Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre; the city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenoble's history goes back to a time when it was a small Gallic village, it gained somewhat in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France. Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries; this started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, ended with a post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968.
The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research and innovation centers, with each fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains. The population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832; the residents of the city are called "Grenoblois". The many suburb communes that make up the rest of the metropolitan area include three with populations exceeding 20,000: Saint-Martin-d'Hères, Échirolles, Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble; the first references to what is now Grenoble date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a small Gallic village of the Allobroges tribe, near a bridge across the Isère. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD; the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381.
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city; until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble". After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. Arletian rule was interrupted between 970 due to Arab rule based in Fraxinet. Grenoble grew in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region; the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné. Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble.
One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, a regular and leper hospital were built; the inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal, which settled at Grenoble in 1340, he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Without an heir, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin; the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the Estates of Dauphiné were created; the only Dauphin who governed his province was the future Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule.
The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement, strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city. At that time, Grenoble was a crossroads between Vienne, Geneva and Savoy, it was the industrial centre of the Dauphiné and the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one. Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I went several times to Grenoble, its people had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers. The nobility of the region took part in doing so gained significant prestige; the best-known of its members was Bayard, "the knight without fear and beyond reproach". Grenoble suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion; the Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts.
The baron des Adrets, the leader of the Huguenots, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins. In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry
Pirate's Cove is a board game designed by Paul Randles and Daniel Stahl published in Germany in 2002 by Amigo Spiele, illustrated by Markus Wagner and Swen Papenbrock. In 2003, Days of Wonder republished the game with a new graphic design from Julien Delval and Cyrille Daujean. In the game, players play pirate ship captains seeking treasure from islands and bragging rights from defeating other pirates in naval combat; the game takes place over 12 months, with the goal of being the pirate with the most fame. Each player has a card showing four aspects of the ship. At the beginning of each turn, a card is turned over at each island to reveal the potential booty from plunder; each island offer various amounts of Fame, Treasure or Tavern cards. Captains choose an island to plunder based on the potential rewards of that island and fight if they show up at the same island. Certain islands offer the opportunity to upgrade an aspect of the ship and the available plunder at each island changes with each turn.
A player can use this information to predict where other players' ships will turn up and thus move his ship accordingly to either do battle or avoid it. The bounty of each island is skewed so that some Islands are better choices than others, so it can force you to decide if you think you can take the island should other pirates go after the same bounty. Ships that survive combat plunder the islands, gain fame, pay gold to upgrade their ships based on the qualities of the islands; the Legendary Pirate, a black ship token, moves clockwise around the board, forcing captains to steer out of his path unless they think that they can defeat the powerful ship. At Treasure Island, no battle can take place and it is where ships can safely discharge cargo from their ship and bury any plundered treasure. Burying treasure and money adds to the player's accumulated fame points. Pirate's Cove won a Deutscher SpielePreis award as one of the top 10 games of 2002. JD Wiker comments that "Pirate's Cove is a fun game for casual and hardcore gamers alike, the changing environment means that there's no single, perfect strategy.
More to the point, it's an easy game to pick up, only gets complicated if a player wants to dabble in the subsystems." 2003 France - Nominee Tric Trac Silver Tric Trac 2002 Bruno Faidutti - Game of the Year Days of Wonder's Pirate's Cove site with tutorials Pirate's Cove at BoardGameGeek
Red Rackham's Treasure
Red Rackham's Treasure is the twelfth volume of The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé. The story was serialised daily in Le Soir, Belgium's leading francophone newspaper, from February to September 1943 amidst the German occupation of Belgium during World War II. Completing an arc begun in The Secret of the Unicorn, the story tells of young reporter Tintin and his friend Captain Haddock as they launch an expedition to the Caribbean to locate the treasure of the pirate Red Rackham. Red Rackham's Treasure was a commercial success and was published in book form by Casterman the year following its conclusion. Hergé continued The Adventures of Tintin with The Seven Crystal Balls, while the series itself became a defining part of the Franco-Belgian comics tradition. Red Rackham's Treasure has been cited as one of the most important installments in the series for marking the first appearance of eccentric scientist Cuthbert Calculus, who subsequently became a core character.
