San Antonio College
San Antonio College is a community college, a part of the Alamo Colleges District. It is located on San Pedro Avenue, across from San Pedro Park and the VIA Metropolitan Transit headquarters, all of which are in the Tobin Hill district of San Antonio, just north of downtown San Antonio. SAC is the oldest public two-year college in Texas; the college has an average semester enrollment of 22,028 credit students and an average annual enrollment of 16,000 other-than-credit students. San Antonio College is the largest single-campus community college in Texas and one of the largest in the United States; the college’s 37-acre campus includes the Scobee Education Center, a student center with food court, a fine arts center, a business building, a visual arts and technology center, the Chance Academic building, a nursing center, the Nail Computer Technology building, the Candler Physical Education Center that includes two courts, a regulation indoor swimming pool, racquetball courts, a dance studio, tennis courts.
San Antonio College provides academic and professional education that allow students to continue their education at a university or four-year college. SAC is a comprehensive community college that provides offerings in occupational and technical courses and has assumed the San Antonio Independent School District's continuing-education programs. On September 21, 1925, SAC was first established as University Junior College under the administration of the University of Texas, with an enrollment of 200 students. However, the attorney general for Texas ruled that the University of Texas was in violation of the state's constitution by operating a junior college. Therefore, the college was passed to the San Antonio Board of Education and renamed San Antonio Junior College. In September 1926, the college relocated to 419 South Alamo Street. In August 1946, San Antonio Junior College was renamed again after control of the school passed from the board of trustees. San Antonio College was adopted as the official name in 1948, in 1951, SAC was moved to its present location on San Pedro Avenue.
In 2016, the college changed the address from San Pedro Avenue to North Main Avenue another street on campus. Accreditation was granted to the college in 1955 from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. San Antonio College is approved and accredited by the Board of Nurse Examiners for the state of Texas, the Association of Texas Colleges and Universities, the Texas Educational Theater Association, the Texas Association of Music Schools, the National League for Nursing, the American Board of Funeral Service Education, the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, the Southern Association of Junior Colleges, the Commission of Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association, the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs, the Texas Public Community and Junior College Association. SAC serves the Bexar County community by providing high-quality general education, liberal arts and sciences, career education, continuing education, developmental education.
In December 2007, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board awarded San Antonio College a rating of "exemplary" for seven of its academic programs. However, in January 2008, the rating was revised to include additional programs bringing the total to 11; the 11 programs receiving this designation are business management, computer-aided design, dental assisting, radio-TV and film, nursing education and financial management, medical assisting, mortuary science, American sign language/interpreter training, public administration, real estate. This rating means that all 11 programs exceed the state's required standards of excellence in education. San Antonio College was designated a National Center of Academic Excellence in cyber defense by the National Security Agency and the Department of Homeland Security; the designation was made in recognition of significant contributions in meeting the national demand for cyber defense education, developing cyber defense experts and contributing to the protection of the national information infrastructure.
According to the Institute of Education Sciences, San Antonio college has a 14% graduation rate and 61% transfer-out rate when given 150% of the time needed to complete an associate degree for full-time, first-time degree-seeking students. Of the 20,000 plus students enrolled, only 18% are attending full time; the SAC Recreation Sports department provides scheduled extramural activities. Extramural activities are organized team sports in which teams compete with Alamo Colleges District schools and other organized collegiate teams from the South-central Texas region. Intramural activities are organized team sports in which teams compete with other teams organized within the college, are scheduled on campus. Students attending SAC can pursue a wide range of activities; as a community college, SAC allows students to pursue associate degrees and certifications and take courses transferable to many institutions of higher education. SAC offers 68 certificates; the college has over 300 2 +2 articulation agreements with various universities.
The 2+2 articulation agreements serve to facilitate the admission and academic transfer of students from participating community colleges such as SAC to a participating four-year college or university within Texas. As students progress toward the completion of the associat
Bexar County, Texas
Bexar County is a county of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,714,773, a 2017 estimate put the population at 1,958,578, it is the fourth-most populated in Texas. Its county seat is San Antonio, the second-most populous city in Texas and the seventh-largest city in the United States. Bexar County is included in TX metropolitan statistical area. Bexar County includes Government Canyon State Natural Area in the northwestern part of the county. Bexar County was created on December 20, 1836, encompassed the entire western portion of the Republic of Texas; this included the disputed areas of western New Mexico northward to Wyoming. After statehood, 128 counties were carved out of its area; the county was named for San Antonio de Béxar, one of the 23 Mexican municipalities of Texas at the time of its independence. San Antonio de Béxar—originally Villa de San Fernando de Béxar—was the first civil government established by the Spanish in the province of Texas; the municipality was created in 1731 when 55 Canary Islanders settled near the system of missions, established around the source of the San Antonio River.
The new settlement was named after the Presidio San Antonio de Béjar, the Spanish military outpost that protected the missions. The presidio, located at the San Pedro Springs, was founded in 1718 and named for Viceroy Balthasar Manuel de Zúñiga y Guzmán Sotomayor y Sarmiento, second son of the Duke of Béjar; the modern city of San Antonio in the U. S. state of Texas derived its name from San Antonio de Béjar. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,256 square miles, of which 1,240 sq mi is land and 16 sq mi is water. Bexar County is in south-central Texas, about 190 miles west of Houston and 140 mi from both the US-Mexican border to the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast; the Balcones Escarpment bisects the county from west to northeast. South of the escarpment are the South Texas plains; the San Antonio River rises from springs north of Downtown San Antonio, flows southward and southeastward through the county. Bexar County has a comprehensive "wagon wheel" freeway system, with radial freeways and beltways that encircle Downtown San Antonio, allowing for simplified countywide freeway access, in a manner much like the freeways around Houston or Dallas.
San Antonio is unique, however, in that unlike Houston or Dallas, none of these highways is tolled. Kendall County Comal County Guadalupe County Wilson County Atascosa County Medina County Bandera County San Antonio Missions National Historical Park As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,714,773 people residing in the county. Of those, 72.9% were White, 7.5% Black or African American, 2.4% Asian, 0.8% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.7% of some other race and 3.5% of two or more races. 58.7% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, 1,392,931 people, 488,942 households, 345,681 families were residing in the county; the population density was 1,117 inhabitants per square mile. There were 521,359 housing units at an average density of 418 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.86% White, 7.18% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 1.61% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 17.80% from other races, 3.64% from two or more races. About 54.35 % of the population were Latino of any race.
Of 488,942 households, 36.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.50% were married couples living together, 15.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were not families. About 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.33. A Williams Institute analysis of 2010 census data found there were about 6.2 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.50% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 19.90% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household was $38,328, for a family was $43,724. Males had a median income of $30,756 versus $24,920 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,363.
About 12.70% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.40% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over. The Bexar County jail facilities are at 200 North Comal in downtown San Antonio, operated by the Bexar County Sheriff's Office. In late 2012, press reports noted an increase in the number of suicides at the facility; the issue was a topic of debate in the election for sheriff that year. The jail holds an average of about 3,800 prisoners in 2012, with a total capacity of 4,596, making it the fourth-largest in the state; the Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Dominguez Unit, a state jail for men, in an unincorporated section of Bexar County. In the fall of 2013, Bexar County opened BiblioTech - Bexar County's Digital Library, the nation's first bookless library. In 2016, for the third consecutive year, Bexar County increased the appraised value of businesses and residences. Most will hence find their prop
Laredo is a city in and the county seat of Webb County, United States, on the north bank of the Rio Grande in South Texas, across from Nuevo Laredo, Mexico. According to the 2010 census, the city population was 236,091, making it the tenth-most populous city in the state of Texas and third-most populated on the Mexico–United States border, after San Diego, El Paso, Texas, its metropolitan area is the 178th-largest in the U. S. and includes all of Webb County, with a population of 250,304. Laredo is part of the cross-border Laredo-Nuevo Laredo Metropolitan Area with an estimated population of 636,516; because Laredo is 95.6 percent Hispanic and Latino, it is one of the least ethnically diverse cities in the United States. When economic diversity, household diversity, social class diversity are considered, Laredo is rated the 19th least diverse city overall out of the 313 largest cities in the nation. Laredo's economy is based on international trade with Mexico. Many major transportation companies have a facility in Laredo.
The city's location on the southern end of I-35, close to the manufacturers in northern Mexico, promotes its vital role in trade between the two nations. Laredo International Airport is within the Laredo city limits, while the Quetzalcoatl International Airport is nearby in Nuevo Laredo on the Mexican side. Laredo has the distinction of flying seven flags. Founded in 1755, Laredo grew from a village to the capital of the brief Republic of the Rio Grande to the largest inland port on the Mexico–United States border. Today, it has one railway bridge. Texas A&M International University and Laredo College are in Laredo; the biggest festival, Washington's Birthday Celebration, is held during the part of January and the majority of February, attracting hundreds of thousands of tourists. The Jalapeño Festival, Border Beer Fest, Stockmen's Ball, Princess Pocahontas Pageant, Mr. South Texas Luncheon, an air show, two major parades are all held in conjunction with the Washington's birthday events; the European colonial settlement of Villa de San Agustin de Laredo was founded in 1755 by Don Tomás Sánchez while the area was part of the Nuevo Santander region in the Spanish colony of New Spain.
Villa de San Agustin de Laredo was named after Laredo, Spain and in honor of Saint Augustine of Hippo. In 1840, Laredo was the capital of the independent Republic of the Rio Grande, set up in opposition to Antonio López de Santa Anna. In 1846 during the Mexican–American War, the town was occupied by the Texas Rangers. After the war, the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ceded the land to the United States. A referendum was taken in the town, which voted to petition the American military government in charge of the area to return the town to Mexico; when this petition was rejected, most of the population, who were Tejano and had been in the area for generations, moved across the river into Mexican territory, where they founded Nuevo Laredo. In 1849, the United States Army set up Fort McIntosh. Laredo was rechartered as a city in 1852. Laredo is one of the oldest crossing points along the Mexico–United States border, the nation's largest inland port of entry. In 2005, Laredo celebrated the 250th anniversary of its founding.
The origin of name of the original Spanish town of Laredo is unclear. Some scholars say the name stems from Glaretum which means "sandy, rocky place". Others state Laredo stems from a Basque word meaning "beautiful pastures". Laredo might stem from the Latin Larida which means gull. In 1946, the Plaza Theater opened in downtown Laredo, but it closed in 1999, when the municipal government purchased the property from United Artists. In 2001, the Laredo City Council authorized a feasibility study to determine what use the old theater might yet have. In 2003, a consultant recommended converting the Plaza into a multi-purpose performing arts center, with dance recitals, live theater, occasional films. In 2006, the city received an economic development grant for renovation of the Plaza. By 2008, renovations were made to the theater blade design. In 2011, a public-private partnership was attempted by two Laredo businessmen, Danny Lopez, Jr. and Victor Trevino, Jr. but that initiative never materialized.
In 2018, the city council authorized the solicitation of private entities and non-profit organizations to operate the theater. The council is seeking input from architects for the concept and design of renovations to the structure. In 1954, Laredo faced a devastating Rio Grande flood, when the water reached 61.35 feet, more than 10 feet higher than in the previous 1932 flood, which had caused great damage. According to Laredo historian Jerry D. Thompson of Texas A&M International University, the 1954 flood was "the largest in ninety-one years and the second largest according to archeological records in the last three hundred years." Many were left homeless for a time because of the calamity. Former Webb County administrative Judge Mercurio Martinez, Jr. recalls his father surveyed the depth of the water and advised residents to evacuate. Several downtown businesses had to remove their merchandise inventory or risk losing it to the rising waters; the flood caused the relocation of the Holding Institute.
The international bridge was destroyed when it was struck by the floating railroad bridge, hit by the debris of another bridge in Eagle Pass up the river. Photos of the flood by Teofilo Esquivel, Sr. are on the wall of a Danny's Restaurant on McPherson Avenue in Laredo. In 2016, the violent
St. Mary's University, Texas
St. Mary's University is a Catholic and Marianist liberal arts institution located on 135 acres west of Downtown San Antonio, United States. St. Mary's is a nationally recognized master's-level school ranked among the top colleges in the west for best value and academic reputation by U. S. News and World Report. In 2017, St. Mary's was ranked by Washington Monthly for its contribution to the public good in terms of social mobility and service. Founded by the Society of Mary in 1852, St. Mary's is the oldest Catholic university in Texas and the American Southwest. With a diverse student population of nearly 4,000, St. Mary's is home to the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. Founded as St. Mary's Institute, the school opened on Aug. 25, 1852, with a faculty of five and an enrollment of twelve boys. In 1921 all college classes were transferred from downtown to the St. Louis College campus. In 1923, St. Louis College became St. Mary's College with an enrollment of twelve in the freshman class.
Grade school and high school students remained at the downtown school, which adopted the name St. Mary's Academy; the new St. Mary's College gained senior college status and in 1927 the first class of bachelor's degree candidates graduated from the newly renamed St. Mary's University. In 1932, the high school programs at St. Mary's Academy relocated from the College Street campus to become Central Catholic High School. Personal attention and powerful academic programs have made St. Mary's, located on 135 acres 3 miles northwest of Downtown San Antonio, a nationally recognized liberal arts institution with a diverse student population of nearly 4,000 of all faiths and backgrounds. After over a century as an all-male institution, St. Mary's opened its doors to female students in 1963 and became a coeducational university. In 1987, Polish-American silent film star Pola Negri left most of her estate to St. Mary's University, including a collection of memorabilia and several rare prints of her films.
St. Mary's University set up a scholarship in her name. St. Mary's offers 75 academic programs, in addition to pre-professional programs in medicine, dentistry, allied health, law. St. Mary's graduate studies offer 19 master's programs and 2 Ph. D. programs. The student-faculty ratio is 12 to 1. St. Mary's has some 200 full-time faculty members, 94 percent of whom hold doctorate or terminal degrees. St. Mary's University integrates liberal arts and professional studies in each student's degree; the School of Humanities and Social Sciences is the largest school at the University. St. Mary's is accredited through the Southern Association of Schools. In addition, the Greehey School of Business is accredited by AACSB International. Electrical and industrial engineering programs in the School of Science and Technology are recognized through accreditation by ABET. In October 1927, the San Antonio Bar Association established the San Antonio School of Law, for seven years after its founding was administered by a board of governors under the control of the bar association.
Until the School of Law became associated with a physical campus, classes were held at the Bexar County Courthouse. In an attempt to maximize educational and material resources of the fledgling institution, the Board of Governors negotiated with St. Mary's University regarding a transfer of the School of Law's administrative control; the transfer was completed on October 1, 1934, St. Mary's University School of Law was established; the School of Law was housed at St. Mary's University's downtown campus at 112 College Street, situated near the San Antonio River Walk. Possessing several military bases, San Antonio experienced a surge of population and industry in the years following the World War II; this exponential growth resulted in more law students. To meet these new demands adequately, the School of Law organized itself to meet the requirements of the American Bar Association and the Association of American Law Schools, it received accreditation from the ABA in February 1948 and became a member of the AALS in December 1949.
On December 19, 1967, the School of Law relocated from the College Street campus to join the main campus of St. Mary's. A multimillion-dollar expansion project had provided for the addition of eight new buildings to the main University campus, including a lecture hall, law library, faculty building comprising the Law Center; the school held its first classes the next month, in January 1968. Since 1968, the school has had several structures rededicated, renovated, or expanded, including the Law Administration Building, housing the office of the dean; as a liberal arts institution, students at St. Mary's are encouraged to undertake undergraduate research. Conference travel funds and summer programs support student research in the sciences and business. Students contribute to research in both the humanities and STEM fields using cutting edge theoretical frameworks and critically emerging technology in robotics and bioengineering. Research serves as both teaching tool and training ground for students who contribute their knowledge and skills in artificial intelligence, diabetes therapy, hip stem replacement research, interactive digital maps as well as social justice issues relating to migration, amo
Rafael Edward Cruz is an American politician and attorney serving as the junior United States Senator for Texas since 2013. He was the runner-up for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 election. Cruz holds degrees from Harvard Law School. From 1999 to 2003, he held various government positions, serving as Director of the Office of Policy Planning at the Federal Trade Commission, as an Associate Deputy Attorney General at the United States Department of Justice, as a Domestic Policy Advisor to George W. Bush during Bush's 2000 presidential campaign. Cruz served as Solicitor General of Texas from 2003 to 2008, having been appointed by Texas Attorney General and Governor Greg Abbott, he was the longest-serving solicitor general in Texas history and the first Hispanic American to serve in that capacity. From 2004 to 2009, Cruz was an adjunct professor at the University of Texas School of Law in Austin, where he taught U. S. Supreme Court litigation. In 2012, Cruz ran for and won the U.
S. Senate seat being vacated by fellow Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison, he is the first Hispanic American to serve as a U. S. Senator from Texas. In 2016, Cruz ran for President of the United States, winning Republican contests in 12 states before withdrawing from the race, he was reelected to the Senate in 2018, defeating Democratic challenger Beto O'Rourke by a slim margin of 50.9% to 48.3% in the most expensive Senate race in U. S. history. Along with Bob Menendez and Marco Rubio, Cruz is one of three current U. S. Senators of Cuban descent. Cruz was born Rafael Edward Cruz on December 22, 1970, at Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary, Alberta, to Eleanor Elizabeth Wilson and Rafael Cruz. Eleanor Wilson was born in Delaware, she is of three-quarters Irish and one-quarter Italian descent, earned an undergraduate degree in mathematics from Rice University in the 1950s. Cruz's father was raised in Cuba, he left in 1957 to attend the University of Texas at Austin and obtained political asylum in the U.
S. after his four-year student visa expired. He earned Canadian citizenship in 1973 and became a naturalized U. S. citizen in 2005. At the time of his birth, Ted Cruz's parents had lived in Calgary for three years and were working in the oil business as owners of a seismic-data processing firm for oil drilling. Cruz has said that he is the son of "two mathematicians/computer programmers." In 1974, Cruz's father moved to Texas. That year, Cruz's parents reconciled and relocated the family to Houston, they divorced in 1997. Cruz has two older half-sisters, Miriam Ceferina Cruz and Roxana Lourdes Cruz, from his father's first marriage. Miriam died in 2011. Cruz attended two private high schools: Faith West Academy, near Texas. During high school, Cruz participated in a Houston-based group known at the time as the Free Market Education Foundation, a program that taught high school students the philosophies of economists such as Milton Friedman and Frédéric Bastiat. Cruz graduated cum laude from Princeton University in 1992 with a Bachelor of Arts in public policy from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.
While at Princeton, he competed for the American Whig-Cliosophic Society's Debate Panel and won the top speaker award at both the 1992 U. S. National Debating Championship and the 1992 North American Debating Championship. In 1992, he was named U. S. National Speaker of the Year and, with his debate partner David Panton, Team of the Year by the American Parliamentary Debate Association. Cruz and Panton represented Harvard Law School at the 1995 World Debating Championship, losing in the semifinals to a team from Australia. Princeton's debate team named their annual novice championship after Cruz. Cruz's senior thesis at Princeton investigated the separation of powers. Cruz argued that the drafters of the Constitution intended to protect their constituents' rights, that the last two items in the Bill of Rights offer an explicit stop against an all-powerful state. After graduating from Princeton, Cruz attended Harvard Law School, graduating magna cum laude in 1995 with a Juris Doctor degree. While at Harvard Law, he was a primary editor of the Harvard Law Review, an executive editor of the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, a founding editor of the Harvard Latino Law Review.
Referring to Cruz's time as a student at Harvard Law, Professor Alan Dershowitz said, "Cruz was off-the-charts brilliant". At Harvard Law, Cruz was a John M. Olin Fellow in Economics. Cruz serves on the Board of Advisors of the Texas Review of Politics. Cruz served as a law clerk to J. Michael Luttig of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in 1995 and to William Rehnquist, Chief Justice of the United States, in 1996, he was the first Hispanic to clerk for a Chief Justice of the United States. After Cruz finished his clerkships, he took a position with Cooper, Carvin & Rosenthal, now known as Cooper & Kirk, PLLC, from 1997 to 1998. At the firm, Cruz worked on matters relating to the National Rifle Association and helped prepare testimony for the impeachment proceedings against President Bill Clinton. In 1998, Cruz was one of the attorneys who represented Representative John Boehner during his litigation against Representative Jim McDermott over the alleged leak of an illegal recording of a phone conversation whose participants included Boehner.
Cruz joined the George W. Bush presidential campaign in 1999 as a domes
Texas Attorney General
The Texas Attorney General is the chief legal officer of the State of Texas. The current Attorney General Ken Paxton has served in this position since January 5, 2015; the department has offices at the William P. Clements State Office Building in Downtown Austin; the Office of the Attorney General was first established by executive ordinance of the Republic of Texas government in 1836. The attorneys general of the Republic of Texas and the first four attorneys general under the 1845 state constitution were appointed by the governor; the office was made elective in 1850 by constitutional amendment. The Attorney General is elected to a four-year term. In 2013, former Attorney General Greg Abbott announced he would not seek reelection and would run for Governor. In November 2014, he was elected as the Governor of Texas. Ken Paxton defeated former House Representative Dan Branch in the Republican primary by a 26% margin and was elected in the general election as the 50th Attorney General of Texas. Ken Paxton was sworn in on January 2015, in the Senate Chamber in the Texas Capitol.
Governor Rick Perry, Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst, United States Senator Ted Cruz, Lieutenant Governor-Elect Dan Patrick all participated in the swearing-in ceremony. The Attorney General is charged by the state constitution to represent the state in civil litigation and approve public bond issues. There are nearly 2,000 references to the Office of the Attorney General in state laws; the Office of the Attorney General serves as legal counsel to all boards and agencies of state government, issues legal opinions when requested by the governor, heads of state agencies and other officials and commissions, defends challenges to state laws and suits against both state agencies and individual employees of the state. These duties include representing the Director of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice in appeals from criminal convictions in federal courts; the Texas Constitution gives the Attorney General no general law-enforcement powers. The Texas Legislature has not given the Attorney General broad law-enforcement authority, but permits the Attorney General to act in criminal cases "at the request of" prosecutors.
The Office of the Attorney General, Law Enforcement Division employs a staff of sworn commissioned Texas peace officers that investigate public corruption, violent crime, human trafficking, money laundering, medicaid provider fraud, mortgage fraud, election violations, fugitives, investigate other special classes of offenses, conduct criminal investigations at the request of local prosecutors. In addition, the Law Enforcement Division is the state of Texas liaison to Interpol and the U. S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; the office is charged with proceedings to secure child support through its Child Support Division. Many leading political figures in Texas history have served as Attorney General, several of them using the office as a jumping off place to other offices in the state and national government. Attorneys general James S. Hogg, Charles A. Culberson, Dan Moody, James Allred, Price Daniel, Mark White, Greg Abbott were elected governor. Culberson and John Cornyn were elected to the United States Senate.
First elected Attorney General of State of Texas. S. Supreme Court Opinions - "Cases with title containing: State of Texas" at FindLaw State Bar of Texas Texas Attorney General Opinions, hosted by the Portal to Texas History