Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Allan Fotheringham is a Canadian newspaper and magazine journalist. He is known by the nickname Dr. Foth and styles himself as, "Always controversial... never at a loss for words" and as "the Great Gatheringfroth". Fotheringham was born in Saskatchewan, he attended Chilliwack Secondary School. Upon graduation he studied English and political science at the University of British Columbia and worked at a variety of media outlets during his career, he was best known as a columnist at the Ubyssey, a student newspaper. He was hired straight out of university by the Vancouver Sun during the heady times of the late 1960s, the final days of the old Bennett Socreds provincially and the advent of Pierre Trudeau federally. Fotheringham's columns and commentaries brought him national attention as well as wider syndication and a broader subject base, he was one of the leading specialists in explaining the world of British Columbia politics during his time at the Sun. He wrote for Maclean's, where his column appeared on the back page of the magazine for 27 years.
Fotheringham's column was so read and so influential that he is said to have made Maclean's "the magazine people read from back to front." Some of his more memorable political nicknames include "the brogue that walks and talks like a man" and its offspring, "the jaw that walks and talks like a man". He is credited with coining the terms Natural Governing Party for the federal Liberals, the Holy Mother Corporation for the CBC in the course of writing his column, his columns opened with the exclamation "Zowie, Dr. Foth!" Fotheringham wrote columns for the Toronto Sun from 1986 to 2000. In 2001, Maclean's underwent an editorial revamp, Fotheringham's column was moved to an inside page to make room for a guest column. Soon afterward, Fotheringham left Maclean's, became a columnist for The Globe and Mail, he had a national syndicated column, in 20 newspapers, but he retired from regular contributions in 2007 due to illness. Fotheringham still writes for the Globe and for the National Post and a Calgary magazine called The Roughneck.
He has written material for Fifty Plus magazine, Readers Digest and Nuvo magazines. For 10 years, Fotheringham was a regular panelist in the latter years of the CBC Television program Front Page Challenge, replacing the deceased Gordon Sinclair. Fotheringham has honorary degrees from the University of New Brunswick and the University of Saskatchewan. Affectionately known as "Foth" as well as "Dr. Foth", he dubbed himself "the Great Gatheringfroth" and coined some well-known terms in BC political history: Lotusland—British Columbia Victoria the Granite Curtain—the Rocky Mountains the Tweed Curtain—the Oak Bay, British Columbia-Victoria border, referring to the former's conservative British character "the Brogue that walks and talks like a man"—journalist and broadcaster Jack Webster) (who had many nicknames, not all of them Foth's. Foth adapted this phrase to "the Jaw that walks and talks like a man" for Brian Mulroney the Natural Governing Party—the federal Liberals the Holy Mother Corporation—the CBC Jurassic Clark—former prime minister Joe Clark Coma City—Ottawa Web-footed Conservatives- the British Columbia Social Credit Party Narcissus on the edge of the rainforest - Vancouver Vancouver, the Narcissus of the West Coast —.
Collected and Bound. Vancouver: November House. ISBN 0-88894008-4. OCLC 725832. Roy Peterson; the World According to Roy Peterson, with the Gospel According to Allan Fotheringham. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 0-88894254-0. OCLC 6438082. —. Malice in, How the Grits stole Christmas. Toronto: Key Porter. ISBN 0-91949301-7. OCLC 9482409. —. Look Ma — no hands: an affectionate look at our wonderful Tories. Toronto: Key Porter. ISBN 0-91949318-1. OCLC 10653091. —. Capitol offences: Dr. Foth meets Uncle Sam. Toronto: Key Porter. ISBN 1-55013004-8. OCLC 16027895. —. Birds of a Feather: The Press and the Politicians. Toronto: Key Porter. ISBN 1-55013166-4. OCLC 19847892. —. Last Page First. Illustrated by Roy Peterson. Toronto: Key Porter. ISBN 1-55013995-9. OCLC 39386118. —. Fotheringham's Fictionary of Follies. Toronto: Key Porter. ISBN 1-55263357-8. OCLC 47238252. —. Boy From Nowhere - A Life in Ninety-One Countries. Toronto: Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-45970168-7. OCLC 760073216. "In the Maritimes, politics is a disease, in Quebec a religion, in Ontario a business, on the Prairies a protest and in British Columbia - entertainment."
— Malice in Blunderland "The Tories are like cream: rich and full of clots." — Fotheringham quoting a Liberal Convention Delegate in LOOK MA... NO HANDS Southam Fellowship in Journalism, 1964 National Magazine Award for Humor, 1980 National Newspaper Award for Column-writing, 1980 Inducted into the Canadian News Hall of Fame, 1999 Bruce Hutchinson Lifetime Achievement Award, 2002 List of newspaper columnists Allan Fotheringham's Official Site Audio interview with Fotheringham on his memoir
Dennis Lee (author)
Dennis Beynon Lee OC is a Canadian poet, teacher and critic born in Toronto, Ontario. He is a children's writer, well known for his book of children's rhymes, Alligator Pie. After attending high school at the University of Toronto Schools, Lee received bachelor's and master's degrees in English from the University of Toronto, where he coauthored articles in Acta Victoriana with Margaret Atwood, he taught English at the University's Victoria College from 1963 until 1967, at which time he became'resource person' for Rochdale College. In 1967, Lee co-founded House of Anansi Press with Dave Godfrey, served as its editorial director until 1972. From 1974 to 1979 he was a consulting editor for Macmillan of Canada, he was a writer in residence at Trent University in 1975, at the University of Toronto in 1978-1979. He is married to a writer and former Canadian Broadcasting Corporation journalist. In 1967 House of Anansi published Lee's first book of poetry, Kingdom of Absence, "a sequence of 43 sonnet variations."
Lee followed that up the next year with a long meditative poem, "Civil Elegies". Lee began writing for children as part of his goal of "Reclaiming language and liberating imagination", his best known work is the rhymed Alligator Pie. Lee wrote the lyrics to the theme song of the 1980s television show Fraggle Rock and, with composer Philip Balsam, many of the other songs for that show. A number of the songs were released on the albums Fraggle Rock: Music and Magic, in 1993, Jim Henson's Muppets present Fraggle Rock, in 1984; the second album was nominated for a Grammy Award, which it won jointly with Shel Silverstein's Where the Sidewalk Ends. Balsam and Lee wrote the songs for the television special The Tale of the Bunny Picnic. Lee is co-writer of the story for the film Labyrinth."On the adult level," says The Canadian Encyclopedia, "roots and play are further explored in Part I of he Gods. Part 2, The Death of Harold Ladoo, is an elegy for Lee's friend, a writer murdered in 1973.... The poem meditates on the roles of mystical epiphanies and of artistic creation in its attempts to come to term with the problems of the contemporary world."
Lee is the co-editor of The University Game, "in which he calls for freedom from inhibiting educational institutions" a la Rochdale. Nature and civilization, or instinct and consciousness—all with particular application to a critical analysis of works by Michael Ondaatje and Leonard Cohen." Alasdair Gray adapted a line from Lee's poem Civil Elegies into'Work as if you live in the early days of a better nation' into a slogan Gray has become known by, inscribed on Scottish Parliament's Canongate Wall. In addition to his 1972 Governor General's Award, Lee twice won the CACL Bronze Medal for a children's book: in 1974 for Alligator Pie, in 1977 for Garbage Delight, he won the Vicky Metcalf Award, for body of work for children, in 1986, the Mr. Christie's Book Award in 1991. In 1993, Lee was made an Officer of the Order of Canada. In 1995 he received an honorary doctorate from Trent University, won a Toronto Arts Award for Lifetime Achievement. In 2001 Lee became Toronto's first Poet Laureate, serving in that position until 2004.