The story has been variously adapted for both the 1957 Belvision animated series, Hergé's Adventures of Tintin, for the 1991 animated series The Adventures of Tintin by Ellipse and Nelvana, as well as for the feature film The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn. The synopsis continues a plot begun in The Secret of the Unicorn. Tintin and his friend Captain Haddock plan an expedition to the West Indies aboard a fishing trawler, the Sirius, to search for the treasure of the pirate Red Rackham. Having read three parchments authored by Haddock's ancestor, Sir Francis Haddock, the duo had discovered the coordinates to what they believe is the treasure aboard the sunken 17th century vessel, the Unicorn, near an unknown island. An eccentric, hard-of-hearing inventor named Professor Cuthbert Calculus offers to aid them with the use of his shark-shaped one-man submarine, but they decline his assistance. Setting sail, they are joined by the police detectives Thomson and Thompson and soon discover that Calculus has stowed away on board, bringing his submarine with him.
When they reach the coordinates shown on the parchments, there is no island in sight. Frustrated, Haddock ponders turning back, but Tintin soon realizes the problem: If Sir Francis had used a French chart instead of an English chart to calculate the position, the coordinates would have been measured on the Paris Meridian rather than the Greenwich Meridian; as they have been using the Greenwich Meridian, they realise. After traveling to the correct position, they discover an unknown island, located about 200 km north of Hispaniola and 300 km East South-East of Turks and Caicos Islands. There, they find a statue of Sir Francis Haddock and other evidence, including parrots who still use Haddock insults handed down from Sir Francis. Tintin deduces that Francis Haddock had taken refuge on the island and that the wreck of the Unicorn must be nearby, they locate the wreck using Calculus' submarine and recover various artefacts from it, but do not find the treasure. Among the artefacts is a strongbox containing old documents revealing that Sir Francis Haddock had been the owner of the country estate Marlinspike Hall.
Back in Belgium, Calculus purchases the Hall using funds from the sale of his submarine design and gives it to Haddock. Tintin and Haddock search the house's cellars, where Tintin spots a statue of Saint John the Evangelist holding a cross with a globe and eagle at its feet. Tintin remembers that Francis Haddock's original three parchments said, "For'tis from the light that light will dawn, shines forth the Eagle's cross" and realises that this message referred, not to the location of the Unicorn, but to Saint John "the eagle": his traditional symbol. Tintin locates the island on the globe, presses a secret button he finds there, discovers Red Rackham's treasure hidden inside. Sometime Haddock hosts an exhibition of the treasure and several Unicorn artefacts in Marlinspike Hall. Red Rackham's Treasure was serialized amidst the German occupation of Belgium during World War II. Hergé had accepted a position working for Belgium's largest Francophone daily newspaper. Confiscated from its original owners, Le Soir was permitted by the German authorities to reopen under the directorship of Belgian editor Raymond de Becker, although it remained under Nazi control, supporting the German war effort and espousing anti-Semitism.
After joining Le Soir on 15 October 1940, Hergé became editor of its new children's supplement, Le Soir Jeunesse, with the help of an old friend, Paul Jamin, the cartoonist Jacques Van Melkebeke, before paper shortages forced Tintin to be serialised daily in the main pages of Le Soir. Some Belgians were upset that Hergé was willing to work for a newspaper controlled by the occupying Nazi administration, although he was enticed by the size of Le Soir's readership, which numbered some 600,000. Faced with the reality of Nazi oversight, Hergé abandoned the overt political themes that had pervaded much of his earlier work, instead adopting a policy of neutrality. Entertainment producer and author Harry Thompson observed that, without the need to satirise political types, "Hergé was now concentrating more on plot and on developing a new style of character comedy; the public reacted positively."Red Rackham's Treasure was the second half of a two-part story arc which had begun with the previous adventure, The Secret of the Unicorn.
This arc was the first that Hergé had produced since Cigars of The Blue Lotus. However, as Tintin expert Michael Farr related, whereas Cigars of the Pharaoh and The Blue Lotus had been "self-sufficient and self-contained", the connection between The Secret of the Unicorn and Red Rackham's Treasure is far
The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin is a series of 24 comic albums created by Belgian cartoonist Georges Remi, who wrote under the pen name Hergé. The series was one of the most popular European comics of the 20th century. By 2007, a century after Hergé's birth in 1907, Tintin had been published in more than 70 languages with sales of more than 200 million copies, had been adapted for radio, television and film; the series first appeared in French on 10 January 1929 in Le Petit Vingtième, a youth supplement to the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle. The success of the series saw the serialised strips published in Belgium's leading newspaper Le Soir and spun into a successful Tintin magazine. In 1950, Hergé created Studios Hergé; the series is set during a realistic 20th century. Its hero is a courageous young Belgian reporter and adventurer, he is aided by his faithful dog Snowy. Other protagonists include the brash and cynical Captain Haddock and the intelligent but hearing-impaired Professor Calculus, as well as the incompetent detectives Thomson and Thompson and the opera diva Bianca Castafiore.
