National Irrigation Congress
The National Irrigation Congress was held periodically in the Western United States beginning in 1891 and ending in 1916, by which time the organization had changed its name to International Irrigation Congress. It was a "powerful pressure group." 1891 The first congress was organized in Salt Lake City, Utah, by William Ellsworth Smythe, the editor of the publication Irrigation Age, Elwood Mead, a Wyoming irrigation engineer, Senator Francis E. Warren of Wyoming; as a result, irrigation became a substantial national issue. The congress passed a resolution urging that public lands controlled by the federal government be turned over to the states and territories "needful of irrigation." Between 450 and 600 delegates attended.1893 The panic of 1893 undermined financial backing for the congress. Irish of San Francisco and the presence of a number of foreign representatives who had responded to an appeal by the State Department to attend the meeting, they came from France, Mexico and New South Wales.
The body appointed commissioners in every state and territory to survey arid lands and submit the results to the U. S. Congress. C. W. Allingham of Los Angeles introduced his "heliomotor," a sun-powered engine that he said could be used to pump irrigation water; the Los Angeles Times reported: "He said it might be stated that the idea was a cranky one, but it must be remembered that it was the cranks that made things move."1894 The congress in Omaha, was highlighted by adoption of a plan to settle 250 families in a planned community called New Plymouth in Idaho. "Farmers were... restricted to living no more than two miles away from their crops, the sale of alcohol was banned... to keep the farmers sober and well-mannered at all times."John Wesley Powell, director of the United States Geological Survey, "talked of the storm-water storage plan. He thought. In Utah and California, where it had been tried, it had been successful."1895 A congress held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 1895 adopted a resolution that stated in part: We declare that it should be the policy of Congress to frame laws which will enable the people to obtain possession of the arid public lands upon terms which bear a fair relation to the cost of reclamation, that this cost should be regulated by public authority....
We earnestly ask for the creation of a National Irrigation Commission... to be composed of men familiar with the condition of the arid region and including a representative of skilled engineers. We would have this commission empowered to use the facilities of the Department of the Interior or Agriculture and of War. 1896 At the fifth congress in Phoenix, Arizona, A. G. Wolfenbarger of Nebraska described the West as "a country destined to become at some future time the Garden of the Gods, the home of intelligence, riches, everything that can measure the power and greatness of a great nation... millions of people are waiting to be led out into these great plains waiting to welcome them to a home that will make them independent."1897 The congress of 1897 in Lincoln, which attracted representatives from thirteen states, was opened with an address by E. R. Moses, chairman of the national executive committee, who said: We irrigationists are satisfied that Congress will have to adopt our plan of preventing the overflow of large streams by the storage of waters near the heads in such a manner as to feed the stream at times of low water, at other times to be used in irrigation and manufacturing industries... and large tracts of arid land can be reclaimed by these waters and opened for settlement.
Defeated Democratic candidate for the U. S. Presidency William Jennings Bryan told the delegates he was opposed "to turning over large bodies of land to corporations controlling water rights, unless safeguards were thrown around the transaction to protect small holders of irrigable land."1898 The 1898 congress in Cheyenne, called for the federal government to allocate "no less than $100,000 for hydrographic surveys for the measurement of streams and the survey of reservoir sites" and urged the formation of a forestry bureau. But a Colorado legislator likened the America West "to a graveyard, littered with defunct irrigation corporations."1899 A battle developed at the 1899 Wichita, meeting of another Western body — the Trans-Mississippi Congress — over the stand by the National Irrigation Congress favoring federal "storage reservoirs" and the "leasing of the public grazing lands by the states without cession and those who advocated the public lands to the States and Territories." After much debate, the Trans-Mississippi group endorsed the policy of the Irrigation Congress.
1900 The 1900 meeting of the Irrigation Congress in Chicago, featured a paper read by Captain Hiram M. Chittenden of the Army Corps of Engineers contending that the best way to get the U. S. Congress to act on irrigation was to "divorce the storage reservoir problem from that of irrigation in general, that the former is properly within the field of the General Government, is in a fair way to secure favorable action by Congress, provided that it is well understood that no attempt will be made to involve the Government in irrigation work." 1903 The eleventh congress was held in Ogden, Utah, in September 1903, with Senator William A. Clark of Montana as chairman; the agenda included "Practical forestry lessons.
