2014 Major League Baseball season
The 2014 Major League Baseball season began on March 22 at the Sydney Cricket Ground in Sydney, between the Los Angeles Dodgers and the Arizona Diamondbacks. The North American part of the season started on March 30 and ended on September 28; the Major League Baseball All-Star Game's 85th edition was held on July 15 at Target Field in Minneapolis, home of the Minnesota Twins. The American League beat the National League 5–3. With the win, the AL champion earned home-field advantage during the World Series; this year the Houston Astros hosted the Civil Rights Game on May 30 at Minute Maid Park. They played host to the Baltimore Orioles; this was the final season of Bud Selig as the Commissioner of Baseball. Selig served as the Executive Council Chairman from 1992 to 1998, acting as the commissioner, was appointed as the official commissioner in 1998. On August 14, 2014, the franchise owners selected Rob Manfred to become the new Commissioner, starting in 2015. No significant changes were made to the 2014 schedule.
As was the case in 2013, each team played 19 games against each division opponent for a total of 76 games, six or seven games against each team from the other two divisions in its league for a total of 66 games. All teams played 20 interleague games, with the majority of match-ups following the divisional rotation in place since 2004. For 2014, the matchups were AL East vs. NL Central, AL Central vs. NL West, AL West vs. NL East. Teams played four games against a designated "rival" in two back-to-back two-game series, one home and one away. Unlike in 2013, when all of these series were played during the same week, these rivalry series were spread from early May through mid-August; the table below shows the interleague rivals for the 2014 season. On August 15, 2013, Major League Baseball announced that it would expand its video review process for the 2014 season, MLB clubs unanimously approved the new rules on January 16, 2014. Managers were now able to challenge certain plays no more than twice per game, including force plays, fair or foul balls, batters hit by a pitch, among others.
If a manager exhausted his ability to challenge plays during the game and after the beginning of the seventh inning, the umpire crew chief could choose to invoke instant replay on any reviewable call. Calls that were challenged were reviewed by an umpiring crew at MLB headquarters in New York City, which made the final ruling. On December 11, 2013, the Playing Rules Committee voted overwhelmingly to outlaw home-plate collisions between runners and catchers. On February 24, 2014, the new rule was put into effect. At the end of the 2013 season, the following teams made replacements to their managers. Evan Longoria: His home run in the seventh inning against the Toronto Blue Jays on April 3 gives him 163 for his Rays' career; this ties the team record held by Carlos Peña. Longoria set the franchise record with his 164th home run on April 19 against the New York Yankees. Miguel Cabrera: Recorded his 2,000th career hit with a home run in the eighth inning against the Baltimore Orioles on April 4, he became the 277th player to reach this mark.
Albert Pujols: Recorded his 1,500th career RBI with a home run in the first inning against the Chicago White Sox on April 8. He became the 52nd player to reach this mark. Recorded his 500th career home run in the fifth inning against the Washington Nationals on April 22, he became the 26th player to reach this mark. Recorded his 550th career double in the first inning against the Los Angeles Dodgers on August 4, he became the 26th player to reach this mark. Recorded his 1,500th career run scored with a home run in the third inning on September 6 against the Minnesota Twins, he became the 71st player to reach this mark. Recorded his 2,500th career hit with a double in the ninth inning on September 6 against the Minnesota Twins, he became the 98th player to reach this mark. Raúl Ibañez /: Recorded his 2,000th career hit with a home run in the ninth inning against the New York Mets on April 12, he became the 278th player to reach this mark. Elvis Andrus: Set team record for stolen bases in career on April 18.
Setting the record with his 173 stolen base, breaking the record, set by Ian Kinsler. José Abreu: Set the rookie record for home runs in April by hitting his ninth on April 25 against the Tampa Bay Rays, he broke the record of eight set by Carlos Delgado and Kent Hrbek. Abreu finished April with ten home runs. Set the rookie record for RBI in April by raising his total to 31 on April 27 against the Tampa Bay Rays, he broke the record of 27 set by Albert Pujols. Abreu finished April with 32 runs batted in. Tied the franchise rookie record for home runs with his 35th homer in the ninth inning on September 14 against the Minnesota Twins, he tied the record, set in 1983 by Ron Kittle. He set a new record with his 36th home run on September 27 against the Kansas City Royals. Adrián Beltré: Recorded his 500th career double in the second inning against the Seattle Mariners on April 27, he became the 59th player to reach this mark. Recorded his 2,500th career hit with a single in the second inning on June 24 against the Detroit Tigers.
