Coleman Army Airfield
Coleman Barracks/Coleman Army Airfield is a United States Army military installation located in the Sandhofen district of Mannheim, Germany. It is assigned to U. S. Army and administered by the U. S. Army Installation Management Command-Europe. Coleman Barracks should not be confused with the former "Coleman Kaserne", located in Gelnhausen; the U. S. Army named the airfield after Lieutenant Colonel Wilson D. Coleman, killed in action in France on 30 July 1944; the first commercial airport in Mannheim was founded on 16 May 1925, as Flughafen Mannheim-Heidelberg-Ludwigshafen in the northern district of Sandhofen. With its opening Mannheim became part of an important air track, running from north to south and vice versa. In the late 1920s and early 1930s Deutsche Aero Lloyd operated cargo and passenger flights from Hamburg to Zürich stopping in Mannheim. Balair from Switzerland flew between Geneva and Amsterdam via Basel, Mannheim and Essen. Badisch-Pfälzische Luftverkehrs AG operated the black forest route to Konstanz, via Karlsruhe, Baden-Baden and Villingen.
In 1926 the airfield was transferred to Mannheim-Neuostheim, now called Mannheim City Airport. The airfield in Sandhofen was closed to the public and rebuilt as the Fliegerhorst-Kaserne in 1937 as a Luftwaffe base. At the beginning of World War II, the III/JG 53 fighter unit "Pik-As" was based here, commanded by one of Germany's top combat pilots, Werner Mölders; this unit operated 43 new Messerschmitt Bf109E-1 fighter aircraft at the start of the war. Stationed at the airbase on the first day of the war was one Staffel of JG 72 operating 16 of the older Arado Ar 68 biplane fighters being used as a primitive night fighter. In September 1944 a prisoner of war camp was installed on the site, operated and guarded by the SS, holding 80 POWs from Poland and Russia. After World War II, the United States Army took over the barracks in the fall of 1945, giving it the temporary name of "Y-79"; until mid-1949 the area was used as a collecting point for unserviceable automobile material and for surplus storage.
In 1951, a replacement depot was established at Coleman Barracks and served as the staging area for all troops arriving in Germany. Throughout its operation by the U. S. Army, rumors circulated of an extensive set of tunnels beneath the airfield; some of the rumors concerned tunnels under the base and a number of underground hangars behind the barracks of the Signal Corps units. The tunnels and other underground facilities were flooded after the war. There were reports of an alley that ran behind a cluster of barracks located next to a pronounced slope where numerous bunker entrances were located, all of which were rumored to be locked. Despite any hard evidence, these rumors persisted over the years and stories of hidden Nazi bunkers and underground tunnels were passed on from one generation of soldiers stationed at Coleman to the next; the airport is located 8.5 km north of the Mannheim city center in the district of Sandhofen, 2.5 km east of the river Rhine and 3 km south of Lampertheim. It is surrounded by Autobahn 6 to a state highway to the west.
The airport has one paved runway. The runway offered illumination. Discussions were held about extending the runway to 1200 metres, but those plans were withdrawn due to severe protests by nearby residents; the airfield was in use from 06:30 – 23:59 daily. Radar approach had been available since June 2002. Coleman was the only U. S. Army airfield in Germany that had its own approach control zone and provided approach control for several airports in the vicinity, both military and civilian, such as Mannheim City Airport, Speyer airfield, Worms airfield, Heidelberg Army Airfield. A new state of the art six-story control tower was built in 2004. Besides air-conditioned offices, briefing rooms, restrooms and an elevator, the tower accommodated the Coleman radar approach control room; the facility hosted a US Army helicopter maintenance facility and the only US Army military prison in Europe, the United States Army Corrections Facility – Europe, which relocated to Sembach as of December 2014. When it was the only maintenance base for Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk and Boeing AH-64 Apache helicopters in Europe, Coleman Airfield had more take-offs and landings than any other US Army airfield in Germany.
The Coleman Aero Club was the only U. S. military non-profit flying organization in Europe. The CAC provided flight training to member forces of NATO, the United States Armed Forces, civilians, it operated a fleet of several US-registered Cessna aircraft. Since the airfield at Coleman Barracks has ceased operations, the club has relocated to Mainz-Finthen Airport near Wackernheim, southwest of Mainz. In 2004, the American Forces Network - Europe consolidated its headquarters and Radio/TV studios from Frankfurt and Heidelberg to Coleman Barracks. Coleman Barracks had a small post exchange and bowling alley; as part of the ongoing realignment of US forces in Europe, the Army shut down most operations in Mannheim in 2012. Earlier plans called for closure of all USAREUR facilities in Mannheim and Heidelberg by 31 August 2013. In February 2015, USAREUR announced Coleman Barracks will be retained temporarily as an interim site to store and maintain pre-positioned vehicles and equipment that will be used to support U.
S. Army Regionally Aligned Forces when they rotate into theater for training, exercises or contin
University of San Francisco
The University of San Francisco is a Jesuit university in San Francisco, California. The school's main campus is located on a 55-acre setting between the Golden Gate Bridge and Golden Gate Park; the main campus is nicknamed "The Hilltop", part of the main campus is located on Lone Mountain, one of San Francisco's major geographical features. Its close historical ties with the City and County of San Francisco are reflected in the University's traditional motto, Pro Urbe et Universitate; the University of San Francisco offers more than 230 undergraduate, graduate and certificate programs on its main Hilltop Campus. USF offers programs at several additional campuses; the USF Downtown San Francisco Campus, which began in 2012 in the historic Folger Building at 101 Howard Street, offers the MBA and the Executive MBA, MBA Dual Degree programs, master's degrees in Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Financial Analysis, Global Entrepreneurial Management, Nonprofit Administration, Organization Development, Public Administration.
The Orange County Campus, founded in the City of Orange in 1983, offers the Master's in Sport Management and the Master's in Nursing for Non-Nurses. The Pleasanton Campus, which began in 1986 in San Ramon, moved to Pleasanton in 2012, offers a Bachelor's in Management, the Master's in Nursing for the Registered Nurse, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential; the Presidio Campus, established at the San Francisco Presidio in 2003, offers the Master in Behavior Health, the Master of Public Health, the Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology. The Sacramento Campus, founded in 1975, offers the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, the Master of Public Health, the Master's in Counseling with an Emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential; the San Jose Campus, established in 1980, offers the Master's in Information Systems, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential, the Master's in Counseling with an Emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy, the RN to MSN Nursing/Clinical Nurse Leader.
The Santa Rosa Campus, founded in 1989, offers the Master's in Counseling with an Emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy, the Master's in Teaching with the Single or Multiple Subject Teaching Credential. Founded by the Jesuits in 1855 as St. Ignatius Academy, USF started as a one-room schoolhouse along Market Street in what became downtown San Francisco. Under its founding president, Anthony Maraschi, S. J. St. Ignatius Academy received its charter to issue college degrees on April 30, 1859, from the State of California, signed by governor John B. Weller. In that year, the school changed its name to St. Ignatius College; the original curriculum included Greek, Latin, French, algebra, history, geography and bookkeeping. Father Maraschi was the college's first president, a professor, the college's treasurer, the first pastor of St. Ignatius Church. A new building was constructed in 1862 to replace the first frame building. In June 1863, the university awarded its first Bachelor of Arts degree. In 1880, the college moved from Market Street to a new site on the corner of Hayes Street and Van Ness Avenue.
The third St. Ignatius College received moderate damage in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, but was destroyed in the ensuing fire; the campus moved west, to the corner of Hayes and Shrader Streets, close to Golden Gate Park, where it occupied a hastily constructed structure known as The Shirt Factory for the next 21 years. The college moved to its present site on Fulton Street in 1927, on the site of a former Masonic Cemetery. To celebrate its diamond jubilee in 1930, St. Ignatius College changed its name to the University of San Francisco; the change from college to university was sought by many alumni groups and by long-time San Francisco Mayor James Rolph Jr. A male-only school for most of its history, USF became coeducational in 1964, though women started attending the evening programs in business and law as early as 1927. In 1969, the high school division wholly separate from the university, moved to the western part of San Francisco and became St. Ignatius College Preparatory. In 1978, the university acquired Lone Mountain College.
October 15, 2005, marked the 150th anniversary of the university's founding. In the fall of 2017, USF enrolled 11,080 undergraduate and graduate students in all of its programs housed in four schools and one college. Saint Ignatius Church Kalmanovitz Hall School of Education Building Lone Mountain Gleeson Library and the Geschke Learning Resource Center Toler Hall War Memorial Gymnasium Ulrich Field Fromm Hall The Koret Law Center: Kendrick Hall and Dorraine Zief Law Library Lone Mountain North Gillson Hall Harney Science Center Hayes-Healy Hall University Center Cowell Hall Negoesco Stadium USF Koret Health and Recreation Center Loyola House 281 Masonic Pedro Arrupe Hall Loyola Village Malloy Hall John Lo Schiavo, S. J. Center for Science and Innovation Sobrato Center The University of San Francisco is chartered as a non-profit organization and is governed by a appointed board of trustees, along with the university president, the university chancellor, the university provost and vice-presidents
John Adams (composer)
John Coolidge Adams is an American composer and conductor of classical music and opera, with strong roots in minimalism. His works include Nixon in China, Short Ride in a Fast Machine, On the Transmigration of Souls, a choral piece commemorating the victims of the September 11, 2001 attacks, Shaker Loops, a minimalist four-movement work for strings, his operas include Nixon in China, which recounts Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China, Doctor Atomic, which covers Robert Oppenheimer, the Manhattan Project, the building of the first atomic bomb and The Death of Klinghoffer based on the hijacking of the passenger liner Achille Lauro by the Palestine Liberation Front in 1985, the hijackers' murder of 69-year-old Jewish-American passenger Leon Klinghoffer, who used a wheelchair. The opera has drawn controversy, including allegations by some that the opera is antisemitic and glorifies terrorism; the work's creators and others have disputed these criticisms. John Coolidge Adams was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1947.
He was raised in various New England states, where he was influenced by New England's musical culture. He graduated from Concord High School in New Hampshire. Adams began composing at the age of ten and first heard his music performed around the age of 13 or 14. After he matriculated at Harvard University in 1965 he studied composition under Leon Kirchner, Roger Sessions, Earl Kim, David Del Tredici, he studied at Harvard University. He taught at the San Francisco Conservatory of Music from 1972 until 1984. In 1975, his piece "American Standard" was released on Obscure Records, he served as musical producer for a number of series for the Public Broadcasting System, including the award-winning series, The Adams Chronicles in 1976 and 1977. Some works composed during this period include China Gates, Phrygian Gates for solo piano, Shaker Loops, Common Tones in Simple Time, Grand Pianola Music, Light Over Water, The Chairman Dances, Short Ride in a Fast Machine, Nixon in China; the Wound-Dresser: John Adams's setting of Walt Whitman's 1865 poem of the same title, which Whitman wrote after visiting wounded soldiers during the American Civil War.
The piece is scored for baritone voice, two flutes, two oboes, bass clarinet, two bassoons, two horns, timpani and strings. The Death of Klinghoffer: The opera's story begins with the 1985 hijacking of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro by Palestinian terrorists and details the murder of a passenger named Leon Klinghoffer, a retired, physically disabled American Jew. Chamber Symphony: This piece was commissioned by the Gerbode Foundation of San Francisco for the San Francisco Contemporary Chamber Players. I Was Looking at the Ceiling and Then I Saw the Sky: A stage piece with libretto by June Jordan and staging by Peter Sellars; the main characters are seven young Americans from different social and ethnic backgrounds, all living in Los Angeles. The story takes place in the aftermath of the earthquake in Los Angeles in 1994. Hallelujah Junction: This piece for two pianos employs variations of a repeated two note rhythm; the intervals between the notes remain the same through much of the piece.
On the Transmigration of Souls: This piece commemorates those who lost their lives in the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York. It won the 2003 Pulitzer Prize for Music as well as the 2005 Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Composition. My Father Knew Charles Ives: A semi-autobiographical orchestral triptych, it was commissioned by the San Francisco Symphony. The Dharma at Big Sur: A piece for solo electric six-string violin and orchestra; the piece calls for some instruments to use just intonation, a tuning system in which intervals sound pure, rather than equal temperament, the common Western tuning system in which all intervals except the octave are impure. Doctor Atomic: An opera in two acts, about Robert Oppenheimer, the Manhattan Project, the creation and testing of the first atomic bomb; the libretto of Doctor Atomic by Peter Sellars draws on original source material, including personal memoirs, recorded interviews, technical manuals of nuclear physics, declassified government documents, the poetry of the Bhagavad Gita, John Donne, Charles Baudelaire, Muriel Rukeyser.
The opera takes place in June and July 1945 over the last few hours before the first atomic bomb explodes at the test site in New Mexico. Characters include Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer and his wife Kitty, Edward Teller, General Leslie Groves, Robert Wilson. A Flowering Tree: An opera in two acts, based on a folktale from the Kannada language of southern India as translated by A. K. Ramanujan, it was commissioned as part of the Vienna New Crowned Hope Festival to celebrate the 250th anniversary of Mozart's birth. Doctor Atomic Symphony: Based on music from the opera. Fellow Traveler: This piece was commissioned for the Kronos Quartet by Greg G. Minshall, was dedicated to opera and theater director Peter Sellars for his 50th birthday; the Gospel According to the Other Mary: An oratorio in two acts for orchestra and chorus, it premiered in May 2012 with the Los Angeles Philharmonic and the Los Angeles Master Chorale conducted by Gustavo Dudamel. The revised version, in the work's staged premiere, occurred in February 2013 again with the Los Angeles Philharmon
Joseph Lawrence Alioto was the 36th mayor of San Francisco, from 1968 to 1976. Alioto was born in San Francisco in 1916, his father was a Sicilian immigrant who operated several fish processing companies. His mother, Domenica Mae Lazio, was born in San Francisco in 1893, his parents met on a fishing boat. He attended Sacred Heart High School, he graduated with honors from St. Mary's College, California in 1937 and from law school at The Catholic University of America with honors in 1940. Alioto worked for the Antitrust Division of the Justice Department and for the Board of Economic Warfare, he returned to San Francisco after World War II and started an antitrust practice, representing Walt Disney and Samuel Goldwyn, among others becoming a millionaire. He was on the briefs in Radovich v. National Football League and argued Continental Ore Co. v. Union Carbide & Carbon Corp. 370 U. S. 690, an antitrust landmark, Utah Pie Co. v. Continental Baking Co. 386 U. S. 685, all three Supreme Court of the United States cases.
In Radovich, the Supreme Court held that professional football, unlike baseball, was subject to antitrust laws. Continental Ore is one of the most comprehensive and important antitrust cases decided by the Supreme Court. In 1980, he represented Al Davis and the Oakland Raiders in a landmark antitrust case entitled Los Angeles Colisuem Commission v; the NFL. The case established the right of football franchises to move to football markets throughout the United States without the approval of other franchise owners. In 1993, he represented his father-in-law Billy Sullivan in his lawsuit against the NFL; the court ruled that Sullivan was forced by the league to sell his team at below market value and awarded him $114 million. Alioto served on the San Francisco Board of Education from 1948 to 1954, in the 1960s, served as the chair of the city's Redevelopment Agency. Alioto on the death of California State Senator J. Eugene McAteer, went from campaign finance chairman to candidate for mayor, he entered the mayoral race in 1967 when John Shelley, the incumbent, bowed out of the race because of poor health but because Alioto was more pro-development than Shelley.
Joseph L. Alioto was inaugurated on January 8, 1968, served a term, was handily re-elected in 1971. Alioto delivered the speech nominating Hubert Humphrey at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. There were rumors that Humphrey would select Alioto as his running mate, but Humphrey selected Edmund Muskie. An article in the September 23, 1969 issue of Look magazine claimed that Alioto had business and personal ties to the Los Angeles Mafioso boss Jimmy Fratianno. Alioto sued Look for libel and won a $450,000 judgment. In the course of the litigation, Alioto proved that Look, desperate and on the verge of bankruptcy conjured up an alleged mob meeting in Vacaville, California at the Nut Tree Restaurant, he claimed that he had documents that showed that the Nixon administration leaked disinformation to the magazine in order to stall his career. In January 1970, the State of Washington, three cities, a port authority, eight public utilities brought a civil suit against Alioto because he split a $2.3 million fee in an antitrust case with Washington State Attorney General John J. O'Connell and an O’Connell deputy, George Faler.
Attorney General O’Connell had maintained Public Utility Districts as private clients during his time as AG. The Public Utility Districts were suing electrical manufactures that were fixing prices at an improperly high level; the case began in 1962 and O’Connell retained Alioto, a successful anti-trust attorney, to work on the case. Alioto agreed to receive 15% of what was awarded with a $1 million cap. O’Connell without telling his clients, abolished the fee ceiling. Alioto ended up receiving $2.3 million and gave $802,815 of those fees to O’Connell and Faler. The state and other groups sued to have the entire $2.3 million returned. The trial took jury unanimously found the three were entitled to the $2.3 million. Alioto was indicted by a federal grand jury in March 1971 on bribery charges because of the means by which the fees were awarded; when the case went to court, Alioto was cleared of the federal charges by a judge who ordered acquittal because he was convinced a jury would not convict when it considered the evidence.
Under California law it was illegal for public employees to strike. City employees called a strike in March 1974, picketing city hall and shutting down municipal services. After a week Mayor Alioto and the San Francisco Board of Supervisors agreed to the strikers demands; the city controller, refused to payout what he believed were illegal salaries. In April 1975 the California Supreme Court ordered the city controller to pay the salaries, with Justice Tobriner finding that contracts secured through illegal strikes are still enforceable. Major crime became a problem with the Zodiac Killer, the Symbionese Liberation Army attacks and the Black Power Zebra Murders all occurring under Alioto’s watch. During the Zebra Murders in 1974, Alioto's wife, Angelina Alioto, reappearing after 18 days to claim that she had taken off to "punish" her husband for neglect. During the time Angelina was missing, she toured the missions of California as part of a religious pilgrimage. Angelina filed divorce proceedin
California Hall of Fame
The California Hall of Fame honors individuals and families who embody California's innovative spirit and have made their mark on history. The hall and its exhibits are housed in The California Museum in Sacramento; the hall of fame was conceived by then–California First Lady Maria Shriver, who asked her friend artist Robert Graham to design and fabricate the award. Graham was inducted in 2008, the same award is being given today, it opened in 2006 with 13 charter enshrinees. Among the requirements, all inductees must have been a resident of California for at least 5 years. Furthermore, through their work and accomplishments, embody the spirit of California and the California Dream while making a lasting, significant contribution to the state and the world. California Hall of Fame The California Museum for History and the Arts
Maria Owings Shriver is an American journalist and former First Lady of California. She was the wife of former Governor of California and actor Arnold Schwarzenegger, whom she divorced in 2011, she has received a Peabody Award and was co-anchor for NBC's Emmy-winning coverage of the 1988 Summer Olympics. As executive producer of The Alzheimer's Project, Shriver earned two Emmy Awards and an Academy of Television Arts & Sciences award for developing a "television show with a conscience", she is related to the Kennedy family. Shriver is a special anchor and correspondent for NBC News. Shriver was born in Chicago, the second child and only daughter of the politician Sargent Shriver and activist Eunice Kennedy Shriver. Shriver is a niece of United States President John F. Kennedy, U. S. Attorney General and U. S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy, U. S. Senator Ted Kennedy, five other prominent siblings. A Roman Catholic, she is of Irish and German descent. Shriver attended Westland Middle School in Bethesda, Maryland, a suburb of Washington, D.
C. and graduated in 1973 from Stone Ridge School of the Sacred Heart in Bethesda. She attended Manhattanville College for two years transferred and went on to receive a Bachelor of Arts degree in American studies from Georgetown University in Washington, D. C. in June 1977. In her book Ten Things I Wish I'd Known Before I Went Out Into The Real World, Shriver says that she became passionate about broadcast journalism after being sent to the back of the campaign plane with the press corps while volunteering for her father's 1972 U. S. vice presidential race, calling these orders "the best thing that happened to me." After her journalism career began with KYW-TV in Philadelphia, she co-anchored The CBS Morning News with Forrest Sawyer from August 1985 until August 1986, co-anchored NBC News's Sunday Today from 1987 until 1990. Shriver served as Saturday anchor from 1989–1990 of NBC Nightly News, she was a contributing anchor on Dateline NBC from 1992 until 2004. In August 2003, Shriver took an unpaid leave of absence from NBC News when her husband became a candidate in the 2003 California gubernatorial recall election.
Following her husband's November 17, 2003, inauguration as the 38th Governor of California, she became the First Lady of California. She returned to reporting, making two more appearances for Dateline NBC. On February 3, 2004, Shriver asked to be "relieved of duties at NBC News," citing concerns the network had over the conflict of interest between her role as a journalist and her status as the First Lady of California and her increasing role as an advocate of her husband's administration, she appeared as herself in the film Last Action Hero. She played a minor role as herself in "Be Prepared", a 2006 episode of the television series That's So Raven promoting a "Preparedness Plan". On March 23, 2007, Shriver returned to television news as substitute host of panel-discussion talk show Larry King Live on CNN with musician Sheryl Crow and other guests. Shriver announced that she will not return to the news media after the excessive media coverage of the death of Anna Nicole Smith. In 2008, Shriver executive-produced American Idealist: The Story of Sargent Shriver.
The documentary aired on PBS on January 21, 2008. The film chronicled the life and vision of her father, Sargent Shriver. Shriver serves on the advisory board of the Sargent Shriver Peace Institute, which raises public awareness of her father's legacy as a peacebuilder and offers educational and training programs grounded in the principles of public service that motivate the many programs he created, including the Peace Corps, Job Corps, Head Start, Legal Services for the Poor. Shriver has been a lifelong advocate for people with intellectual disabilities, she is a member of the International Board of Special Olympics, the organization her mother founded in 1968. She is on the advisory board of Best Buddies, a one-to-one friendship and jobs program for people with intellectual disabilities. In addition, Shriver serves as Chair of the Audi Best Buddies Challenge: Hearst Castle, a bike ride that raises millions of dollars for programs supporting people with intellectual disabilities; as First Lady, Shriver has been instrumental in the hiring of individuals with intellectual disabilities in the capitol and in various state offices through her WE Include program.
In February 2008, Shriver launched an ice cream company called Lovin' Scoopful with her brother, Tim Shriver. Twenty-five percent of the proceeds from Lovin' Scoopful benefits the Special Olympics. Shriver executive-produced The Alzheimer's Project, a four-part documentary series that premiered on HBO in May 2009 and earned two Emmy Awards, it was described by the Los Angeles Times as "ambitious, disturbing fraught and optimistic". The series took a close look at cutting-edge research being done in the country's leading Alzheimer's laboratories; the documentary examined the effects of this disease on patients and families. One of the Emmy Award-winning films, Grandpa, Do you Know Who I Am? is based on Shriver's best-selling children's book dealing with Alzheimer's. In October 2009, Shriver launched "The Shriver Report: A Woman's Nation Changes Everything," a national study and comprehensive report conducted in partnership with the Center for American Progress, USC's Annenberg Center on Communication and Policy, the Rockefeller Foundation.
The Shriver Report revealed that American women, for the first time, make up half of the United States workforce and studied how that fact is impacting major institutions like family, busi
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, businessman, philanthropist, activist and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter. He served as the 38th Governor of California, from 2003 to 2011. Schwarzenegger began lifting weights at the age of 15, he won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times, remaining a prominent presence in bodybuilding and writing many books and articles on the sport; the Arnold Sports Festival, considered the second most important professional bodybuilding event in recent years, is named after him. He is considered to be one of the greatest bodybuilders of all-time, as well as the sport's most charismatic ambassador. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon, his breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, a box-office hit that resulted in a sequel. In 1984, he appeared in the title role of James Cameron's critically and commercially successful science-fiction thriller film The Terminator.
He subsequently played a similar Terminator character in most of the franchise's installments, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, Terminator Genisys. He has appeared in a number of other successful films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop, True Lies. Schwarzenegger married Maria Shriver, a niece of the 35th U. S. President John F. Kennedy and daughter of the 1972 Democratic vice presidential candidate and former Ambassador to France Sargent Shriver, in 1986, they separated in 2011 after he admitted to having fathered a child with another woman in 1997. As a Republican, Schwarzenegger was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis, he was sworn in on November 17. He was re-elected in the 2006 California gubernatorial election, to serve a full term as governor. In 2011, he returned to acting. Schwarzenegger was nicknamed "the Austrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" or "Schwarzy" during his acting career, "The Governator" during his political career.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger was born on July 30, 1947, in Thal, Styria, to Aurelia and Gustav Schwarzenegger. His father was the local chief of police and had served in World War II as a Hauptfeldwebel after voluntarily joining the Nazi Party in 1938, was wounded during the battle of Stalingrad, but was discharged in 1943 following a bout of malaria, he married Schwarzenegger's mother on October 20, 1945. According to Arnold Schwarzenegger, his parents were strict: "Back in Austria it was a different world... if we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared." He grew up in a Catholic family. Gustav had a preference for his elder son, over Arnold, his favoritism was "strong and blatant", which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child. Schwarzenegger has said that his father had "no patience for listening or understanding your problems." He kept in touch with her until her death. In life, he commissioned the Simon Wiesenthal Center to research his father's wartime record, which came up with no evidence of Gustav being involved in atrocities, despite his membership in the Nazi Party and Sturmabteilung.
Gustav's background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign. At school, Schwarzenegger was academically average, but stood out for his "cheerful, good-humored, exuberant" character. Money was a problem in their household; as a boy, he played several sports influenced by his father. He picked up his first barbell in 1960. At the age of 14, he chose bodybuilding over soccer as a career, he said, "I started weight training when I was 15, but I'd been participating in sports, like soccer, for years, so I felt that although I was slim, I was well-developed, at least enough so that I could start going to the gym and start olympic lifting." However, his official website biography claims that "at 14, he started an intensive training program with Dan Farmer, studied psychology at 15 and at 17 started his competitive career." During a speech in 2001, he said, "My own plan formed. My father had wanted me to be a police officer. My mother wanted me to go to trade school."Schwarzenegger took to visiting a gym in Graz, where he frequented the local movie theaters to see bodybuilding idols such as Reg Park, Steve Reeves, Johnny Weissmuller on the big screen.
When Reeves died in 2000, Schwarzenegger fondly remembered him: "As a teenager, I grew up with Steve Reeves. His remarkable accomplishments allowed me a sense of what was possible when others around me didn't always understand my dreams. Steve Reeves has been part of everything I've been fortunate enough to achieve." In 1961, Schwarzenegger met former Mr. Austria Kurt Marnul, who invited him to train at the gym in Graz, he was so dedicated as a youngster that he broke into the local gym on weekends, so that he could train when it was closed. "It would make me sick to miss a workout... I knew I couldn't look at myself in the mirror the next morning if I did