Willard Saulsbury Jr.
Willard Saulsbury Jr. was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a member of the Democratic Party who served as U. S. Senator from Delaware and President Pro Tempore of the U. S. Senate. Saulsbury was born in Georgetown, son of Willard Saulsbury, Sr. and nephew of Gove Saulsbury and Eli M. Saulsbury, he married the granddaughter of Charles I. du Pont. He attended private schools and the University of Virginia at Charlottesville, where he was a member of St. Anthony Hall. Subsequently, he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1882, commenced practice in Wilmington, Delaware, he was chairman of the board of censors. Saulsbury was a member of the Democratic National Committee from 1908 until 1920, he ran for U. S. Senator in 1899, 1901, 1903, 1905, 1907, 1911, but Republicans controlled the state legislature and he was unsuccessful. Democrats were in control of the legislature in 1913, the last time U. S. Senators were chosen by state legislators. Saulsbury was the preference of most Democrats and obtained the required majority after several days of balloting.
During this term, he served with the Democratic majority in the 63rd, 64th, 65th Congresses from March 4, 1913, until March 3, 1919. He was the President Pro Tempore of the Senate during the 65th Congresses. In the 63rd, 64th, 65th Congresses he was Chairman of the Committee on Coast and Insular Survey, in the 65th Congress he was a member of the Committee on Pacific Islands and Puerto Rico. In 1918, he lost to Republican L. Heisler Ball, a former U. S. Senator. After leaving the Senate, he was a member of the advisory committee of the Conference on Limitation of Armaments in Washington, D. C. in 1921 and 1922, a member of the Pan American Conference in Santiago, Chile, in 1923. He continued the practice of law in Wilmington and Washington, D. C. until his death. Saulsbury is buried in the Christ Episcopal Church Cemetery at Dover. Franseth, Gregory S. "The End of an Era in Delaware: The Practical Politics of Willard Saulsbury Jr". University Delaware Library Associates. XI. Munroe, John A.. History of Delaware.
Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware Press. ISBN 0-87413-493-5. Biographical Directory of the United States Delaware’s Members of Congress Willard Saulsbury Jr. at Find a Grave The Political Graveyard
1940 United States Senate elections
The United States Senate elections of 1940 coincided with the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt to his third term as President. Although Roosevelt was re-elected, support for his administration had dropped somewhat after eight years, the Republican opposition gained three seats from the Democrats. However, the New Deal Democrats regained firm control of both the House and Senate because Progressives dominated the election; the Minnesota Farmer–Labor Party disappeared from the Senate, as Henrik Shipstead joined the Republican party and Ernest Lundeen had died during the preceding term. Senator Harry S. Truman of Missouri was elected to his final term in the Senate in 1940. Truman resigned in 1945 to serve as President Roosevelt's third Vice President. Republicans had a net gain of three seats in the general election, plus one more in a November special election. Three came from wins over Democrats: Indiana: First-term Democrat Sherman Minton narrowly lost to Republican Raymond E. Willis. Nebraska: First-term Democrat Edward R. Burke lost renomination to R. L. Cochran, who lost the general election to Republican Hugh Butler.
Ohio: First-term Democrat A. Victor Donahey retired and was replaced by Republican Harold H. Burton. Republicans picked up a seat from Farmer–Labor when an incumbent changed party: Minnesota: Three-term Farmer–Labor Henrik Shipstead was re-elected, but changed party to Republican. Democrats did win one seat from a Republican: Delaware: Two-term Republican John G. Townsend, Jr. lost to Democrat James M. Tunnell. In a special election, Republicans gained an additional seat from the Democrats: Illinois: Democratic interim appointee James M. Slattery lost to Republican C. Wayland Brooks. In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1940 or before January 3, 1941. In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1941. All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats. In these elections, the winners were elected in 1941 after January 3; the whole ticket nominated by Democrats and American Laborites was elected. United States elections, 1940 United States presidential election, 1940 United States House of Representatives elections, 1940 76th United States Congress 77th United States Congress
Rhodes College is a private liberal arts college in Memphis, Tennessee. Accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Rhodes enrolls 2,000 students; the campus sits on a wooded site in the heart of historic Midtown Memphis. Due to the campus' natural beauty and distinctive Collegiate Gothic architecture, The Princeton Review named Rhodes the #1 Most Beautiful College Campus in America in its 2017 edition of The Best 381 Colleges. Rhodes has been named America's #1 Service-Oriented College by Newsweek, has been recognized by The Princeton Review, U. S. News, Fiske Guide to Colleges and Forbes. Rhodes is included in Colleges That Change Lives and The Princeton Review's Colleges That Create Futures: 50 Schools That Launch Careers By Going Beyond the Classroom. In the 2017 edition of The Princeton Review's Colleges That Pay You Back, Rhodes ranked #16 for Best Schools for Internships. Rhodes College was founded in 1848 in Clarksville, Tennessee as the Masonic University of Tennessee and was renamed Stewart College in 1850 in honor of its president, William M. Stewart.
Under Stewart's leadership in 1855, control of the college passed to the Presbyterian Church. The college's early growth paused during the American Civil War, during which its buildings served as a headquarters for the Union Army throughout the federal occupation of Clarksville; the war was costly for the young institution, as the campus suffered extensive damage and looting. The sad condition of campus and the slow recovery of the Southern economy made getting the college back on its feet a slow and difficult process. However, renewed support from the Presbyterian Church gave the college new life, leading Stewart College to be renamed Southwestern Presbyterian University in 1879. In 1885, the college added an undergraduate School of Theology under the leadership of Dr. Joseph R. Wilson, father of President Woodrow Wilson, which operated until 1917. However, by the early 20th century, the college had still not recovered from the Civil War and faced dwindling financial support and inconsistent enrollment.
Hoping to reverse the institution's fortunes, the board of directors hired Charles E. Diehl, the pastor of Clarksville's First Presbyterian Church, to take over as president. In order to revive the college, Diehl implemented a number of reforms: the admission of women in 1917, an honor code for students in 1918, the recruitment of Oxford-trained scholars to lead the implementation of an Oxford-Cambridge style of education. Diehl's application of an Oxbridge-style tutorial system, in which students study subjects in individual sessions with their professors, allowed the college to join Harvard as the only two colleges in the United States employing such a system. During Diehl's tenure as president, he would add more than a dozen Oxford-educated scholars to the faculty, their style of teaching would form the foundation of the modern Rhodes curriculum. However, President Diehl's most significant change to the college came in 1925, when he orchestrated the movement of Rhodes' campus from Clarksville to its present location in Memphis, Tennessee.
The move provided an increase in financial contributions and student enrollment, despite the Great Depression and World War II, the college began to grow. In 1945, the college adopted the name Southwestern at Memphis in order to distinguish itself from other colleges and universities containing the name "Southwestern."Charles Diehl retired in 1948, the Board of Trustees unanimously chose physics professor Dr. Payton N. Rhodes as his successor. During Rhodes' sixteen-year presidency the college admitted its first black students. In 1984, the Board of Trustees decided the name "Southwestern" needed to be retired, the college's name was changed to Rhodes College to honor the man who had served the institution for more than fifty years. Since 1984, Rhodes has grown into a nationally ranked liberal sciences college. Under the leadership of Dr. James Daughdrill and Dr. William E. Troutt, the college's physical expansion continued, Rhodes now offers more than 50 majors, interdisciplinary majors and academic programs.
Additionally, the school has built partnerships with numerous Memphis institutions to provide students with a network of research and internships opportunities. Today, Rhodes has the largest, most academically talented, diverse student body in its history. In July 2017, Dr. Marjorie Hass began her tenure as the 20th president of Rhodes College and is the college's first female president; the academic environment at Rhodes centers around small classes, faculty mentorship, an emphasis on student research and writing. The average class size is 14, the college has a 10:1 student-to-faculty ratio. In 2017, The Princeton Review ranked Rhodes #9 for Most Accessible Professors. Rhodes is featured perennially on the US News and Forbes lists of the Top 50 Liberal Arts Universities and has been hailed by Forbes as one of the Top 20 Colleges in the South. Through 18 academic departments and 13 interdisciplinary programs, Rhodes offers more than 50 majors, interdisciplinary majors and academic programs. If students are unable to find a major that meets their specific interests, the college may allow them to design their own major, better tailored to their goals.
Although the college is focused on undergraduate education, Rhodes offers graduate degrees
Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt
The presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt began on March 4, 1933, when he was inaugurated as the 32nd President of the United States, ended upon his death on April 12, 1945, a span of 12 years, 39 days. Roosevelt assumed the presidency in the midst of the Great Depression. Starting with his landslide victory over Republican President Herbert Hoover in the 1932 election, he would go on to win a record four presidential terms, became a central figure in world affairs during World War II, his program for relief and reform, known as the New Deal, involved a great expansion of the role of the federal government in the economy. Under his steady leadership, the Democratic Party built a "New Deal Coalition" of labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, African Americans, rural white Southerners, that would realign American politics for the next several decades in the Fifth Party System and define modern American liberalism. During his first hundred days in office, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented major legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform.
After his party's success in the 1934 mid-term elections, Roosevelt passed another package of domestic legislation that created Social Security, a national unemployment insurance program, the National Labor Relations Board. After winning re-election, Roosevelt sought to enlarge the Supreme Court, but his proposal was defeated in Congress. Roosevelt experienced less success in passing domestic legislation in his second term, as the bipartisan Conservative Coalition blocked most of his legislative proposals, aside from the Fair Labor Standards Act; when the war began and unemployment became a non-issue, Congress repealed the major relief programs, but many other New Deal programs and agencies remained intact. The international situation declined in the 1930s as Japan and Nazi Germany all made aggressive moves towards other countries. Though many in the United States were isolationist, Roosevelt gave diplomatic and financial support to China, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union via initiatives such as the Lend-Lease program.
The United States entered the war after Japan attacked the U. S. naval base at Pearl Harbor. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins, with strong national support, Roosevelt worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allies during World War II. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, the war saw the end of the massive unemployment that characterized the Great Depression. Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and the development of the world's first nuclear bomb. Roosevelt's health declined during the war years, he died in April 1945. Though he died months before the end of the war, his work on the post-war order shaped the new United Nations and the Bretton Woods international financial system. Roosevelt was succeeded by Vice President Harry S. Truman, who presided over the end of the war in September 1945.
It was on Roosevelt's watch that the Democratic Party was returned to dominance, prosperity returned, two great military enemies were destroyed. Scholars and the public rank Roosevelt alongside Abraham Lincoln and George Washington as one of the three greatest U. S. presidents. With the economy ailing after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, many Democrats hoped that the party would win its first presidential election since Woodrow Wilson's victory in 1916. Roosevelt's 1930 gubernatorial re-election victory in New York established him as the front-runner for the 1932 Democratic presidential nomination. With the help of allies such as Louis Howe, James Farley, Edward M. House, Roosevelt rallied the progressive supporters of Wilson while appealing to many conservatives, establishing himself as the leading candidate in the South and West. Roosevelt entered the convention with a delegate lead due to his success in the 1932 Democratic primaries, but most delegates entered the convention unbound to any particular candidate.
The chief opposition to Roosevelt's candidacy came from Northeastern conservatives such as Al Smith, the 1928 Democratic presidential nominee. Smith hoped to deny Roosevelt the two-thirds support necessary to win the party's presidential nomination at the 1932 Democratic National Convention, emerge as the nominee after multiple rounds of balloting. On the first presidential ballot of the convention, Roosevelt received the votes of more than half but less than two-thirds of the delegates, with Smith finishing in a distant second place. Speaker of the House John Nance Garner, who controlled the votes of Texas and California, threw his support behind Roosevelt after the third ballot, Roosevelt clinched the nomination on the fourth ballot. With little input from Roosevelt, Garner won the party's vice presidential nomination. Roosevelt flew in from New York after learning that he had won the nomination, becoming the first major party presidential nominee to accept the nomination in person. In the general election, Roosevelt faced incumbent Republican President Herbert Hoover.
Engaging in a cross-country campaign, Roosevelt promised to increase the federal government's role in the economy and to lower the tariff as part of a "New Deal." Hoover argued that the economic collapse had chiefly been the product of international disturbances, he accused Roosevelt of promoting class conflict with his novel economic policies. Un
20th Century Press Archives
The 20th Century Press Archives comprises about 19 million of newspaper clippings, organized in folders about persons, wares and topics. It originates from the Hamburg Kolonialinstitut founded in 1908. Within the Hamburg Institute of International Economics it turned into a unique public press archives. In 2007 it was absorbed by the German National Library of Economics and merged with the Wirtschaftsarchiv of the Kiel Institute for the World Economy, founded in 1914. Article collection was discontinued by end of 2005. After a few years, the "Zentralstelle" of the Kolonialinstitut was transformed from a free information center for colonial issues into a comprehensive archive of global political and economic topics, which supported Hamburg's merchants. After the breakdown of the German colonial empire in World War I, the renaming to "Hamburgisches Welt-Wirtschafts-Archiv" in 1919 sealed this reorientation; the staff of HWWA reflected its importance and grew from 54 in 1919 to 183 permanent or temporary employees in 1958 - a state that seems to have remained stable until the late 1990s.
Founded shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, the Kiel Economic Archive and its library were linked to the scientific work of the IfW, which focused on global economic contexts and their practical use. In 1966, the library of the IfW was given the function of a central library for economics by the German Research Foundation in the Federal Republic of Germany, in 1993, the department was renamed accordingly. During the First and the Second World War both archives were intensively involved in the foreign and wartime planning of the empire and the Nazi state. Starting in 1936, "Confidential Reports from the Foreign Press" provided selected economic leaders and Nazi departments with "largely unfiltered information and comments on economic issues from foreign media and represented a unique feature in Nazi media policy". By acting with the informal means of a foreign cultural and information policy supplementing the military expansion policy, HWWA and IfW dedicated their services to the Nazi regime.
In 1996, a closer cooperation between HWWA and ZBW / Wirtschaftsarchiv began with the aim of merging the two archives. Since the beginning of 2001, the articles were indexed according to a new common classification system and made retrievable via a reference database, "EconPress". Following a recommendation from the evaluation within the Leibniz Association in 2003, the current press documentation was finished at the end of 2005 and the materials were frozen at the level reached; the existence of the HWWA ended in 2007 with the integration of its press documentation and library into the ZBW as a newly formed foundation under public law. Today, the press archive belongs to the infrastructures of the Leibniz Association. By 1919 at the latest, the Hamburg archive collected "press clippings on a global scale"; the archive was subdivided in four sections: The Sacharchiv with subject matter "from all countries and the whole world". For the individual countries and regions, which constituted the primary order criterion, up to 1200 individual topics were recorded.
Further special folders were created for individual events or questions "such as the Boer War, the issue of slavery or the Suez Canal". Since the late 1990s, collecting had focused on "domestic and international economic issues"; the Warenarchiv with national and international raw materials, semi-finished and finished products. The product names are subdivided into 980 upper and 3400 sub-terms. Here and regions represent the secondary order criterion; the Firmenarchiv with business reports, anniversary publications and press clippings of c. 36,000 domestic and foreign companies. In addition, material on several hundred institutions and international organizations and research institutes has been collected; the Personenarchiv with dossiers of about 16,000 people from business, science and society. More than 1400 sources have been evaluated for the press archives, their broad international distribution provides access to the history of political thought and receptive history of the covered topics.
The collected publications go back as far as 1826. While the persons archive was only available in paper form until its partial digitization, the holdings of the topics and companies archives have been saved every ten years on roll film or microfiche since the 1960s and the paper clippings were pulped; the holdings of the Kiel Wirtschaftsarchiv are less comprehensively documented. They are subdivided into a topics archive, which served the research and teaching of the IfW and, microfilmed up to 1945, a personal archive, only in paper form, which contains publications of these persons, a home archive with publications about the IfW itself in paper; the archive on corporate bodies, which in 1958 comprised 4800 companies and more than 5600 German and international scientific and cultural societies and institutions, political parties and trade associations. And represented "one of the most complete collections for twentieth-century business history" is not mentioned any more in the archive's profile.
The "war archive" of 1914-1918, which comprehended one million clippings, was destroyed by a bomb strike in 1942. For 1958, when six scientific experts and more than 30 employees in total were collecting and organizing the material, the total extent of the archive was estimated a
United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. It is charged with debate in the Senate; the Foreign Relations Committee is responsible for overseeing and funding foreign aid programs as well as funding arms sales and training for national allies. The committee is responsible for holding confirmation hearings for high-level positions in the Department of State; the committee has considered and reported important treaties and legislation, ranging from the Alaska purchase in 1867 to the establishment of the United Nations in 1945. It holds jurisdiction over all diplomatic nominations. Along with the Finance and Judiciary Committees, the Foreign Relations Committee is one of the oldest in the Senate, going back to the initial creation of committees in 1816, its sister committee in the House of Representatives is the Committee on Foreign Affairs. Between 1887–1907, Alabama Democrat John Tyler Morgan played a leading role on the Committee.
Morgan called for a canal linking the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through Nicaragua, enlarging the merchant marine and the Navy, acquiring Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Cuba. He expected Latin American and Asian markets would become a new export market for Alabama's cotton, coal and timber; the canal would make trade with the Pacific much more feasible, an enlarged military would protect that new trade. By 1905, most of his dreams had become reality, with the canal passing through Panama instead of Nicaragua. During World War II, the committee took the lead in rejecting traditional isolationism and designing a new internationalist foreign policy based on the assumption that the United Nations would be a much more effective force than the old discredited League of Nations. Of special concern was the insistence that Congress play a central role in postwar foreign policy, as opposed to its ignorance of the main decisions made during the war. Republican Senator Arthur Vandenberg played the central role.
In 1943, a confidential analysis of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee was made by British scholar Isaiah Berlin for the Foreign Office. In 1966, as tensions over the Vietnam War escalated, the Committee set up hearings on possible relations with Communist China. Witnesses academic specialists on East Asia, suggested to the American public that it was time to adopt a new policy of containment without isolation; the hearings Indicated that American public opinion toward China had moved away from hostility and toward cooperation. The hearings had a long-term impact when Richard Nixon became president, discarded containment, began a policy of détente with China; the problem remained of how to deal with the Chinese government on Taiwan after formal recognition was accorded to the Beijing government. The Committee drafted the Taiwan Relations Act which enabled the United States both to maintain friendly relations with Taiwan and to develop fresh relations with China. In response to conservative criticism that the state department lacked hardliners, President Ronald Reagan in 1981 nominated Ernest W. Lefever as Assistant Secretary of State.
Lefever performed poorly at his confirmation hearings and the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations rejected his nomination by vote of 4-13, prompting Lefever to withdraw his name. Elliot Abrams filled the position. Republican Senator Jesse Helms, a staunch conservative, was Committee chairman in the late 1990s, he pushed for reform of the UN by blocking payment of U. S. membership dues. Sources: 2015 Congressional Record, Vol. 161, Page S297 –297, 661–662 Sources: 2013 Congressional Record, Vol. 159, Page S297 –297, 661–662 List of current United States Senate committees Carter, Ralph G. and James Scott, eds. Choosing to Lead: Understanding Congressional Foreign Policy Entrepreneurs Crabb, Cecil Van Meter, Pat M. Holt. Invitation to struggle: Congress, the president, foreign policy Dahl, Robert A. Congress and Foreign Policy Farnsworth, David Nelson; the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, a topical survey of the Committee's activity from 1947 to 1956. Frye, Alton. "'Gobble'uns' and foreign policy: a review," Journal of Conflict Resolution 8#3 pp: 314-321.
Historiographical review of major books Gagnon, Frédérick. "Dynamic Men: Vandenberg, Fulbright and the Activity of the Chairman of the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee Since 1945." Online Gazell, James A. "Arthur H. Vandenberg and the United Nations." Political Science Quarterly: 375-394. In JSTOR Gould, Lewis; the Most Exclusive Club: A History of the Modern United States Senate Hewes, James E. Jr. "Henry Cabot Lodge and the League of Nations". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 114#4 pp: 245–255. Hitchens, Harold L. "Influences of the Congressional Decision to Pass the Marshall Plan" Western Political Science Quarterly 21#1 pp: 51-68. In JSTOR Jewell, Malcolm E. Senatorial Politics and Foreign Policy Kaplan, Lawrence S; the Conversion of Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg: From Isolation to International Engagement Link, William A. Righteous Warrior: Jesse Helms and the Rise of Modern Conservatism McCormick, James M. "Decision making in the foreign affairs and foreign relations committees."
In Randall B. Ripley and James M. Lindsay, eds.. Congress resurgent: foreign and defense policy on Capitol Hill pp: 115-153 Maguire, Lori. "The US Congress and the politics of Afghanistan: an analysis