He became the 97th player to reach this mark. Nolan Arenado: With a double in the first inning on May 7 against the Texas Rangers, Arenado extended his hit streak to 27 games which tied the team record set by Michael Cuddyer in 2013. Arenado set the team record with a single in the third inning the next night against the Rangers. Arenado's streak came to an end the next night as the Cincinnati Reds held him hitless. Alfonso Soriano: With his single in the second inning on May 12 against the New York Mets, Soriano became the seventh player in Major League hi
California Polytechnic State University
California Polytechnic State University is a public university in San Luis Obispo, California. It is one of two polytechnics in the California State University system; the university is organized into six colleges offering 32 master's degrees. Cal Poly San Luis Obispo focuses on undergraduate education with 20,425 undergraduate and 881 graduate students; the university is located in San Luis Obispo, California noted as one of the happiest cities in the United States, with many alumni in Silicon Valley. The university participates in the Big West Conference in athletics. Cal Poly San Luis Obispo was established as the California Polytechnic School in 1901 when Governor Henry T. Gage signed the California Polytechnic School Bill after a campaign by journalist Myron Angel; the polytechnic school held its first classes on October 1, 1903 to 20 students, offering secondary level courses of study, which took three years to complete. The school continued to grow except during a period from the mid 1910s to the early 1920s when World War I led to drops in enrollment and drastic budget cuts forced fewer class offerings.
In 1924, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo was placed under the control of the California State Board of Education. In 1933, the Board of Education changed Cal Poly San Luis Obispo into a two-year technical and vocational school; the institution began to offer Bachelor of Arts degrees in 1940, with the first baccalaureate exercises held in 1942. The school was renamed the California State Polytechnic College in 1947 to better reflect its higher education offerings, in 1949, a Master of Arts degree in education was added. In 1960, control of Cal Poly San Luis Obispo and all other state colleges was transferred from the State Board of Education to an independent Board of Trustees, which became the California State University system; the college was authorized to offer Master of Science degrees in 1967, from to 1970, the school's curriculum was reorganized into different units, such as the School of Science and Math, the School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, the School of Architecture. Cal Poly San Luis Obispo's FM radio station, KCPR, began as a senior project in 1968.
The state legislature changed the school's official name again in 1971 to California Polytechnic State University, since the 1970s the university has seen steady enrollment growth and building construction. Cal Poly San Luis Obispo celebrated its centennial in 2001 and kicked off a $225 million fundraising campaign, the largest fund-raising effort undertaken in CSU history; the Centennial Campaign raised over $264 million from over 81,000 donors, more than tripling the university's endowment from $43 million to over $140 million. Cal Poly's $190.3 million endowment in 2016 was ranked 308th out of 815 colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. Cal Poly Pomona began as a satellite campus of Cal Poly San Luis Obispo in 1938 when a equipped school and farm were donated by Charles Voorhis and his son Jerry Voorhis of Pasadena and was called the Voorhis Unit; the W. K. Kellogg Foundation donated an 812-acre horse ranch in Pomona, California to Cal Poly San Luis Obispo in 1949. Located about one mile from the Voorhis campus, the two became known as Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis.
Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis broke off from Cal Poly in 1966, becoming the independent university, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Since 1949, the two campuses have cooperated on creating a float for the Rose Parade. Today, the long-running float program still boasts floats designed and constructed by students year-round on both campuses. On October 29, 1960, a chartered plane carrying the Cal Poly San Luis Obispo football team, hours after a loss to Bowling Green State University, crashed on takeoff at the Toledo Express Airport in Toledo, Ohio. Twenty-two of the 48 people on board were killed, including 16 players. In 1903, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo opened as a coeducational school with 20 students enrolled, 16 new male students and 4 new female students. In 1930, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo banned women from the entire school until 1956 when it once again began admitting female students; the university remains coeducational today, with women constituting 46.7% of the Fall 2015 total student population.
Unofficially, the school is referred to as "Cal Poly SLO", or "Cal Poly". The university's style guide indicates its official names are "California Polytechnic State University" and "Cal Poly." When necessary to distinguish between Cal Poly and its former satellite campus, Cal Poly Pomona, the lengthier "Cal Poly at San Luis Obispo" is used. The California State University system's style guide identifies the university as "California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo" and the elided "Cal Poly San Luis Obispo." Although Cal Poly San Luis Obispo is part of the California State University, its naming convention does not follow that of most campuses within the system. Thus, "San Luis Obispo State University" or "SLO State University" and "California State University, San Luis Obispo" are used. Leroy Anderson, 1902–1907 Leroy Burns Smith, 1908–1914 Robert Weir Ryder, 1914–1921 Nicholas Ricciardi, 1921–1924 Margaret Chase, 1924 Benjamin Ray Crandall, 1924–1933 Julian A. McPhee, 1933–1966 Dale W. Andrews, 1966–1967 Robert E. Kennedy, 1967–1979 Warren J. Baker, 1979–2010 Robert Glidden, 2010–2011 Jeffrey D.
The Minnesota Twins are an American professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The team competes in the Central division of the American League, is named after the Twin Cities area comprising Minneapolis and St. Paul; the franchise won the World Series in 1924 as the Washington Senators, in 1987 and 1991 as the Twins. The franchise moved from Washington, D. C. to Minnesota at the start of the 1961 season. The Twins played in Metropolitan Stadium from 1961 to 1981 and the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome from 1982 to 2009; the team played its inaugural game at Target Field on April 12, 2010. Through the 2017 season, the team has fielded 18 American League batting champions; the team has hosted five All-Star Games: 1937 and 1956 in Washington, D. C, 1965, 1985 and 2014 in Minneapolis-St. Paul; the team was founded in Washington, D. C. in 1901 as one of the eight original teams of the American League, named the Washington Senators or Washington Nationals. The team endured long bouts of mediocrity immortalized in the 1955 Broadway musical Damn Yankees.
The Washington Senators spent the first decade of their existence finishing near the bottom of the American League standings. Their fortunes began to improve with the arrival of 19-year-old pitcher, Walter Johnson, in 1907. Johnson blossomed in 1911 with 25 victories, although the Senators still finished the season in seventh place. In 1912, the Senators improved as their pitching staff led the league in team earned run average and in strikeouts. Johnson won 33 games while teammate Bob Groom added another 24 wins to help the Senators finish the season in second place. Manager Clark Griffith joined the team in 1912 and became the team's owner in 1920; the Senators continued to perform respectably in 1913 with Johnson posting a career-high 35 victories, as the team once again finished in second place. The Senators fell into another period of decline for the next decade; the team had a period of prolonged success in the 1920s and 1930s, led by Walter Johnson, as well as additional Hall-of-Famer Bucky Harris, Goose Goslin, Sam Rice, Heinie Manush, Joe Cronin.
In particular, a rejuvenated Johnson rebounded in 1924 to win 23 games with the help of his catcher, Muddy Ruel, as the Senators won the American League pennant for the first time in the history of the franchise. The Senators faced John McGraw's favored New York Giants in the 1924 World Series; the two teams traded wins forth with three games of the first six being decided by one run. In the deciding 7th game, the Senators were trailing the Giants 3 to 1 in the 8th inning when Bucky Harris hit a routine ground ball to third which hit a pebble and took a bad hop over Giants third baseman Freddie Lindstrom. Two runners scored on the play. An aging Walter Johnson came in to pitch the ninth inning, held the Giants scoreless into extra innings. In the bottom of the twelfth inning with Ruel at bat, he hit a high, foul ball directly over home plate; the Giants' catcher, Hank Gowdy, dropped his protective mask to field the ball but, failing to toss the mask aside, stumbled over it and dropped the ball, thus giving Ruel another chance to bat.
On the next pitch, Ruel hit a double and proceeded to score the winning run when Earl McNeely hit a ground ball that took another bad hop over Lindstrom's head. This would mark the only World Series triumph for the franchise during their 60-year tenure in Washington; the following season they repeated as American League champions but lost the 1925 World Series to the Pittsburgh Pirates. After Walter Johnson's retirement in 1927, he was hired as manager of the Senators. After enduring a few losing seasons, the team returned to contention in 1930. In 1933, Senators owner Clark Griffith returned to the formula that worked for him nine years prior: 26-year-old shortstop Joe Cronin became player-manager; the Senators posted a 99–53 record and cruised to the pennant seven games ahead of the New York Yankees, but in the 1933 World Series the Giants exacted their revenge winning in five games. Following the loss, the Senators sank all the way to seventh place in 1934 and attendance began to fall. Despite the return of Harris as manager from 1935–42 and again from 1950–54, Washington was a losing ball club for the next 25 years contending for the pennant only during World War II.
Washington came to be known as "first in war, first in peace, last in the American League", with their hard luck being crucial to the plot of the musical and film Damn Yankees. Cecil Travis, Buddy Myer, Roy Sievers, Mickey Vernon, Eddie Yost were notable Senators players whose careers were spent in obscurity due to the team's lack of success. In 1954, the Senators signed future Hall of Fame member Harmon Killebrew. By 1959 he was the Senators’ regular third baseman and led the league with 42 home runs earning him a starting spot on the American League All-Star team. After Griffith's death in 1955, his nephew and adopted son Calvin took over the team presidency. Calvin sold Griffith Stadium to the city of Washington and leased it back leading to speculation that the team was planning to move as the Boston Braves, St. Louis Browns and Philadelphia Athletics had all done in the early 1950s. By 1957, after an early flirtation with San Francisco, Griffith began courting Minneapolis–St. Paul, a prolonged process that resulted in his rejecting the Twin Cities' first offer before agreeing to relocate.
The American League opposed the move at first, but in 1960 a deal was reached
In baseball and softball, a relief pitcher or reliever is a pitcher who enters the game after the starting pitcher is removed due to injury, fatigue, ejection, or for other strategic reasons, such as inclement weather delays or pinch hitter substitutions. Relief pitchers are further divided informally into various roles, such as closers, setup men, middle relief pitchers, left/right-handed specialists, long relievers. Whereas starting pitchers rest several days before pitching in a game again due to the number of pitches thrown, relief pitchers are expected to be more flexible and pitch more games but with fewer innings pitched. A team's staff of relievers is referred to metonymically as a team's bullpen, which refers to the area where the relievers sit during games, where they warm-up prior to entering the game. In the early days of Major League Baseball, substituting a player was not allowed except for sickness or injury. An ineffective pitcher would switch positions with another player on the field.
The first relief appearance in the major leagues was in 1876 with Boston Red Caps outfielder Jack Manning switching positions with pitcher Joe Borden. In this early era, relief pitchers changing from a position role to the pitcher's box in this way were called "change" pitchers; this strategy of switching players between the mound and the outfield is still employed in modern baseball, sometimes in long extra inning games where a team is running out of players. In 1889, the first bullpen appearance occurred after rules were changed to allow a player substitution at any time. Early relief pitchers were starting pitchers pitching one or two innings in between starts. In 1903, during the second game of the inaugural World Series, Pittsburgh's Bucky Veil became the first relief pitcher in World Series history. Firpo Marberry is credited with being the first prominent reliever. From 1923 to 1935, he pitched in 551 games. Baseball historian Bill James wrote that Marberry was "a modern reliever—a hard throwing young kid who worked in relief and was used to nail down victories."
Another reliever, Johnny Murphy, became known as "Fireman" for his effectiveness when inserted into difficult situations in relief. Nonetheless, the full-time reliever, entrusted with important situations was more the exception than the rule at this point. A team's ace starting pitcher was used in between his starts to "close" games. Research would reveal that Lefty Grove would have been in his league's top three in saves in four different seasons, had that stat been invented at the time. After World War II, full-time relievers became more acceptable and standard; the relievers were pitchers that were not good enough to be starters. Relievers in the 1950s started to develop oddball pitches to distinguish them from starters. For example, Hoyt Wilhelm threw a knuckleball, Elroy Face threw a forkball. In 1969, the pitcher's mound was lowered and umpires were encouraged to call fewer strikes to give batters an advantage. Relief specialists were used to counter the increase in offense. Relievers became more respected in the 1970s, their pay increased due to free agency.
All teams began having a closer. The 1980s were the first time in MLB. In 1995, there were nearly four saves for every complete game, it is unclear whether the specialization and reliance on relief pitchers led to pitch counts and fewer complete games, or whether pitch counts led to greater use of relievers. As closers were reduced to one-inning specialists, setup men and middle relievers became more prominent. In past decades, the relief pitcher was an ex-starter who came into a game upon the injury, ineffectiveness, or fatigue of the starting pitcher; the bullpen was for old starters. Many of these pitchers would be able to flourish in this diminished role; those such as Dennis Eckersley, as with many others prolonged their tapering careers and sparked them to new life. The added rest to their arms as well as the lessened exposure of their abilities became an advantage many would learn to capitalize on; because these pitchers only faced some batters once a season, the opposing side would have greater difficulty preparing to face relief pitchers.
Being a relief pitcher has become more of a career, rather than a reduced position. Many of today's top prospects are considered for their relief pitching skills. In the quest for a managerial edge, managers as time goes on have carried more pitchers in the bullpen, used them in more specialized situations. Acknowledgment of the platoon edge has prompted managers to ensure that opposing lefty hitters face as many lefty pitchers as possible, that the same occur with respect to righty hitters and pitchers. Tony La Russa was well known for making frequent pitching changes on this basis; when Mike Marshall set the all-time record with 106 games pitched in 1974, he threw 208.1 innings. Although some relievers still do appear in a large number of games per season, the workload for each individual pitcher has been much reduced. Since 2008, Pedro Feliciano has three of the top four seasons in games pitched, with 92, 88 and 86. However, Feliciano only averaged 58 innings pitched during those seasons; the last pitcher to throw 100 or more innings in a season without starting a game was Scott Proctor in 2006.
Pitching staffs on MLB teams have grown from 9 or 10 to as many as 12 or 13 pitchers, due to the increased importance of relief pitching. The staff consists of five starting pitchers, with the remaining pitchers assigned as relievers. A team's re
Santa Cruz Island
Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the eight islands in the Channel Islands and the largest island in California, located off the coast of California. The island, in the northern group of the Channel Islands, is 22 miles long and from 2 to 6 miles wide with an area of 61,764.6 acres. Santa Cruz Island is located within California; the coastline has steep cliffs, gigantic sea caves and sandy beaches. Defined by the United States Census Bureau as Block 3000, Block Group 3, Census Tract 29.10 of Santa Barbara County, the 2000 census showed an official population of two persons. The highest peak is Devils Peak, at 2450+ feet, it was the largest owned island off the continental United States but is jointly owned by the National Park Service, the Nature Conservancy. A central valley splits the island along the Santa Cruz Island Fault, with volcanic rock on the north and older sedimentary rock on the south; this volcanic rock was fractured during the uplift phase that formed the island and over a hundred large sea caves have been carved into the resulting faults.
One of these, Painted Cave, is among the world's largest. Santa Cruz Island is home to some animals and plants found nowhere else on earth, including for instance the Santa Cruz Island fox, a subspecies of the island fox. Archaeological investigations indicate that Santa Cruz Island has been occupied for at least 10,000 years, it was known as Michumash in the Chumash language. The people of the Chumash Indian tribe who lived on the island developed a complex society dependent on marine harvest, craft specialization and trade with the mainland population. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo first observed the island in 1542 estimated to be inhabited by 2000 to 3000 Chumash on the three northern channel islands, with 11 villages on Santa Cruz. In 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno led the last Spanish expedition to California, his map named Santa Cruz Island the Isla de Gente Barbuda. Between 1602 and 1769 there was no recorded European contact with the island. In 1769, the land-and-sea expedition of Don Gaspar de Portolà reached Santa Cruz Island.
Traveling with him were Father Juan González Vizcaíno and Father Francisco Palóu. Father Palóu wrote of Father Vizcaíno's visit to the Santa Cruz village of Xaxas that the missionaries on ship went ashore and "they were well received by the heathen and presented with fish, in return for which the Indians were given some strings of beads." The island was considered for establishment of a Catholic mission to serve the large Chumash population. When Mission San Buenaventura was founded across the channel in 1782, it commenced the slow religious conversion of the Santa Cruz Chumash. Beset by diseases such as measles, the Chumash declined in numbers until, in 1822, the last of the Chumash left the island for mainland California missions; the name of Santa Cruz for the island came about when Gaspar de Portola expedition visited the Chumash village Xaxas on the island. The Chumash on the next day returned a staff, topped by an iron cross, inadvertently left behind by the Spanish. Hence, the name La Isla de la Santa Cruz appeared on their exploration map of 1770.
George Vancouver used the same name on his 1793 map. With Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821, the Mexican government asserted its control over California. In an effort to increase the Mexican presence, the government began sending convicted criminals to California in 1830. Around 80 prisoners were sent to Santa Barbara where, upon arrival, 31 incorrigibles were sent to Santa Cruz Island, they lived for a short time in an area now known as Prisoners Harbor before escaping to the mainland. Governor Juan Alvarado made a Mexican land grant of the Island of Santa Cruz to his aide Captain Andrés Castillero in 1839; when California became a state in 1850, the United States government, through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, required that land granted by Spanish and Mexican governments be proved before the Board of Land Commissioners. A claim was filed with the Land Commission in 1852, confirmed by the US Supreme Court in 1860, the grant was patented to Andrés Castillero in 1867. Castillero transferred title to his agent William Barron in 1857.
William Baron was a San Francisco co-owner of the company Barron, Forbes & Co.. Dr. James Barron Shaw was hired to manage things, charged by Barron to start a sheep operation, he expanded the road system. He imported cattle and sheep to the island and erected one of the earliest wharves along the California coast at Prisoners Harbor. Shaw was the first rancher to ship sheep to San Francisco by steamer, some selling at $30 per animal. By 1869, the year he left Santa Cruz, Shaw's island sheep ranch was well known, some 24,000 sheep grazed the hills and valleys of Santa Cruz Island. At that time, the gross proceeds from the ranch on Santa Cruz Island were $50,000. Barron sold the island for $150,000 in 1869, Shaw left for San Francisco and Los Alamos where he continued ranching; the island was purchased by ten investors from San Francisco, headed by Gustave Mahé, One of the investors, Justinian Caire, was a French immigrant and founder of a successful San Francisco hardware business that sold equipment to miners.
By 1886 Caire had acquired all of the shares of the Santa Cruz Island Company which he and his colleagues had founded in 1869. He implemented his vision of building a self-sustaining sheep and cattle ranch, vineyard and fruit grove operation on the island. Main Ranch was augmented with nine ot
Jacob Edward Peavy is an American professional baseball pitcher, a free agent. He has played in Major League Baseball for the San Diego Padres, Chicago White Sox, Boston Red Sox and San Francisco Giants, he throws right-handed. While with the Padres, he won the 2007 NL Cy Young Award after recording the Pitching Triple Crown that year, he was traded from the White Sox to the Red Sox in 2013 and helped them to a World Series title that season. One year he was traded to the San Francisco Giants, where he helped them win a World Series title in the season, he became the first starting pitcher in Major League history to win two consecutive World Series with two teams in two leagues, including being traded by his former team at the trade deadline. He is one of seven players in MLB history to have won back-to back World Series championships on different teams, the other six being Ben Zobrist, Jack Morris, Bill Skowron, Clem Labine, Don Gullett, Ryan Theriot. Peavy wore the number 44 throughout his career.