The series has been admired for its clean, expressive drawings in Hergé's signature ligne claire style. Its well-researched plots straddle a variety of genres: swashbuckling adventures with elements of fantasy, mysteries, political thrillers, science fiction; the stories feature slapstick humour, offset by dashes of sophisticated satire and political or cultural commentary. Georges Remi, best known under the pen name Hergé, was employed as an illustrator at Le Vingtième Siècle, a staunchly Roman Catholic, conservative Belgian newspaper based in Hergé's native Brussels. Run by the Abbé Norbert Wallez, the paper described itself as a "Catholic Newspaper for Doctrine and Information" and disseminated a far-right, fascist viewpoint. Wallez appointed Hergé editor of a new Thursday youth supplement, titled Le Petit Vingtième. Propagating Wallez's socio-political views to its young readership, it contained explicitly pro-fascist and anti-Semitic sentiment. In addition to editing the supplement, Hergé illustrated L'extraordinaire aventure de Flup, Nénesse, Poussette et Cochonnet, a comic strip authored by a member of the newspaper's sport staff.
Dissatisfied with this, Hergé wanted to draw his own cartoon strip. He had experience creating comic strips. From July 1926 he had written a strip about a Boy Scout patrol leader titled Les Aventures de Totor C. P. des Hannetons for the Scouting newspaper Le Boy Scout Belge. Totor was a strong influence on Tintin, with Hergé describing the latter as being like Totor's younger brother. Jean-Marc and Randy Lofficier stated that graphically and Tintin were "virtually identical" except for the Scout uniform noting many similarities between their respective adventures in the illustration style, the fast pace of the story, the use of humour, he was fascinated by new techniques in the medium such as the systematic use of speech bubbles—found in such American comics as George McManus' Bringing up Father, George Herriman's Krazy Kat and Rudolph Dirks's Katzenjammer Kids, copies of, sent to him from Mexico by the paper's reporter Léon Degrelle. Although Hergé wanted to send Tintin to the United States, Wallez ordered him to set his adventure in the Soviet Union, acting as anti-socialist propaganda for children.
The result, Tintin in the Land of the Soviets, was serialised in Le Petit Vingtième from January 1929 to May 1930. Popular in Francophone Belgium, Wallez organised a publicity stunt at the Gare du Nord station, following which he organised the publication of the story in book form; the story's popularity led to an increase in sales, so Wallez granted Hergé two assistants. At Wallez's direction, in June he began serialisation of the second story, Tintin in the Congo, designed to encourage colonial sentiment towards the Belgian Congo. Authored in a paternalistic style that depicted the Congolese as childlike idiots, in decades it was accused of racism, however at the time was un-controversial and popular, further publicity stunts were held to increase sales. For the third adventure, Tintin in America, serialised from September 1931 to October 1932, Hergé got to deal with a scenario of his own choice, used the work to push an anti-capitalist, anti-consumerist agenda in keeping with the paper's ultra-conservative ideology.
The Adventures of Tintin had been syndicated to French Catholic magazine Cœurs Vaillants since 1930, Hergé was soon receiving syndication requests from Swiss and Portuguese newspapers too. Hergé went on to pen a string of Adventures of Tintin, sending his character to real locations such as the Belgian Congo, the United States, India, Tibet and the United Kingdom, he sent Tintin to fictional countries of his own devising, such as the Latin American republic of San Theodoros, the East European kingdom of Syldavia, or the fascist state Borduria—whose leader, Müsstler, was a combination of Nazi German leader Adolf Hitler and Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini. In May 1940, Nazi Germany invaded Belgium. Although Hergé fled to France and considered a self-imposed exile, he decided to return to his occupied homeland. For political reasons, the
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water. Shipwrecking may be accidental. In January 1999, Angela Croome estimated that there have been about three million shipwrecks worldwide. Historic wrecks are attractive to maritime archaeologists because they preserve historical information: for example, studying the wreck of Mary Rose revealed information about seafaring and life in the 16th century. Military wrecks, caused by a skirmish at sea, are studied to find details about the historic event. Discoveries of treasure ships from the period of European colonisation, which sank in remote locations leaving few living witnesses, such as Batavia, do occur as well; some contemporary wrecks, such as the oil tankers Prestige or Erika, are of interest because of their potential harm to the environment. Other contemporary wrecks are scuttled in order to spur reef growth, such as Adolphus Busch and Ocean Freeze. Wrecks like Adolphus Busch and historic wrecks such as Thistlegorm are of interest to recreational divers that dive to shipwrecks because they are interesting to explore, provide large habitats for many types of marine life, have an interesting history.
Well known shipwrecks include the catastrophic Titanic, Lusitania, Empress of Ireland, Andrea Doria, or Costa Concordia. There are thousands of wrecks that were not lost at sea but have been abandoned or sunk; these abandoned, or derelict ships are smaller craft, such as fishing vessels. They may be removed by port authorities. Poor design, improperly stowed cargo and other human errors leading to collisions, bad weather and other causes can lead to accidental sinkings. Intentional reasons for sinking a ship include forming an artificial reef. A ship can be used as breakwater structure. Many factors determine the state of preservation of a wreck: the ship's construction materials the wreck becoming covered in sand or silt the salinity of the water the wreck is in the level of destruction involved in the ship's loss whether the components or cargo of the wreck were salvaged whether the wreck was demolished to clear a navigable channel the depth of water at the wreck site the strength of tidal currents or wave action at the wreck site the exposure to surface weather conditions at the wreck site the presence of marine animals that consume the ship's fabric temperature the acidity, other chemical characteristics of the water at the siteThe above - the stratification and the damages caused by marine creatures - is better described as "stratification and contamination" of shipwrecks.
The stratification not only creates another challenge for marine archaeology, but a challenge to determine its primary state, i.e. the state that it was in when it sank. Stratification includes several different types of sand and silt, as well as tumulus and encrustations; these "sediments" are linked to the type of currents and the type of water, which implies any chemical reactions that would affect potential cargo. Besides this geological phenomenon, wrecks face the damage of marine creatures that create a home out of them octopuses and crustaceans; these creatures affect the primary state because they move, or break, any parts of the shipwreck that are in their way, thereby affecting the original condition of amphorae, for example, or any other hollow places. In addition to the slight or severe destruction marine animals can create, there are "external" contaminants, such as the artifacts on and around the wreck at Pickles Reef and the over-lapping wrecks at the Molasses Reef Wreck, or contemporary pollution in bodies of water, that affect shipwrecks by changing the chemical structures, or further damaging what is left of a specific ship.
Despite these challenges, if the information retrieved does not appear to be sufficient, or a poor preservation is achieved, authors like J. A. Parker claim that it is the historical value of the shipwreck that counts as well as any slight piece of information or evidence, acquired. Exposed wooden components decay quickly; the only wooden parts of ships that remain after a century are those that were buried in silt or sand soon after the sinking. An example of this is Mary Rose. Steel and iron, depending on their thickness, may retain the ship's structure for decades; as corrosion takes place, sometimes helped by tides and weather, the structure collapses. Thick ferrous objects such as cannons, steam boilers or the pressure vessel of a submarine survive well underwater in spite of corrosion. Propellers, condensers and port holes were made from non-ferrous metals such as brass and phosphor bronze, which do not corrode easily. Shipwrecks in some freshwater lakes, such as the Great Lakes of North America, have remained intact with little degradation.
In some sea areas, most notably in Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland, salinity is low, centuries-old wrecks have been preserved in reasonable condition. However, bacteria found in fresh water cause the wood on ships to rot more than in seawater unless it is deprived of oxygen. Two shipwrecks, USS Hamilton and USS Scourge, have been at the bottom of Lake Ontario since they sunk during a violent storm on August 8, 1813, during the War of 1812, they are
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright reddish yellow, soft and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a group 11 element, it is solid under standard conditions. Gold occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, in alluvial deposits, it occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less it occurs in minerals as gold compounds with tellurium. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test. Gold dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. A rare element, gold is a precious metal, used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was implemented as a monetary policy, but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2015; the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, 10% in industry. Gold's high malleability, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine; as of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes per year.
Gold is the most malleable of all metals. It can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, stretched about twice before it breaks; such nanowires distort via formation and migration of dislocations and crystal twins without noticeable hardening. A single gram of gold can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent; the transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold reflects yellow and red. Such semi-transparent sheets strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, in sun-visors for spacesuits. Gold is a good conductor of electricity. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3 identical to that of tungsten at 19.25 g/cm3. By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3, that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588±0.015 g/cm3. Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is reddish-yellow; this color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range for most metals but in the visible range for gold due to relativistic effects affecting the orbitals around gold atoms.
Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium. Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Fourteen-karat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, both may be used to produce police and other badges. White gold alloys can be made with nickel. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron, purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium. Less addition of manganese, aluminium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications. Colloidal gold, used by electron-microscopists, is red. Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, its only occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205.
The most stable of these is 195Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. The least stable is 171Au. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, β+ decay; the exceptions are 195Au, which decays by electron capture, 196Au, which decays most by electron capture with a minor β− decay path. All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β− decay. At least 32 nuclear isomers have been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 188Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198m2Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177m2Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184m1Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric