Time Warner Cable
Time Warner Cable was an American cable television company. Before it was purchased by Charter Communications on May 18, 2016, it was ranked the second largest cable company in the United States by revenue behind only Comcast, operating in 29 states, its corporate headquarters were located in the Time Warner Center in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, with other corporate offices in Stamford, Connecticut. From 1971 to 1981, Time Warner Cable, as Warner Cable, owned Dimension Pictures, it was controlled by Warner Communications by Time Warner. That company spun off the cable operations in March 2009 as part of a larger restructuring. From 2009 to 2016, Time Warner Cable was an independent company, continuing to use the Time Warner name under license from its former parent. In 2014, the company was the subject of a proposed purchase by Comcast Corporation, valued at $45.2 billion. S. government to try to block the merger, Comcast called off the deal in April 2015. On May 26, 2015, Charter Communications announced that it would acquire Time Warner Cable for $78.7 billion, along with Bright House Networks in a separate $10.1 billion deal, pending regulatory approval.
The purchase was completed on May 18, 2016. Time Warner Cable was formed in 1992 by the merger of Time Inc.'s cable television company, American Television and Communications Corp. and Warner Cable, a division of Warner Communications, as a result of a merger to form Time Warner. It includes the remnants of the defunct QUBE interactive TV service. In 1995, the company launched the Southern Tier On-Line Community, a cable modem service known as Road Runner High Speed Online; that year, talks began that would result in Warner's acquisition of Paragon Cable. Glenn Britt was the CEO from 2001 until December 2013. Time Warner retained Time Warner Cable as a subsidiary until March 2009, when it was spun out as an independent company. Prior to the spin-out, Time Warner had held an 84% stake in Time Warner Cable. Non-Time Warner shareholders received 0.083670 shares for each share owned. This move made Time Warner Cable the largest cable operator in the United States owned by a single class of shareholders.
Time Warner Cable launched DVR service in the Houston area in 2004. When first launched, it used Scientific-Atlanta set-top boxes with DVR. In June 2009, Time Warner Cable unveiled a concept known as "TV Everywhere"—a means of allowing multi-platform access to live and on-demand content from television channels, tied to a user's television subscription, it was first reported in October 2013 that Time Warner Cable was exploring a sale of the company to Charter Communications. However, on November 22, 2013, reports surfaced that Comcast expressed interest in acquiring Time Warner Cable. Both companies were said to be placing bids for the company. Charter reiterated its interest in purchasing Time Warner Cable and increased its bid on January 14, 2014. On February 12, 2014, it was reported that Comcast had reached a deal to acquire TWC in an overall deal valued at $45.2 billion, pending regulatory approval. The proposed merger was met with prominent opposition from various groups, showing concerns that the sheer size of the combined company would reduce competition and would give Comcast an unprecedented level of control over the United States' internet and television industries, increased leverage in the distribution of NBCUniversal content, hamper over-the-top services, lead to higher prices for its services.
In April 2015, it was reported that the U. S. Department of Justice was preparing to file an antitrust lawsuit against the companies in a bid to halt the merger because the merged company would have controlled 57 percent of the nation's broadband capacity. On April 24, 2015, Comcast announced that it had called off the merger. On May 25, 2015, Bloomberg News reported that Charter was "near" a deal to acquire TWC for $195 a share. Charter had been involved in the Comcast/TWC merger, as the companies planned to divest around 4 million subscribers to Charter in order to reduce the combined company's market share to an acceptable level; the next day, Charter announced its intent to acquire Time Warner Cable in a deal valued at $78.7 billion, confirmed that it would continue with its proposed, $10.1 billion acquisition of Bright House Networks. The deal was subject to regulatory approval, although due to the smaller size of the companies and their media holdings, the deal was expected to face less resistance than the Comcast/TWC merger.
The acquisition was completed on May 18, 2016. The Time Warner Cable brand was phased out in favor of Spectrum, the brand used by Charter since 2014 to market its s
Fox NFL is the branding used for broadcasts of National Football League games produced by Fox Sports and televised on the Fox Broadcasting Company. Game coverage is preceded by the pre-game shows Fox NFL Kickoff and Fox NFL Sunday and is followed on most weeks by post-game show The OT; the latter two shows feature the same studio hosts and analysts for both programs, who contribute to the former. In weeks when Fox airs a doubleheader, the late broadcast airs under the brand America's Game of the Week; the network aired its inaugural NFL game telecast on August 12, 1994, with a preseason game between the Denver Broncos and the San Francisco 49ers at Candlestick Park in San Francisco. Coverage formally began the following month on September 4, with the premiere of Fox NFL Sunday, followed by a slate of six regionally televised regular season games on the first Sunday of the 1994 season. Though Fox was growing as a network, had established itself as a presence, it was still not considered a major competitor to the more-established "Big Three" broadcast networks.
Fox management, having seen the critical role that soccer programming had played in the growth of British satellite service BSkyB, believed that sports, professional football, would be the engine that would turn Fox into a major network the quickest. To this end, Fox had bid aggressively for football broadcast rights from the start, it notably passed on the United States Football League, which had hoped to move to fall in 1986, the same time Fox was to debut, was seeking a broadcast contract. In 1987, Fox's first full year on the air, ABC hedged on renewing its contract to carry Monday Night Football – the league's crown-jewel program – as was in the middle of negotiations to reach a new contract, due to an increased expense of the rights. Fox made an offer to the National Football League to acquire the Monday Night Football contract for the same amount ABC, paying to carry the package, about US$1.3 billion at the time. However, the NFL, in part because Fox had not established itself as a major network, chose to renew its contract with ABC.
Meanwhile, after the Fox Broadcasting Company was launched, David Dixon, founder of the United States Football League, proposed the creation of the "American Football Federation", a spring league that would be made up of ten teams and draft high school graduates who were declared academically ineligible to play College Football by the NCAA. The league would never play a single game. Despite having a few successful shows in its slate, the network did not have a significant market share until the early 1990s when Fox parent News Corporation began to upgrade some of its local affiliates – and purchased additional stations from other television station groups, such as New World Communications and Chris-Craft Industries' BHC Communications and United Television, making it the largest owner of television stations in the United States; the time now filled by Fox NFL on Sunday afternoons during the fall and winter months was in the control of the stations themselves, which filled the timeslots with either syndicated television series and/or movie blocks.
The Sunday afternoon timeslot in the spring is filled by Fox NASCAR's coverage of the NASCAR Monster Energy Cup Series. Six years after its first attempt, the league's television contracts for both conferences and for the Sunday and Monday prime time football packages came up for renewal again in 1993. Many expected that the NFL would receive less money than the $3.6 billion for four years that ABC, CBS, NBC, TNT, ESPN had paid in 1990. Fox wanted the NFL to build credibility for its network. Knowing that it would need to bid more than the incumbent networks, Fox bid $1.58 billion to obtain a four-year contract for the broadcast rights to the National Football Conference, exceeding CBS's bid by more than $100 million per year. The NFC was considered the more desirable conference due to its presence in most of the largest U. S. markets, such as New York City, Chicago and Dallas-of which the Cowboys were gaining a national following in the 90's. Despite having a few successful shows like The X-Files, Fox still lacked credibility among viewers.
The network was known for blue-collar family sitcoms like The Simpsons and Married... with Children. Despite so much skepticism about Fox that it had to assure the NFL and reporters that Bart Simpson would not be an announcer, to the surprise and shock of many in the sports and media industries, on December 17, 1993, the NFL selected the bid offered by Fox, in the process stripping CBS of football for the first time since 1956. Fox's coverage, in addition to being able to televise NFC regular season and playoff games included the exclusive U. S. television rights to Super Bowl XXXI under the initial contract, which took effect with the 1994 season. The unexpectedly high bids from Fox and other networks increased the NFL salary cap, new in 1994, to $34 million from the predicted $32 million. CBS's Laurence Tisch had underestimated the value of its NFL rights with respect to its advertising revenues and
Nintendo Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto. Nintendo is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, Pokémon. Founded on 23 September 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi, it produced handmade hanafuda playing cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and love hotels. Abandoning previous ventures in favor of toys in the 1960s, Nintendo developed into a video game company in the 1970s becoming one of the most influential in the industry and one of Japan's most-valuable companies with a market value of over $37 billion in 2018. Nintendo was founded as a playing card company by Fusajiro Yamauchi on 23 September 1889. Based in Kyoto, the business marketed Hanafuda cards; the handmade cards soon became popular, Yamauchi hired assistants to mass-produce cards to satisfy demand.
In 1949, the company adopted the name Nintendo Karuta Co. Ltd. doing business as The Nintendo Playing Card Co. outside Japan. Nintendo continues to manufacture playing cards in Japan and organizes its own contract bridge tournament called the "Nintendo Cup"; the word Nintendo can be translated as "leave luck to heaven", or alternatively as "the temple of free hanafuda". In 1956, Hiroshi Yamauchi, grandson of Fusajiro Yamauchi, visited the U. S. to talk with the United States Playing Card Company, the dominant playing card manufacturer there. He found. Yamauchi's realization that the playing card business had limited potential was a turning point, he acquired the license to use Disney characters on playing cards to drive sales. In 1963, Yamauchi renamed Nintendo Playing Card Co. Ltd. to Nintendo Co. Ltd; the company began to experiment in other areas of business using newly injected capital during the period of time between 1963 and 1968. Nintendo set up a taxi company called Daiya; this business was successful.
However, Nintendo was forced to sell it because problems with the labour unions were making it too expensive to run the service. It set up a love hotel chain, a TV network, a food company and several other ventures. All of these ventures failed, after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, playing card sales dropped, Nintendo's stock price plummeted to its lowest recorded level of ¥60. In 1966, Nintendo moved into the Japanese toy industry with the Ultra Hand, an extendable arm developed by its maintenance engineer Gunpei Yokoi in his free time. Yokoi was moved from maintenance to the new "Nintendo Games" department as a product developer. Nintendo continued to produce popular toys, including the Ultra Machine, Love Tester and the Kousenjuu series of light gun games. Despite some successful products, Nintendo struggled to meet the fast development and manufacturing turnaround required in the toy market, fell behind the well-established companies such as Bandai and Tomy. In 1973, its focus shifted to family entertainment venues with the Laser Clay Shooting System, using the same light gun technology used in Nintendo's Kousenjuu series of toys, set up in abandoned bowling alleys.
Following some success, Nintendo developed several more light gun machines for the emerging arcade scene. While the Laser Clay Shooting System ranges had to be shut down following excessive costs, Nintendo had found a new market. Nintendo's first venture into the video gaming industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey video game console in Japan in 1974. Nintendo began to produce its own hardware in 1977, with the Color TV-Game home video game consoles. Four versions of these consoles were produced, each including variations of a single game. A student product developer named, he worked for Yokoi, one of his first tasks was to design the casing for several of the Color TV-Game consoles. Miyamoto went on to create and produce some of Nintendo's most famous video games and become one of the most recognizable figures in the video game industry. In 1975, Nintendo moved into the video arcade game industry with EVR Race, designed by their first game designer, Genyo Takeda, several more games followed.
Nintendo had some small success with this venture, but the release of Donkey Kong in 1981, designed by Miyamoto, changed Nintendo's fortunes dramatically. The success of the game and many licensing opportunities gave Nintendo a huge boost in profit and in addition, the game introduced an early iteration of Mario known in Japan as Jumpman, the eventual company mascot. In 1979, Gunpei Yokoi conceived the idea of a handheld video game, while observing a fellow bullet train commuter who passed the time by interacting idly with a portable LCD calculator, which gave birth to Game & Watch. In 1980, Nintendo launched Watch -- a handheld video game series developed by Yokoi; these systems do not contain interchangeable cartridges and thus the hardware was tied to the game. The first Game & Watch game, was distributed worldwide; the modern "cross" D-pad design was developed by Yokoi for a Donkey Kong version. Proven to be popular, the design was patented by Nintendo, it earned a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award.
In 1983, Nintendo launched the Family Computer home video game console in Japan, alongside ports of its most popular arcade games. In 1985, a cosmetically reworked version of the system known
Citizenship of the United States
Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights and benefits. Citizenship is understood as a "right to have rights" since it serves as a foundation of fundamental rights derived from and protected by the Constitution and laws of the United States, such as the right to freedom of expression, due process and work in the United States, to receive federal assistance; the implementation of citizenship requires attitudes including allegiance to the republic, an impulse to promote communities. Certain rights are so fundamental; these include those rights guaranteed by the first 8 Amendments. However, not all U. S. citizens, such as those living in Puerto Rico, have the right to vote in federal elections. There are two primary sources of citizenship: birthright citizenship, in which a person is presumed to be a citizen if he or she was born within the territorial limits of the United States, or—providing certain other requirements are met—born abroad to a U. S. citizen parent, naturalization, a process in which an eligible legal immigrant applies for citizenship and is accepted.
These two pathways to citizenship are specified in the Citizenship Clause of the Constitution's 1868 Fourteenth Amendment which reads: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. National citizenship signifies membership in the country as a whole. State citizenship may affect tax decisions and eligibility for some state-provided benefits such as higher education and eligibility for state political posts such as U. S. Senator. In Article One of the Constitution, the power to establish a "uniform rule of naturalization" is granted explicitly to Congress. U. S. law permits multiple citizenship. A citizen of another country naturalized as a U. S. citizen may retain their previous citizenship, though they must renounce allegiance to the other country. A U. S. citizen retains U. S. citizenship should that country's laws allow it. U. S. citizenship can be renounced by Americans who hold another citizenship via a formal procedure at a U.
S. Embassy, it can be restored. Freedom to work. United States citizens have the inalienable right to work in the United States. Certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights. For example, they may be deported. Freedom to leave the United States. United States citizens have the right to leave the United States freely. Certain non-citizens, such as permanent residents, have similar rights. Unlike permanent residents, U. S. citizens do not have an obligation to maintain residence in the U. S. – they can leave for any length of time and return at any time. Voting for federal office in all fifty states and the District of Columbia is restricted to citizens only. States are not required to extend the franchise to all citizens: for example, several states bar citizen felons from voting after they have completed any custodial sentence; the United States Constitution bars states from restricting citizens from voting on grounds of race, previous condition of servitude, failure to pay any tax, or age.
Many states and local jurisdictions have allowed non-citizens to vote. Citizens are not compelled to vote. Freedom to stand for public office; the United States Constitution requires that all members of the United States House of Representatives have been citizens for seven years, that all senators have been citizens for nine years, before taking office. Most states have similar requirements: for example California requires that legislators have been citizens for three years, the Governor have been a citizen for five years, upon taking office; the U. S. Constitution requires that one be "a natural born Citizen" and a U. S. resident for fourteen years in order to be President of the United States or Vice President of the United States. The Constitution stipulates that otherwise eligible citizens must meet certain age requirements for these offices. Right to apply for federal employment. Many federal government jobs require applicants to have U. S. citizenship. U. S. citizens can apply for federal employment within department.
Jury duty is only imposed upon citizens. Jury duty may be considered the "sole differential obligation" between citizens. Military participation is not required in the United States, but a policy of conscription of men has been in place at various times in American history, most during the Vietnam War; the United States Armed Forces are a professional all-volunteer force, although both male U. S. citizens and male non-citizen permanent residents are required to register with the Selective Service System and may be called up in the event of a future draft. Johns Hopkins University political scientist Benjamin Ginsberg writes, "The professional military has limited the need for citizen soldiers." Taxes. In the United States today, everyone except those whose income is derived from tax-exempt revenue (Sub
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
New York Mets
The New York Mets are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of Queens. The Mets compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League East division; the Mets are one of two Major League clubs based in New York City. One of baseball's first expansion teams, the Mets were founded in 1962 to replace New York's departed NL teams, the Brooklyn Dodgers and the New York Giants; the Mets' colors are composed of the Dodgers' blue and the Giants' orange, which form the outer two bands of the New York City flag. During the 1962 and 1963 seasons, the Mets played their home games at the Polo Grounds. From 1964 to 2008, the Mets' home ballpark was Shea Stadium. In 2009, they moved into Citi Field. In their 1962 inaugural season, the Mets posted a record of 40–120, the worst regular season record since MLB went to a 162-game schedule; the team never finished better than second to last until the 1969 "Miracle Mets" beat the Baltimore Orioles in the 1969 World Series in what is considered one of the biggest upsets in World Series history.
Since they have played in four additional World Series, including a dramatic run in 1973 that ended in a seven-game loss to the Oakland Athletics, a second championship in 1986 over the Boston Red Sox, a Subway Series loss against their cross-town rivals the New York Yankees in 2000, a five-game loss to the Kansas City Royals in 2015. The Mets qualified to play in the Major League Baseball postseason in 1988 and 2006, coming within one game of the World Series both years. After near-misses in 2007 and 2008, the Mets made the playoffs in 2015 for the first time in nine years, won their first NL pennant in 15 years; the team again returned to the playoffs in this time with a wild card berth. This was the team's second back-to-back playoff appearance, the first occurring during the 1999 and 2000 seasons; as of the end of the 2018 MLB season, the Mets overall win-loss record is 4362–4732, good for a.480 win percentage. After the 1957 season, the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants relocated from New York to California to become the Los Angeles Dodgers and San Francisco Giants leaving the largest city in the United States with no National League franchise and only one major league team, the New York Yankees of the American League.
With the threat of a New York team joining a new third league, the National League expanded by adding the New York Mets following a proposal from William Shea. In a symbolic reference to New York's earlier National League teams, the new team took as its primary colors the blue of the Dodgers and the orange of the Giants, colors featured on the Flag of New York City; the nickname "Mets" was adopted: it was a natural shorthand to the club's corporate name, "The New York Metropolitan Baseball Club, Inc.", hearkened back to the "Metropolitans", its brevity was advantageous for newspaper headlines. For the first two years of its existence, the team played its home games at the historic Polo Grounds in Upper Manhattan. In 1964, they moved into newly constructed Shea Stadium in Flushing, where the Mets played until the 2008 season. In 2009, the club moved into Citi Field, adjacent to the former Shea Stadium site. During their history, the Mets have won two World Series titles, five National League pennants and six National League East titles.
The Mets qualified for the postseason as the National League wild card team in 1999, 2000, 2016. The Mets have appeared in five World Series, more than any other expansion team in MLB history, their two championships are the most titles among expansion teams, equal to the tallies of the Toronto Blue Jays, Miami Marlins, Kansas City Royals. The Mets held the New York baseball single-season attendance record for 29 years, they broke the Yankees' 1948 record by drawing nearly 2.7 million spectators in 1970. The Mets broke their own record five times before the record was regained by the Yankees in 1999; the 1962 Mets posted a 40–120 record, a record for the most losses in a season since 1899. In 1966, the Mets famously bypassed future Hall of Famer Reggie Jackson in the amateur draft, instead selecting Steve Chilcott, who never played in the majors, but the following year, they acquired future Hall of Famer Tom Seaver in a lottery. Seaver helped the 1969 "Miracle Mets" win the new National League East division title defeat the Atlanta Braves to win the National League pennant and the favored Baltimore Orioles to win the 1969 World Series.
In 1973, the Mets rallied from 5th place to win the division, despite a record of only 82–79. They shocked the favored Cincinnati Reds "Big Red Machine" in the NLCS and pushed the defending World Series champion Oakland Athletics to a seventh game, but lost the series. Notably, 1973 was the only NL East title between 1970 and 1980 that wasn't won by either the Philadelphia Phillies or the Pittsburgh Pirates. Star pitcher Tom Seaver was traded in 1977, on a day remembered as "the Midnight Massacre", the Mets fell into last place for several years; the franchise turned around in the mid-1980s. During this time the Mets drafted slugger Darryl Strawberry and 1985 Cy Young Award winner Dwight Gooden. In addition, former National League MVP and perennial Gold Glove winner Keith Hernandez was obtained by the Mets in 1983. In 1985, they acquired Hall of Fame catcher Gary Carter from the Montreal Expos and won 98 games, but narrowly missed the playoffs. In 1986, they won the division with a record of 108–54, one of the best in National Le
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a