When he was traded to the San Francisco Giants, he took number 43, as 44 was retired in honor of Willie McCovey. After struggling in the middle of the 2014 season, he changed to 22. Peavy was drafted by the San Diego Padres in the 15th round of the 1999 Major League Baseball draft out of high school, he was named the high school player of the year in the state of Alabama. Peavy declined an offer to pitch for Auburn University in order to accept the Padres' contract offer. Peavy pitched for the Arizona League Padres and the Idaho Falls Braves in 1999 and the Fort Wayne Wizards in 2000. In 2001, Peavy played with the Mobile BayBears, he split the 2002 season between the San Diego Padres. Peavy was called up from Double-A to make his major league debut on June 22, 2002 against the New York Yankees at Qualcomm Stadium, he lost the game, allowing one run on 3 hits in 6 innings while striking out 4. In total, Peavy had 6 wins and 7 losses with a 4.52 earned run average and 90 strikeouts. The Padres were in the cellar of the NL West.
In his sophomore season, Peavy started 32 games, with a 4.11 earned run average, a 12–11 record, 156 strikeouts. The Padres finished last in their division again at a 64–98 record. During his third year of major league experience in 2004, Peavy emerged as the Padres' ace starting pitcher and one of the best pitchers in baseball, he compiled a 15–6 record, struck out 173 in 166 innings, led Major League Baseball with a 2.27 ERA. He became the youngest pitcher to win an ERA title since Dwight Gooden in 1985. On September 17, 2004, Peavy allowed Barry Bonds' 700th career home run. On March 5, 2005 he signed a four-year, $14.5 million contract and held a club option for 2009 extension with the Padres. During the 2005 season, Peavy was selected for the National League All-Star team and ended the regular season leading the National League in strikeouts with 216, he was second in the majors to Minnesota's Johan Santana. In addition he finished the season with a 13–7 record, 2.88 ERA, a strikeout-to-walk ratio of over 4:1 and WHIP of 1.044.
After the Padres won the National League West in 2005, Peavy missed the rest of the season with a broken rib, which he suffered while celebrating. Peavy was the captain of Team USA in the 2006 World Baseball Classic, held in San Diego, he started the opening game for the U. S. a 2–0 win over Mexico, giving up just one hit and no runs over three innings. He did not factor in the decision in the second-round game against Japan, as he gave up three runs in five innings in a game that the U. S. won, 4–3. In 2006, Peavy got off to a rocky start, in part due to mechanical adjustments brought on by various off-season injuries. Although Peavy would go only 11–14 with a 4.09 ERA, he still managed to finish second in the National League in strikeouts with 215, one shy of both his 2005 league-leading total and of the 2006 NL strikeout leader, Aaron Harang who logged 32 more innings than Peavy. In the playoffs, the Padres again faced the St. Louis Cardinals in the first round; as the game one starter, Peavy had a much stronger outing than his 2005 playoff game, but the Padres again lost to the Cardinals.
On July 1, 2007, for the second time in his career, Peavy was named to the 2007 NL All-Star Team. On July 9, he was named as the starting pitcher for the NL. On August 2, Peavy struck out Arizona Diamondbacks outfielder Jeff DaVanon, for his 1000th career strikeout. Peavy won the pitching Triple Crown in 2007, leading the National League with 19 wins, 240 strikeouts, a 2.54 ERA. Since the divisional play era started in 1969, Peavy is only the eighth player to accomplish this feat. On October 23, Peavy won the Players Choice Award for Outstanding NL Pitcher, he added the NL Cy Young award—as a unanimous choice—on November 15, becoming just the 10th National League player in history to win the Cy Young Award in a unanimous vote. The completion of the 2007 campaign represented Peavy's sixth year in the league. Over that six-year period Peavy collected two strikeout champion awards, two major league ERA titles, a unanimous, triple-crown Cy Young Award. On December 12, 2007, he signed a 4-year extension, worth $52 million with the Padres.
At the time the contract was the largest in Padres history. The contract included a $22 million option for 2013. On April 5, 2008, Peavy pitched a two-hit complete game over the Los Angeles Dodgers; the following day, still-images from FOX sports video feed from the game showed a dirty, brown substance on the index and middle fingers, along with his thumb. Manager Bud Black defended Peavy saying that "it was a
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab