A canyon or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales. Rivers have a natural tendency to cut through underlying surfaces wearing away rock layers as sediments are removed downstream. A river bed will reach a baseline elevation, the same elevation as the body of water into which the river drains; the processes of weathering and erosion will form canyons when the river's headwaters and estuary are at different elevations through regions where softer rock layers are intermingled with harder layers more resistant to weathering. A canyon may refer to a rift between two mountain peaks, such as those in ranges including the Rocky Mountains, the Alps, the Himalayas or the Andes. A river or stream and erosion carve out such splits between mountains. Examples of mountain-type canyons are Provo Canyon in Utah or Yosemite Valley in California's Sierra Nevada. Canyons within mountains, or gorges that have an opening on only one side, are called box canyons.
Slot canyons are narrow canyons that have smooth walls. Steep-sided valleys in the seabed of the continental slope are referred to as submarine canyons. Unlike canyons on land, submarine canyons are thought to be formed by turbidity currents and landslides; the word canyon is Spanish in origin, with the same meaning. The word canyon is used in North America while the words gorge and ravine are used in Europe and Oceania, though gorge and ravine are used in some parts of North America. In the United States, place names use canyon in the southwest and gorge in the northeast, with the rest of the country graduating between these two according to geography. In Canada, a gorge is narrow while a ravine is more open and wooded; the military-derived word defile is used in the United Kingdom. Most canyons were formed by a process of long-time erosion from table-land level; the cliffs form because harder rock strata that are resistant to erosion and weathering remain exposed on the valley walls. Canyons are much more common in arid than in wet areas because physical weathering has a more localized effect in arid zones.
The wind and water from the river combine to erode and cut away less resistant materials such as shales. The freezing and expansion of water serves to help form canyons. Water seeps into cracks between the rocks and freezes, pushing the rocks apart and causing large chunks to break off the canyon walls, in a process known as frost wedging. Canyon walls are formed of resistant sandstones or granite. Sometimes large rivers run through canyons as the result of gradual geological uplift; these are called entrenched rivers, because they are unable to alter their course. In the United States, the Colorado River in the Southwest and the Snake River in the Northwest are two examples of tectonic uplift. Canyons form in areas of limestone rock; as limestone is soluble to a certain extent, cave systems form in the rock. When these collapse, a canyon is left, as in the Mendip Hills in Somerset and Yorkshire Dales in Yorkshire, England. A box canyon is a small canyon, shorter and narrower than a river canyon, with steep walls on three sides, allowing access and egress only through the mouth of the canyon.
Box canyons were used in the western United States as convenient corrals, with their entrances fenced. The definition of "largest canyon" is imprecise, because a canyon can be large by its depth, its length, or the total area of the canyon system; the inaccessibility of the major canyons in the Himalaya contributes to their not being regarded as candidates for the biggest canyon. The definition of "deepest canyon" is imprecise if one includes mountain canyons as well as canyons cut through flat plateaus; the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet, is regarded by some as the deepest canyon in the world at 5,500 m. It is longer than the Grand Canyon in the United States. Others consider the Kali Gandaki Gorge in midwest Nepal to be the deepest canyon, with a 6400 m difference between the level of the river and the peaks surrounding it. Vying for deepest canyon in the Americas are the Cotahuasi Canyon and Colca Canyon, in southern Peru. Both have been measured at over 3500 m deep.
The Grand Canyon of northern Arizona in the United States, with an average depth of 1,600 m and a volume of 4.17 trillion cubic metres, is one of the world's largest canyons. It was among the 28 finalists of the New7Wonders of Nature worldwide poll; the largest canyon in Africa is the Fish River Canyon in Namibia. In August 2013, the discovery of Greenland's Grand Canyon was reported, based on the analysis of data from Operation IceBridge, it is located under an ice sheet. At 750 kilometres long, it is believed to be the longest canyon in the world; the Capertee Valley in Australia is reported as being the second largest canyon in the world. Some canyons have notable cultural significance. Evidence of early humanoids has been discovered in Africa's Olduvai Gorge. In the southwestern United States, canyons are important archeologically because of the many cliff-dwellings built in such areas by the ancient Pueblo people who were their first inhabitants; the following list contains only the most notable canyons of the world, arranged by continent and country.
Fish River Canyon Blyde Riv
Manhunter is the name given to several different fictional characters appearing in comic books published by DC Comics. They are depicted as antiheroes. None of these are to be confused with the better-known DC Comics superhero called the Martian Manhunter, sometimes addressed as "Manhunter"; the first of DC's Manhunters was a non-costumed independent investigator, Paul Kirk, who helped police solve crimes during the early 1940s. Though the series was titled "Paul Kirk, Manhunter", Kirk didn't use the Manhunter name as an alias, he appeared in Adventure Comics #58–72. Beginning with Adventure Comics #73, Joe Simon and Jack Kirby established a new Manhunter, Rick Nelson, big game hunter turned crimefighter. Though he was a different character than the first DC Manhunter, the name Rick Nelson was changed to Paul Kirk in Adventure Comics #74 by an unknown editor; the Simon/Kirby team left the feature after #80, November 1942, although Kirby wrote a few more scripts. The Paul Kirk Manhunter appeared in Adventure Comics until #92 in June 1944, when wartime paper shortages caused DC to drop page counts and thus his strip.
This version of the character reappeared as reprint in back-up stories of New Gods, a series penciled by Kirby. Kirk decides to become a crimefighter when his friend, Empire City police inspector Donovan, was murdered by the supervillain known as the Buzzard, he wore a superhero-like red costume with a blue mask. While he had no superpowers, he possessed superior tracking skills. Although Dan Richards and Paul Kirk never met in Golden Age stories, because they were published by different companies, they have been retconned in DC continuity as having met, arguing over who should get the Manhunter name, they resolved the dilemma by joining different teams: Dan Richards became a member of the Freedom Fighters, while Paul Kirk stayed as a member of the All-Star Squadron. Many years in 1973, the names of Manhunter and Paul Kirk were resurrected in a story by Archie Goodwin and Walt Simonson in Detective Comics #437 Simonson noted that: He had this idea for doing a back-up story for Detective Comics which he was editing.
He was going to do a lead Batman story and have an eight-page short story in the back. He thought he would try to do him in a way that contrasted with Batman. While Batman was dark and grim and urban, this would be a guy in brighter colors and the whole world would be his stage. Where Batman was more or less an empty hand combatant, this guy would carry weaponry. Contrary to popular belief, although the name was chosen as an acknowledgement of the 1940s character, it was not the original intent of the creators for this to be the same character; this link was established within the series to provide backstory within the limited eight-page structure. Kirk carried and used three weapons: a Bolo Mauser, a Katar, two shuriken "throwing stars"; these are carried by Kirk on the chest. Said Simonson of his costume design, "I did a bunch of preliminary designs and I think Archie thought my first costume was a little complex, but I did a bunch of variations, they were just simpler and not as good, so we went with the original design.
The only difference was I’d given him nine throwing stars. Archie wanted to include martial arts in the strip and I came across something that said nine was a mystical number in some of the martial arts cultures, but somewhere along the way I realized that drawing nine throwing stars in every damn panel was going to be a big problem. So we fixed that!"Paul Kirk was killed by an elephant on safari in the 1940s, but his body was cryogenically preserved and resurrected by the Council, a secret society dedicated to saving the human race from dangers such as nuclear war and overpopulation. After his return from death, Kirk is given a healing factor devised by a geneticist-member of the Council, he was the genetic source for many clones, which the Council intends to use as their paramilitary arm, with the original Paul Kirk as their leader. To test Kirk's loyalty, the Council assigns him to kill an Interpol official while refusing to explain how this mission advances their stated goal of helping mankind.
