano, in the strip, she swapped toys with Dennis for the day as she received his trusty catapult and he proceeded to menace with her dolls pram.
In the end, she got out of trouble scot free whilst Dennis had to suffer for all her minxing and it was possibly this that began their future eternal rivalry. In 1962, when Baxendale left D. C, Thomson, a new artist was taken on to continue Minnies adventures. Young art teacher Jim Petrie was given the opportunity and his first strip, started similarly to Baxendales in that Minnie is seen being asked by her mother to read rather than minx. Much to her mothers dismay, Minnies chosen book influences her to take up red Indian traditions in which she gets up to much mischief. In the end, after aggravating a sleeping bull Minnie is caught by a farmer, despite the pain, it appears Minnie still attempts to ensure to the public that she is still an Indian stating her name is Minnie – Ha. She appeared once again alongside Dennis in issue 1894, in which she states that Dennis famous jersey are actually her trademark thus he has no right to call them Dennis Jerseys. The Beanos 50th Anniversary issue in 1988 was significant, as an increase in the number of pages in the comic led to Minnie appearing in full colour for the first time.
In the strip itself, Minnie dressed up as Pansy Potter in compliance with the editors wishes, throughout the strip she attempts impossible feats in hope to appear just like Pansy. This even consists of attempting to sink war submarines, something the old character used to do during The Beanos war times. Despite the fact she is weaker than Pansy, Minnie does manage to with-hold four sailors before they manage to catch her. Minnie made a cameo in the 1992 Beano Annual story, Dennis Through The Beano Book and she has been the star of several Beanotown pantomimes, playing the role of Cinderella in each
Ghost Rider 2099
Ghost Rider 2099 is a comic book series that was published by Marvel Comics, under the Marvel 2099 imprint, from 1994 to 1996. As with most of the Marvel 2099 titles, the protagonist was a version of a commercially successful Marvel Universe character. The series was influenced by cyberpunk science fiction. The Ghost Rider 2099 series was not one of the titles launched for the 2099 imprint. The series ran for 25 issues, ending in May 1996, the title characters story was concluded in the final issue, but Zero Cochrane did reappear as an important character in the final 2099 story in the one-shot 2099, Manifest Destiny. Hacker Kenshiro Zero Cochrane was shot and facing death in Transverse City after being hunted down for stealing information from the D/Monix corporation. As the poison from a flechette coursed through his body, Zero downloaded his mind into cyberspace, Cochranes mind is discovered by the artificial intelligences dwelling in a hidden section of cyberspace known as the Ghostworks.
The Ghostworks ask Zero to be their avatar to the world, feeling his brash. Cochrane accepts and is downloaded into a robotic Cybertek 101 body, due to his similarity to the 20th century superhero, the robot becomes known as the Ghost Rider. The Ghost Rider proceeds to avenge his own death and struggles against the plans of the D/Monix corporation, a loyal corporate servant, Harrison indirectly caused his sons death. The series ends with the artificial intelligence L-Cypher free and undetected, although his enemies believe that he has been destroyed, L-Cypher has been downloaded into a stolen human body and is planning his revenge. The Ghost Rider itself is not pictured, however,2099, World of Tomorrow was the final Marvel 2099 series and was canceled abruptly, leaving this plotline unresolved and unexplained. At least one issue of the series was unpublished, titled Daddy Dearest, the issue was written by Scott Andrews and penciled by Max Douglas. After the 2099 line was canceled, there was no prospect of the issue ever being published, Scott put the final lettered black-and-white version up on his website as part of his portfolio.
Zero Cochrane helps the Wolverine of the modern age explore and travel through a new, as part of this, Zero confronts and fights Doctor Doom, Spider-Man and the Iron Patriot. During Secret Wars event, Zero Cochrane appears in Ghost Racers mini-series, Ghost Rider 2099 is a Cybertek 101 robot. The reinforced carbon-steel silicon composite robotic body gave Ghost Rider superhuman strength, the robot had optic lasers, and was capable of self-repairing. During the series the robot needs to be recharged on a relatively regular basis
The Beano Annual
The Beano Annual is the current name of the book that has been published every year since 1939, to tie in with the childrens comic The Beano. As of 2016 there have been 78 editions, the annuals are traditionally published in July or August, in time for Christmas, and since 1965 they have had the date of the following year on the cover. Before no date was given, from 1942 to 1949 the annual was called The Magic-Beano Book, which referred to the short-lived Magic Comic that had ceased publication in 1941 due to the Second World Wars paper rationing. The 2011 Beano Annual is taller and wider than previous annuals, because of his popularity, Dennis the Menace has appeared on the front cover of every annual since the release of the 1979 book in 1978. The latest version was released in 2016 and was dated 2017, the book has retailed at £7.99 since 2009 This information is necessary to identify older annuals which are not dated. If an annual is dated 1940, it would have published in August 1939. Prices are in shillings and pence with one shilling equal to 5p, the Beano Book 1940, Big Eggo and all the other characters are sitting on a seesaw, which is supported by Pansy Potter.
Price 2/61941, All the then-current characters are emerging from gigantic eggs with Big Eggos head peering onto the right side, price 3/-1942, All the then-current characters are dancing around the spinning Big Eggo - with Lord Snooty playing the bagpipes. Price 3/6 The Magic-Beano Book 1943, Big Eggo and Koko the Pup are having a race with all the other characters running behind them. The Magic in the name refers to The Magic Comic which is where Koko the Pup had originated back in 1939. Price 5/-1944, Big Eggo and Koko the Pup are having a fight on a balance beam. Price 6/-1945, Big Eggo and all the characters are playing leapfrog as they approach a pool full of water. Price 6/-1946, Big Eggo pulls all the other then-current characters along in a cart, price 6/-1947, All the characters are gathered around Big Eggo, who has something spherical stuck in his throat. Price 6/-1948, Big Eggo and all the other then-current characters are playing musical instruments, price 6/-1949, Biffo the Bear and Koko are fighting in front of a taxi, while all the other characters are trying to stop them.
Price 6/-1950, Biffo the Bear is painting a portrait of Big Eggo, price 6/- The Beano Book 1951, Biffo is riding upon Tick-Tock Tony, the Clock-Work Horse, who was based upon The Horse that Jack Built. Price 6/-1952, Biffo is nailing pictures of many other then-current Beano characters to the cover, a jar of Magic Lollipops is present below the books name. Price 6/-1953, Jack Flash is taking all the characters on a trip to the Moon. Price 6/-1954, Biffo is hanging from a tree, Dennis is holding a lobster near his foot, and a monkey is sawing the branch Biffo is hanging from
The Sitcom Trials
The Sitcom Trials is a stage and TV show devised and presented by Kev F. Sutherland. Beginning in Bristol in 1999, it showcases new sitcoms and comedy items in a head-to-head format, the audience vote for the one they like best and only see the ending of the winner. Shows take place around the country in Cardiff, Birmingham, Hull, the show began at The Comedy Box in Bristol in 1999. Producers have been Kev F Sutherland, Simon Wright & Declan Hill, James Parker, Vince Stadon Lisa Parker, Michelle Ashton and Sean Mason, Aaron Twitchen, in 2008 the Sitcom Trials won the Fringe Report Award for Best Encourager of New Talent. The Sitcom Trials appeared at the Edinburgh Fringe in 2001,2002, &2004, the first TV series was a Carlton production for ITV/HTV, broadcast live from Bristol over eight weeks in 2003. The first Hollywood Sitcom Trials took place in 2005, the Manchester Sitcom Trials have run since 2009 at The Lass OGowrie and the Kings Head Theatre, Salford. 2015 saw the first Trials in Cardiff and Glasgow, in 2010 Declan Hill and Simon Wright, who produced the Sitcom Trials in 2007 and 2009 launched a similar event called The Sitcom Mission.
At the 2004 Edinburgh Fringe The Sitcom Trials auctioned on eBay the chance to have your script in the show and this was won by Liam Mullone who starred in his own sitcom, along with Isy Suttie, Duncan Edwards, Ed Petrie and Andy Bone. Miranda Harts eponymous sitcom, now on BBC2, first appeared as part of The Sitcom Trials at the Edinburgh Fringe in 2001. The camp character played in 01 by Dan Clegg went on to be played in the TV series by James Holmes who, the Sitcom Trials has run a number of competition seasons, with heats and a grand final, in 2007,2009,2013 and 2016. 2013 and 2016ss seasons were part of the So You Think Youre Funny competition, with heats in London, Bristol, Cardiff and Glasgow and a grand final at the Edinburgh Fringe. 2013s final was won by Rosie Holts sitcom Never Better, and 2016s final by Like-A-Looks by Kate Bowes-Renna, the winner of the 2009 10th Anniversary Season was End To End by Steve McNeil & Sam Pamphilon. Spring 2009s winner was Riga To Rotherham by Dean Hardman, autumn 07s winner was New Zealand team sitcom Sweet As.
Reviews for the show have ranged from the Leicester Mercurys We were screaming with laughter, move over Friends, through the London Evening Standards Were not watching stand-up, were watching comedy history, to Chortles The Sitcom Trials are performing a vital service. There was Metros notorious review of the 2002 Edinburgh Fringe show, episode 1 - Policevets In Casualty vs Do You Think Theyll Cotton On. Police comedy by Stephen Dinsdale, vs Brian Meenaghs behind the scenes TV producers, all episodes hosted by Kev F Sutherland. In Feb 2011 Hat Trick Productions announced their support of the 2011 Sitcom Mission season Bruce Dessau, The Sitcom Trials - The Verdict. The Sitcom Trials Edinburgh Fringe 2013, Cardiff Comedy Festival line up 2015
Dennis the Menace and Gnasher
Dennis the Menace and Gnasher is a long-running comic strip in the British childrens comic The Beano, published by DC Thomson, of Dundee, Scotland. The comic stars a boy named Dennis the Menace and his Abyssinian wire-haired tripe hound Gnasher, the strip first appeared in issue 452, dated 17 March 1951, and is the longest-running strip in the comic. The idea and name of the character emerged when the editor heard a British music hall song with the chorus Im Dennis the Menace from Venice. From issue 1678 onwards Dennis the Menace replaced Biffo the Bear on the front cover, coincidentally, on 12 March 1951, another comic strip named Dennis the Menace debuted in the US. Dennis is the badly behaved schoolboy. The main recurring storyline throughout the years features his campaign of terror against a gang of softies, Walter finds himself in unfavourable circumstances on many occasions, although he sometimes gets the last laugh. Dennis the Menace and Gnasher was first drawn by David Law, more recently, Tom Paterson has drawn some second Dennis strips for the comics rear pages.
Barrie Appleby did the artwork for the Beano Superstars series, towards the end of its run, in 2011, he took over as Denniss main artist. Upon the November revamp of The Beano, Nigel Parkinson took over as Dennis artist as Barrie Appleby had moved back to drawing new episodes of Roger the Dodger. During this revamp, Dennis was returned to his previous appearance and personality – Nigel Auchterlounie began writing for Dennis a month after, Nigel Auchterlounie has proven to be a very popular writer since taking over Dennis. Dennis and Gnasher have remained mascots of The Beano, the idea and name of the character emerged when The Beano editor George Moonie heard a British music hall song with the chorus Im Dennis the Menace from Venice. The character of Dennis was initially a struggle for artist Davey Law, Chisholm described the character to Law but was unsatisfied with every sketch the artist showed him. Out of frustration, Chisholm grabbed a pencil and quickly sketched out his creation to Law in the back of his cigarette packet, the drawing consisted of Denniss trademark messy hair cut, knobbly knees and menacing scowl.
Adapting Chisholms doodle, Law set to work on the character in the strip which would appear in the 17 March 1951 issue of The Beano, two months later, Law gave the mischievous boy his distinctive red and black striped jersey, outsized shoes and devilish grin. Denniss first comic strip appearance consisted of him walking into the park with his father, keeping in with his Worlds Wildest Boy tagline, Dennis makes many attempts to get onto the grass much to his fathers annoyance. Losing his temper, he takes the lead off the dog and this, like many succeeding it, only made up half a page. It wasnt until around 1954 that Dennis was deemed enough to gain a full page strip. Untouched by political correctness, many of Laws strips would end with Dennis being punished for his trouble making with corporal punishment such as a slippering or use of a cane, throughout the years, Laws Dennis became taller than his debut appearance
Croydon is a large town in south London, England,9.5 miles south of Charing Cross. The principal settlement in the London Borough of Croydon, it is one of the largest commercial districts outside Central London, with a shopping district. Its population of 52,104 at the 2011 census includes the wards of Addiscombe, Broad Green, Croydon expanded in the Middle Ages as a market town and a centre for charcoal production, leather tanning and brewing. The Surrey Iron Railway from Croydon to Wandsworth opened in 1803 and was the worlds first public railway, nineteenth century railway building facilitated Croydons growth as a commuter town for London. By the early 20th century, Croydon was an important industrial area, known for car manufacture, metal working, Croydon was amalgamated into Greater London in 1965. Road traffic is diverted away from a largely pedestrianised town centre, East Croydon is a major hub of the national railway transport system, with frequent fast services to central London and the south coast.
The town is unique in Greater London for its Tramlink light rail transport system, although less probable, theories of the names origin have been proposed. According to John Corbett Anderson, The earliest mention of Croydon is in the joint will of Beorhtric and Aelfswth, in this Anglo-Saxon document the name is spelt Crogdaene. Crog was, and still is, the Norse or Danish word for crooked, which is expressed in Anglo-Saxon by crumb, from the Danish came our crook and crooked. This term accurately describes the locality, it is a crooked or winding valley, in reference to the valley runs in an oblique. However, there was no long-term Danish occupation in Surrey, which was part of Wessex, and Danish-derived nomenclature is highly unlikely. The town lies on the line of the Roman road from London to Portslade, later, in the 5th to 7th centuries, a large pagan Saxon cemetery was situated on what is now Park Lane, although the extent of any associated settlement is unknown. By the late Saxon period Croydon was the hub of an estate belonging to the Archbishops of Canterbury, the church and the archbishops manor house occupied the area still known as Old Town.
Croydon appears in Domesday Book as Croindene, held by Archbishop Lanfranc and its Domesday assets were,16 hides and 1 virgate,1 church,1 mill worth 5s,38 ploughs,8 acres of meadow, woodland worth 200 hogs. The church had established in the middle Saxon period, and was probably a minster church. A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council that had taken place close to the monasterium of Croydon, an Anglo-Saxon will made in about 960 is witnessed by Elfsies, priest of Croydon, and the church is mentioned in Domesday Book. The will of John de Croydon, dated 6 December 1347, includes a bequest to the church of S John de Croydon, the church still bears the arms of Archbishop Courtenay and Archbishop Chichele, believed to have been its benefactors. In 1276 Archbishop Robert Kilwardby acquired a charter for a market
Products are distributed to schools and districts, to consumers through the schools via reading clubs and fairs, and through retail stores and online sales. The business has three segments, Children Book Publishing & Distribution and International, Scholastic holds the perpetual U. S. publishing rights to Harry Potter and The Hunger Games book series. Scholastic is the worlds largest publisher and distributor of childrens books, Scholastic publishes instructional reading and writing programs, and offers professional learning and consultancy services for school improvement. Clifford the Big Red Dog serves as the mascot for Scholastic, in 1920, Maurice R. Robbie Robinson founded the business he named Scholastic Publishing Company in his hometown of Wilkinsburg, right outside Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. As a publisher of magazines, the first publication was The Western Pennsylvania Scholastic. It covered high school sports and social activities and debuted on October 22,1920, in 1926, Scholastic published its first book, Saplings, a collection of selected student writings by winners of the Scholastic Writing Awards.
For many years the company continued its focus on serving the market, publishing low-cost magazines. The company continued under the name Scholastic Magazines throughout the 1970s, after World War II, cheap paperback books became available. In 1948, Scholastic entered the book club business with its division T. A. B. or Teen Age Book Club. In 1957, Scholastic established its first international subsidiary in Toronto Scholastic Canada, moving to Markham, by the 1960s, international publishing locations were added in England, New Zealand and Sydney. In 1974, Richard Dick Robinson, the son of founder M. R. Robinson, named Chief Executive Officer in 1975 and Chairman in 1982, he remains in these positions. Scholastic now publishes 33 classroom magazines including Scholastic News, Scope, SuperScience, Science World and more, classroom Magazines have 15 million subscribers. The EdTech and Services business was sold to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt in 2015 for $575 million and it continues to publish Harry Potter books, each title a best seller.
Scholastics growth has continued by acquiring other media companies, in 2015, Scholastic acquired Troubadour, Ltd. in the U. K. During the 2000 presidential election, Scholastic organized the Scholastic News Kids Press Corps, founded in 1923 by Maurice R. These Awards have been the largest source of funding for teenage artists and writers. In the U. S. A, the process begins as young artists, the most outstanding works of art and writing from each region are forwarded to the Alliance for Young Artists & Writers in New York City to be reviewed on a national level. Panels of professional jurors select the award recipients
Exeter College of Art and Design
Exeter College of Art and Design was an art college based in Exeter, Devon. Founded in 1854, it amalgamated with what would become Plymouth University in 1989, the main building was located at Earl Richards Road North Exeter from the 1970s with some facilities based at Barts until the early 1980s. Graphics was based on Gandy Street in the old School of Art buildings until it relocated to the site in 1984. The Printmaking department was located at The Mint. The Art College offered higher education courses including Foundation, BA, disciplines were, Fine Art Ceramics, Painting, Photography, Sculpture and 4D. The Priory Press was introduced by Alan Richards and Bernard Beard in association with The Bartholomew Print Workshop in the 1960s, the School of Art was founded in Exeter in 1854 as part of the Royal Albert Memorial Museum and promoted by Edward Bowring Stephens a local sculptor. In 1858 decorative designer Kent Kingdon offered a £5 prize for a decorative design, in 1951 The Exeter School of Art was renamed as the Exeter Central College of Art.
Fishwick is now regarded as an important, if underrated figure in post-war British painting, in 1966 students print work was featured in an exhibition entitled An Approach to Printmaking in Exeter at The Whitechapel Gallery, London. In 1973 the College was renamed again as Exeter College of Art and Design, in 1976 painting tutor John Butler set up The Spacex which became a registered educational charity in 1990. The college amalgamated with Polytechnic South West based in Plymouth in 1989, in 2011 planning permission was granted to demolish and redevelop the site to provide 39 dwellings with parking and landscaping. Elaine M. Goodwin author and mosaic artist, diana Jane Howse visual arts specialist and wife of David Lascelles, 8th Earl of Harewood. Iain McKell fashion and social documentary photographer, chris Pig printmaker Kev F. Sutherland comedian and comic strip creator. Frederick John Widgery landscape artist and mayor of Exeter, historical photos of the college Spacex Gallery website Exhibition catalogue written by Lesley Kerman 2012 Artwork Installation by Sarah Bennett in the abandoned Art College building
Dr. Stephen Vincent Strange, M. D. is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by artist Steve Ditko and writer Stan Lee, the character first appeared in Strange Tales #110, Doctor Strange serves as the Sorcerer Supreme, the primary protector of Earth against magical and mystical threats. Inspired by stories of magic and Chandu the Magician, Strange was created during the Silver Age of Comics to bring a different kind of character. The characters origin story relates that he was once a brilliant, after a car accident severely damages his hands and hinders his ability to perform surgery, he searches the globe for a way to repair them and encounters the Ancient One. After becoming one of the old Sorcerer Supremes students, he becomes a practitioner of both the arts as well as martial arts. Along with knowing many powerful spells, he has a costume with two mystical objects—the Cloak of Levitation and Eye of Agamotto—which give him added powers, Strange is aided along the way by his friend and valet, and a large assortment of mystical objects.
He takes up residence in a called the Sanctum Sanctorum. Later, Strange takes the title of Sorcerer Supreme, in 2008, Doctor Strange was ranked 83rd in Wizards 200 Greatest Comic Book Characters of All Time list, and in 2012 was ranked 33rd in IGNs list of The Top 50 Avengers. He was ranked 34th on IGNs list of Top 100 Comic Book Heroes, the character was first portrayed in live-action by Peter Hooten in the 1978 television film Dr. Strange. Benedict Cumberbatch stars as the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe and my character wound up being named Dr. Strange because he would appear in Strange Tales. In a 1963 letter to Jerry Bails, Lee called the character Ditkos idea, Well and it has sort of a black magic theme. The first story is nothing great, but perhaps we can make something of him-- twas Steves idea and I figured wed give it a chance, although again, Doctor Strange debuted in Strange Tales #110, a split book shared with the feature The Human Torch. Doctor Strange appeared in issues #110–111 and #114 before the characters origin story in #115.
Scripter Lees take on the character was inspired by the Chandu the Magician radio program aired on the Mutual Broadcasting System in the 1930s. Ditko showcased surrealistic mystical landscapes and increasingly vivid visuals that helped make the feature a favorite of students at the time. Comics historian Mike Benton wrote, The Dr. Strange stories of the 1960s constructed a cohesive cosmology that would have thrilled any self-respecting theosophist. College students, minds freshly opened by psychedelic experiences and Eastern mysticism, read Ditko, meaning was everywhere, and readers analyzed the Dr. Strange stories for their relationship to Egyptian myths, Sumerian gods, and Jungian archetypes. But I dont use hallucinogens, nor do I think any artists do, as co-plotter and sole plotter in the Marvel Method, Ditko took Strange into ever-more-abstract realms
Edinburgh Festival Fringe
The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the worlds largest arts festival, which in 2016, spanned 25 days and featured 50,266 performances of 3,269 shows in 294 venues. Established in 1947 as an alternative to the Edinburgh International Festival, it takes place annually in Edinburgh, Scotlands capital and it is an open access performing arts festival, meaning there is no selection committee, and anyone may participate, with any type of performance. The Fringe has often showcased experimental, challenging or controversial works that might not be invited to a more conservative arts festival, the Fringe board of directors is drawn from members of the Festival Fringe Society, who are often Fringe participants themselves – performers or administrators. Elections are held once a year, in August, and Board members serve a term of four years, the Board appoints the Fringe Chief Executive, who is currently Shona McCarthy and assumed the role in March 2016. The Chief Executive operates under the chair, currently Professor Sir Timothy OShea, the Fringe started life when eight theatre companies turned up uninvited to the inaugural Edinburgh International Festival in 1947.
With the official festival using the major venues, these companies took over smaller. Seven performed in Edinburgh, and one undertook a version of the morality play Everyman in Dunfermline Abbey, about 20 miles north. These groups aimed to take advantage of the large assembled theatre crowds to showcase their own alternative theatre, although at the time it was not recognised as such, this was the first Edinburgh Festival Fringe. This meant that two defining features of the future Fringe were established at the very beginning – the lack of invitations to perform. I am afraid some of us are not going to be at home during the evenings. The word fringe had in fact used in a review of Everyman in 1947. Late night revues, which would become a feature of Fringes, the first one was the New Drama Groups After The Show, a series of sketches taking place after Donald Pleasences Ebb Tide, in 1952. Among the talent to appear in early Fringe revues were Ned Sherrin in 1955, due to many reviewers only being able to attend Fringe events late night after the official festival was finished, the Fringe came to be seen as being about revues.
It was a few years before an official programme for the Fringe was created. John Menzies compiled a list of shows under the title Other Events in their omnibus festival brochure and this was funded by participating companies and was entitled Additional Entertainments, since the name Fringe was still not yet in regular usage. It used a strange cover motif, a first attempt was made to provide a central booking service in 1955 by students from the university, although it lost money, which was blamed on those who had not taken part. Formal organisation progressed in 1959, with the formation of the Festival Fringe Society, the push for such an organisation was led by Michael Imison, director of Oxford Theatre Group. A constitution was drawn up, in which the policy of not vetting or censoring shows was set out, nineteen companies participated in the Fringe in that year