When Kirk tries to warn the agent instead, a group of clones attempts to kill him. Realizing that the Council have been corrupted by power warped from idealists into ruthless fanatics, Kirk begins to hunt down them and their agents. Manhunter kills all nine members of the Council, deliberately sacrificing his life to do so. Interpol agent Christine St. Clair and Nitobe hunt down his remaining clones; the 1970s Paul Kirk/Manhunter stories appeared as 8-page backups in Batman's Detective Comics, at the time going through an incarnation as a "100-Page Super Spectacular" featuring reprints of non-Batman stories. Only with the last episode of the series did Manhunter move to the front of the book, in a full-length team-up with Batman; the stories were all written by Goodwin, were the breakout work for future fan favorite artist Simonson. Simonson said that the distinctively dense layouts and breakdowns for many of the early Manhunter stories were done by Goodwin. Goodwin's work on Manhunter, in which he both updated an obscure Golden Age hero, and, in the series' last episode, took the daring approach of killing him off is well regarded by both fans and other comics professio
John Stewart (comics)
John Stewart, one of the characters known as Green Lantern, is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics and was the first African-American superhero to appear in DC Comics. The character was created by Dennis O'Neil and Neal Adams, first appeared in Green Lantern #87. Stewart's original design was based on actor Sidney Poitier. John Stewart debuted in Green Lantern vol. 2 #87 when artist Neal Adams came up with the idea of a substitute Green Lantern. The decision to make the character black resulted from a conversation between Adams and editor Julius Schwartz, in which Adams recounts saying that given the racial makeup of the world's population, "we ought to have a black Green Lantern, not because we’re liberals, but because it just makes sense." The character was DC's first black superhero. John Stewart has become a major recurring character in the Green Lantern mythos within the DC Universe, he became the primary character of Green Lantern vol. 2 from issues #182 through #200, when Hal Jordan relinquished his place in the Green Lantern Corps.
He continued to star in the book when the title changed to The Green Lantern Corps from issue #201 to #224. He would continue to make key appearances in Action Comics Weekly after The Green Lantern Corps' cancellation, he starred in the comic Green Lantern: Mosaic. 3, with a four-part storyline titled "Mosaic". DC published 18 issues of the ongoing Green Lantern: Mosaic title between June 1992 and November 1993. John Stewart was featured as one of the lead characters on the television cartoon Justice League from 2001 until 2004, he continued to appear as a major character on the show's 2004–2006 sequel, Justice League Unlimited. In 2011, John Stewart starred in the New 52 relaunch of Green Lantern Corps alongside Guy Gardner, became the sole lead character of the title from 2013 until the series' conclusion in 2015. Green Lantern Corps was replaced by Green Lantern: The Lost Army, which stars John Stewart as the lead. John Stewart is an architect "retconned" into a veteran U. S. Marine from Detroit, selected by the Guardians as a backup Green Lantern to then-current Green Lantern Hal Jordan, after the previous backup, Guy Gardner, was injured after getting hit by a car while trying to save a civilian.
Although Jordan objected to the decision after seeing that Stewart had a belligerent attitude to authority figures, the Guardians stood by their decision, chided Jordan for his supposed bigoted outlook on the issue. Jordan explained that he just felt that though Stewart might have the integrity for the task, he "obviously would have a chip on his shoulder bigger than the rock of Gibraltar." Jordan's opinion was. His assignment was to protect a racist politician, Stewart, while averting an accident, took advantage of the situation to embarrass Jordan in the process; when an assassin shoots at the politician, Stewart does not intervene with Jordan in response to the attack, which makes Stewart seem suspect. However, it turns out Stewart had good reasons for this apparent dereliction of duty because he was stopping a gunman from killing a police officer in the outside parking lot at the event while Jordan was pursuing a decoy; when Jordan confronts Stewart about his actions, Stewart explains that the politician had staged the attack for political advantage.
Jordan concludes that Stewart was an excellent recruit and has proven his worth. For some time, Stewart filled in as Green Lantern when Jordan was unavailable, including some missions of the Justice League. After Jordan gave up being Green Lantern in the 1980s, the Guardians selected Stewart for full-time duty. Stewart filled that role for some years. During that period he worked as an architect at Ferris Aircraft Company, battled many Green Lantern villains, fought against the Anti-Monitor's forces during the Crisis on Infinite Earths. John was trained in usage of his power ring by the Green Lantern of the planet Korugar; the duo went on many adventures together and fell in love. Kat and John went on to serve within the Green Lantern Corps of Earth alongside Hal Jordan, Kilowog and other alien Green Lanterns, during which time they were married. After John's ring was rendered powerless through the schemes of Sinestro, Katma Tui was murdered at the hands of the insane Star Sapphire, Stewart's life began to unravel.
First, he was falsely accused of killing Carol Ferris, Star Sapphire's alter ego, falsely accused of theft by South Nambia. Jailed and tortured in South Nambia for weeks, John freed himself with his old ring, now re-powered thanks to the efforts of Hal Jordan. In his escape, John inadvertently frees both a terrorist; when Jordan confronts John over his actions, the two friends come to blows until John realizes the "revolutionaries" he had been aiding intended to murder innocent civilians. Afterwards, John left Earth for space, where he participated in the Cosmic Odyssey miniseries event, failed to prevent the destruction of the planet Xanshi by an avatar of the Anti-Life Equation; the incident earned him the ire of J’onn J’onzz the Martian Manhunter, with him at the time. This series of tragedies left John a shattered man on the brink of suicide and created the villainess known as Fatality. J'onn J'onzz has at least civilly, forgiven him. John forgave himself for his past mistakes and grew into a stronger, more complex hero when he became the caretaker of the "Mosaic World", a patchwork of communities fr
The Joker is a supervillain created by Bill Finger, Bob Kane, Jerry Robinson who first appeared in the debut issue of the comic book Batman, published by DC Comics. Credit for the Joker's creation is disputed. Although the Joker was planned to be killed off during his initial appearance, he was spared by editorial intervention, allowing the character to endure as the archenemy of the superhero Batman. In his comic book appearances, the Joker is portrayed as a criminal mastermind. Introduced as a psychopath with a warped, sadistic sense of humor, the character became a goofy prankster in the late 1950s in response to regulation by the Comics Code Authority, before returning to his darker roots during the early 1970s; as Batman's nemesis, the Joker has been part of the superhero's defining stories, including the murder of Jason Todd—the second Robin and Batman's ward—and the paralysis of one of Batman's allies, Barbara Gordon. The Joker has had various possible origin stories during his decades of appearances.
The most common story involves him falling into a tank of chemical waste which bleaches his skin white and turns his hair green and lips bright red. The antithesis of Batman in personality and appearance, the Joker is considered by critics to be his perfect adversary; the Joker possesses no superhuman abilities, instead using his expertise in chemical engineering to develop poisonous or lethal concoctions, thematic weaponry, including razor-tipped playing cards, deadly joy buzzers, acid-spraying lapel flowers. The Joker sometimes works with other Gotham City supervillains such as the Penguin and Two-Face, groups like the Injustice Gang and Injustice League, but these relationships collapse due to the Joker's desire for unbridled chaos; the 1990s introduced a romantic interest for the Joker in his former psychiatrist, Harley Quinn, who becomes his villainous sidekick. Although his primary obsession is Batman, the Joker has fought other heroes including Superman and Wonder Woman. One of the most iconic characters in popular culture, the Joker has been listed among the greatest comic book villains and fictional characters created.
The character's popularity has seen him appear on a variety of merchandise, such as clothing and collectible items, inspire real-world structures, be referenced in a number of media. The Joker has been adapted to serve as Batman's adversary in live-action and video game incarnations, including the 1960s Batman television series and in films by Jack Nicholson in Batman. Mark Hamill, Troy Baker, others have provided the character's voice. Bill Finger, Bob Kane, Jerry Robinson are credited with creating the Joker, but their accounts of the character's conception differ, each providing his own version of events. Finger's, Kane's, Robinson's versions acknowledge that Finger produced an image of actor Conrad Veidt in character as Gwynplaine in the 1928 film The Man Who Laughs as an inspiration for the Joker's appearance, Robinson produced a sketch of a joker playing card. Robinson claimed that it was his 1940 card sketch that served as the character's concept, which Finger associated with Veidt's portrayal.
Kane hired the 17-year-old Robinson as an assistant in 1939, after he saw Robinson in a white jacket decorated with his own illustrations. Beginning as a letterer and background inker, Robinson became primary artist for the newly created Batman comic book series. In a 1975 interview in The Amazing World of DC Comics, Robinson said he wanted a supreme arch-villain who could test Batman, but not a typical crime lord or gangster designed to be disposed, he wanted an exotic, enduring character as an ongoing source of conflict for Batman, designing a diabolically sinister-but-clownish villain. Robinson was intrigued by villains, he said that the name came first, followed by an image of a playing card from a deck he had at hand: "I wanted somebody visually exciting. I wanted somebody that would make an indelible impression, would be bizarre, would be memorable like the Hunchback of Notre Dame or any other villains that had unique physical characters." He told Finger about his concept by telephone providing sketches of the character and images of what would become his iconic Joker playing-card design.
Finger thought the concept was incomplete, providing the image of Veidt with a ghastly, permanent rictus grin. Kane countered that the Robinson's sketch was produced only after Finger had shown the Gwynplaine image to Kane, that it was only used as a card design belonging to the Joker in his early appearances. Finger said that he was inspired by an image in Steeplechase Park at Coney Island that resembled a Joker's head, which he sketched and shared with future editorial director Carmine Infantino. In a 1994 interview with journalist Frank Lovece, Kane stated his position: Bill Finger and I created the Joker. Bill was the writer. Jerry Robinson came to me with a playing card of the Joker. That's the way. Looks like Conrad Veidt – you know, the actor in The Man Who Laughs, by Victor Hugo.... Bill Finger had a book with a photograph of Conrad Veidt and showed it to me and s
The Justice League is a team of fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The Justice League was conceived by writer Gardner Fox, they first appeared together, as Justice League of America in The Brave and the Bold #28; the Justice League is an assemblage of superheroes. The seven original members were Aquaman, The Flash, Green Lantern, Martian Manhunter and Wonder Woman; the team roster has rotated throughout the years, consisting of various superheroes from the DC Universe, such as The Atom, Big Barda, Black Canary, Green Arrow, Elongated Man, the Flash/Wally West, Green Lantern/John Stewart, Hawkman, Plastic Man, Power Girl, Red Tornado, Captain Marvel/Shazam, Zatanna, among many others. The team received its own comic book title called Justice League of America in November 1960. With the 2011 relaunch, DC Comics released a second volume of Justice League. In July 2016, the DC Rebirth initiative again relaunched the Justice League comic book titles with the third volume of Justice League.
Since its inception, the team has been featured in various films, television programs, video games. Various comic book series featuring the Justice League have remained popular with fans since inception and, in most incarnations, its roster includes DC's most popular characters; the Justice League concept has been adapted into various other entertainment media, including various forms of television from the classic Saturday morning Super Friends animated series, a live action series of specials Legends of the Superheroes, an unproduced Justice League of America live-action series, the acclaimed Justice League animated series, its sequel Justice League Unlimited and Justice League Action. A live-action film was in the works around 2008 before being shelved. On June 6, 2012, Warner Bros. announced a new live action Justice League film was in development with Will Beall hired as screenwriter. However, the project was scrapped again. After the success of the Superman reboot Man of Steel, a film titled Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice was released in March 2016, directed by Zack Snyder.
Batman v Superman script writer Chris Terrio has penned the script for Justice League. In a story told in flashback in Justice League of America #9, the Appelaxians infiltrated Earth. Competing alien warriors were sent to see who could conquer Earth first, to determine who will become the new ruler of their home planet; the aliens' attacks drew the attentions of Aquaman, Flash, Green Lantern, Martian Manhunter and Wonder Woman. While the superheroes individually defeated most of the invaders, the heroes fell prey to a single competitor's attack. For many years, the heroes heralded this adventure as the event that prompted them to agree to pool resources when confronted with similar menaces. In Justice League of America #144, Green Arrow uncovered inconsistencies in the team's records and extracted admissions from his colleagues that the seven founders had formed the League after Martian Manhunter was rescued from Martian forces by the other six founders, along with several other heroes including Robin, Congorilla, Rex the Wonder Dog, Lois Lane.
Green Lantern participated in this first adventure as Hal Jordan, as he had yet to become the costumed hero, the biggest inconsistency Arrow found, as they celebrated the earlier incident's date, while recounting only the one's events. When the group formalized their agreement, they suppressed news of it because of anti-Martian hysteria; because the heroes had not revealed their identities to each other at the time, they did not realize that Jordan and Green Lantern were one and the same when he turned up in costume during the event described in #9. While most subsequent accounts of the League have made little mention of this first adventure, the animated Justice League series adapted this tale as the origin of the Justice League as well. Secret Origins vol. 2, #32 updated Justice League of America #9's origin for post-Crisis continuity. Differences included the inclusion of the Silver Age Black Canary as a founding member and the absence of Batman, Wonder Woman and Superman; the JLA: Year One limited series, by Mark Waid, Brian Augustyn and Barry Kitson, further expanded the Secret Origins depiction.
In Justice League Task Force #16, during Zero Hour, a unknown superhuman named Triumph appeared. Triumph was their leader. On his first mission with the Justice League, Triumph "saved the world" but was teleported into a dimensional limbo that affected the timestream, erasing all memory of him. In Infinite Crisis #7, the formation of "New Earth" restored Wonder Woman as a founding member of the Justice League. In Brad Meltzer's Justice League of America #0, it was revealed that Superman and Batman were again founding members as well. 52 #51 confirmed that the 1989 Secret Origins and JLA: Year One origins were still in continuity at that time, with Superman and Wonder Woman joining the team with founding members' status shortly after the group's formation with Aquaman, Black Canary, Green Lantern and Martian Manhunter. In Justice League of America #12, the founding members of the Justice League were shown to be Superman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, Aquaman, and
Zatanna Zatara is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by Gardner Fox and Murphy Anderson, first appeared in Hawkman #4. Zatanna is both an actual magician, like her father Giovanni "John" Zatara; as such she has many of her father's powers relating to magic controlled by speaking the words of her incantations spelled backwards. She is known for her involvement with the Justice League, her retconned childhood association with Batman, her crossing of the Vertigo line with characters such as romantic partner John Constantine. Created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Murphy Anderson, Zatanna first appeared in Hawkman #4; when she is introduced, she is on a quest to find her father Zatara who made his first appearance in Action Comics #1 but had not been published for several years. The storyline crossed multiple comics published by DC at the time, culminating in issues of Justice League of America written by Fox. Zatanna is the daughter of magician Giovanni Zatara who appeared in Golden Age comic books and Sindella, a member of the mystical Homo magi race.
Her younger cousin, the teenager Zachary Zatara, is a magician in the DCU. Zatanna makes her living as a stage illusionist prior to discovering her magical abilities while investigating the disappearance of her father, her original costume is based upon her father's costume but substituting fishnet stockings and high heels for slacks. Zatanna's search for her father was the subject of a storyline, featured in several titles edited by Julius Schwartz, in it, Zatanna interacts with Hawkman and Hawkgirl; the series culminated in Justice League of America #51. This Justice League adventure took place during the Batman television craze where Batman was at the height of his popularity; the premise that the witch in Detective Comics #336 was Zatanna was perceived as an attempt to get Batman participating in this issue of Justice League of America no matter how vague the connection to Zatanna's quest was. She was featured in backup features in Adventure Comics and Supergirl from 1971 to 1973. Zatanna assists the Justice League of America on a few missions before being elected to membership in Justice League of America #161.
Soon after Zatanna joined the group, the identity of her mother was revealed in a multi-issue storyline. Zatanna teamed with Batman in The Brave and the Bold. A ten-page short story in DC Special Blue Ribbon Digest #5 revealed new details about Zatara's origin and how Zatanna's quest to locate her father began. During her tenure with the Justice League, her power level diminishes, so that she can only control the four elements of earth, air and water, she starred in a backup feature in World's Finest Comics #274–278 and the limitation of her powers is reversed in World's Finest Comics #277. She assists several other superheroines in fighting an extraterrestrial threat. In Neil Gaiman's The Books of Magic limited series, Zatanna becomes friends and temporary guardian to Timothy Hunter, a boy destined to become the greatest wizard in the world, his girlfriend Molly who at the time was cursed by the Queen of the Fairies and unable to touch anything in the human world including the ground. After a brief stay she sent Tim wandered off on his own adventures.
When the Justice League vanish in the past as they attempt to rescue the missing Aquaman, an emergency protocol set up by Batman assembles a new League, with this team including Jason Blood as its magical expert. However, when the current threat is identified as Gamemnae, an ancient Atlantean sorceress who seeks to conquer the world, she uses a quagmire spell to absorb Zatanna and Tempest into herself, When new League leader Nightwing attempts to order Blood to transform into Etrigan to help them against Gamemnae, Blood insists that Zatanna is the one they need, sacrificing himself to Gamemnae's quagmire spell in order to free Zatanna, she subsequently joins Nightwing and Hawkgirl in travelling back to ancient Atlantis, where Aquaman has been trapped in a pool of water as a water wraith, Firestorm creating a channel between the pool and the sea before Zatanna casts a spell that allowed the water-based Aquaman to control the entire ocean as his body, allowing him to sink Atlantis in the past and present and disrupt Gamemnae's power.
In the 2004 limited series Identity Crisis, Zatanna is a member of the Justice League at the time the villain Doctor Light rapes the Elongated Man's wife, Sue Dibny. When apprehended, he threatens the JLA members' families. Although Zatanna is prepared to erase Light's memories of the incident as she had done to other villains with knowledge dangerous to the League, tampering with Light's mind sparks a debate among the team's members: should the villain's personality be transformed to prevent him from repeating his crime? Zatanna and the Atom vote for such action, while Green Arrow, Black Canary, Green Lantern vote against; the Flash breaks the tie. Zatanna mind-wipes Light, the process results in his intellectual abilities being lowered. In the midst of the process, Batman tries to stop it. Zatanna freezes him, the members vote unanimously to erase Batman's memories of the incident as well, her working relationship to Batman sours. When Zatanna helps Batman with reconnaissance at one of Ra's al Ghul's Lazarus Pits, she asks him why he came to
Hawkgirl is the name of several fictional superheroines appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The original Hawkgirl, Shiera Sanders Hall, was created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Dennis Neville, first appeared in Flash Comics #1. Shayera Hol was created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Joe Kubert, first appeared in The Brave and the Bold #34. Kendra Saunders was created by writer David S. Goyer and artist Stephen Sadowski, first appeared in JSA: Secret Files and Origins #1. One of DC's earliest super-heroines, Hawkgirl has appeared in many of the company's flagship team-up titles including Justice Society of America and Justice League of America. Several incarnations of Hawkgirl have appeared in DC Comics, all of them characterized by the use of archaic weaponry and artificial wings, attached to a harness made from the special Nth metal that allows flight. Most incarnations of Hawkgirl work with a partner/romantic interest Hawkman. Since DC’s continuity was rewritten in the 1985 series Crisis on Infinite Earths, Hawkgirl history has become muddled with several new versions of the character appearing throughout the years, some associated with ancient Egypt and some with the fictional planet Thanagar.
These versions of the character have starred in several series of various durations. Hawkgirl has been adapted into various media, including direct-to-video animated films, video games, both live-action and animated television series, featuring as a main or recurring character in the shows Justice League Animated, Justice League Unlimited, The Flash, Young Justice, DC Super Hero Girls and DC's Legends of Tomorrow. Hawkgirl is ranked among one of the greatest female heroines from DC Comics. Created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Dennis Neville, Shiera Sanders first appeared in Flash Comics #1, in the same 12-page story in which Fox and Neville introduced Hawkman. Shiera first appears as Hawkgirl in All Star Comics #5, in a costume created by Sheldon Moldoff, based on Neville's Hawkman costume. With the fading popularity of superheroes during the late 1940s, the Hawkman feature ended in the last issue of Flash Comics in 1949. In 1956, DC Comics resurrected the Flash by revamping the character with a new identity and backstory.
Following the success of the new Flash, DC Comics revamped Hawkman in a similar fashion with The Brave and the Bold #34 in 1961. The Silver Age versions of Hawkman and Hawkgirl became married alien police officers from the planet Thanagar who come to Earth in order to study police techniques. Silver Age Hawkgirl is introduced as Shayera Hol. Although Silver Age Hawkman joins the Justice League in Justice League of America #31 in 1964, Silver Age Hawkgirl was not offered membership because Justice League rules only allowed for one new member to be admitted at a time. In 1981, Silver Age Hawkgirl changed her name to Hawkwoman in the Hawkman backup feature of World's Finest Comics #274. With the establishment of DC's multiverse system, the Golden Age Hawkgirl was said to have lived on Earth-Two and the Silver Age Hawkgirl on Earth-One. Following the events of DC's miniseries, Crisis on Infinite Earths, the histories of Earth-One, Four, S, X were merged into one single Earth with a consistent past and future.
As a result, both the Golden Age and the Silver Age versions of Hawkman and Hawkgirl live on the same Earth. Shortly after Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC decided that having the Justice Society on the same Earth as all of the other superheroes was redundant and most of the team, including Golden Age Hawkman and Hawkgirl were given a sendoff in the Last Days of the Justice Society one-shot; the Justice Society were trapped in another dimension, where they would battle for all of eternity to prevent Ragnarök from occurring on the Earth. The Silver Age Hawkman and Hawkwoman were kept in continuity unchanged after Crisis on Infinite Earths. However, DC reversed this decision and rebooted Hawkman continuity after the success of the Hawkworld miniseries. Hawkworld was a miniseries set in the past that revised the origins of Hawkman and Hawkwoman, but after the series became a success, DC Comics made Hawkworld an ongoing series set in the present, with both heroes only appearing on Earth after the events in the Invasion! miniseries, resulting in a complete reboot of Hawkman continuity.
Several continuity errors regarding Hawkman and Hawkgirl's Justice League appearances needed to be fixed, including their appearance in the Invasion! miniseries. All previous appearances by the Silver Age Hawkgirl in the Justice League were explained by the Golden Age Hawkgirl taking the Silver Age Hawkgirl's place. However, Hawkwoman continued to appear in some pre-Hawkworld Justice League adventures during the time Golden Age Hawkgirl was trapped in Limbo. To explain this continuity error, a new Hawkwoman, Sharon Parker, was created and retconned into the Justice League during the time Golden Age Hawkgirl was in Limbo. After the Hawkworld reboot, Hawkgirl was now Shayera Thal and not married to Katar Hol, instead his police partner. In post-Hawkworld continuity, Shayera adopts the name Hawkwoman from the beginning of her costumed career and never uses the name Hawkgirl; the Golden Age Hawkgirl is returned from Limbo, but during the Zero Hour miniseries she is merged with Katar Hol and Golden Age Hawkman into a new persona.
A new Hawkgirl was introduced as part of the 1999 revival of the JSA monthly title. The new Hawkgirl is Kendra Saunders, granddaughter of the Golden Age Hawkgirl's cousin, Speed Saunders. Hawkgirl would continue to appear in the monthly JSA series and later