In 2009, Lee received an honorary doctorate from Victoria College in the University of Toronto. William Lyon Mackenzie King,He sat in the middle and played with string,He loved his mother like anything,William Lyon Mackenzie King. Kingdom of Absence. Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 1967. Civil Elegies. Toronto: Anansi, 1968. Civil Elegies and Other Poems. Toronto: Anansi, 1972. Not Abstract Harmonies But. Vancouver: Kanchenjunga Press, 1974; the Death of Harold Ladoo. Vancouver: Kanchenjunga Press, 1976; the Gods. Vancouver: Kanchenjunga Press, 1978; the Gods. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1979; the Difficulty of Living on Other Planets. Toronto: Macmillan, 1987. Illus. Alan Daniel. Riffs. London, Ont.: Brick Books, 1993. Nightwatch: New & Selected Poems 1968-1996. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1996. Un. Toronto: Anansi, 2003. So cool. Dennis Lee. Toronto: Key Porter, 2004; the Bard of the Universe. Kentville, NS: Gaspereau Press, 2007. YesNo. Toronto: Anansi, 2007. "Testament". Toronto: Anansi, 2012. Wiggle to the Laundromat.
Toronto: New Press, 1970. Ill. Charles Pachter. Nicholas Knock and Other People. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1974. Ill. Frank Newfeld. Alligator Pie. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1974. Ill. Frank Newfeld. Garbage Delight. Toronto: Macmillan, 1977. Ill. Frank Newfeld The Ordinary Bath. Toronto: Magook, 1979. Ill. Jon McKee. Jelly Belly. Toronto: Macmillan, 1983. Ill. Juan Wijngaard. Lizzy's Lion. Toronto: Stoddart Kids, 1984. Ill. Marie-Louise Gay; the Dennis Lee Big Book. Toronto: Gage, 1985. Ill. Barbara Klunder; the Ice Cream Store. Toronto: HarperCollins, 1991. Ill. David McPhail. Dinosaur Dinner. New York: Random House, 1997. Selected by Jack Prelutsky. Ill. Debbie Tilley. Bubblegum Delicious - 2000 The cat and the wizard. Dennis Lee. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 2001. Silverly/ Good Night, Good Night. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 2006. Ill. Nora Hilb. Skyscraper. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 2007. Ill. Nora Hilb; the Kitty Ran Up the Tree. Toronto: Key
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information. It is the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver and display the content for the same; the word "publisher" can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, blogs, video game publishers, the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, printing and distribution. Publication is important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation.
Self-publishing: The author has to meet the total expense to get the book published. The author should retain full rights known as vanity publishing. Publishing became possible with the invention of writing, became more practical upon the introduction of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books; the Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould; this invention made books less expensive to produce, more available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. "A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.
D. 330."Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Publishing has been handled by publishers, with the history of self-publishing progressing until the advent of computers brought us electronic publishing, made evermore ubiquitous from the moment the world went online with the Internet; the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing, as websites are created by anyone with Internet access. The history of wikis started shortly thereafter, followed by the history of blogging. Commercial publishing progressed, as printed forms developed into online forms of publishing, distributing online books, online newspapers, online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying on commissioned material, but as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review; the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process are dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication.
Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent; this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and n
Bolton is the most populous community in the town of Caledon, on the Humber River located in the Region of Peel 50 kilometres northwest of Toronto, in Ontario, Canada. In regional documents, it is referred to as a'Rural Service Centre.' It has 26,478 residents in 8,721 households. The downtown and area that defined the village is in a valley, through which flows the Humber; the current village extends on either side of the valley to the south. The conservation lands' forests dominate a large part of the northwest, the north, the east including along the Humber valley; these conservation lands have created several recreational areas. Farmland and the protected Oak Ridges Moraine dominate the landscape surrounding the village. There are two 400-series highways nearby, including Highway 427, about 15 km southeast, Highway 400, about 14 km east; the town known as Bolton Mills, was founded in around 1822 when James Bolton helped build a flour mill for his relative George Bolton. By 1857, Bolton was a village with a population of 700 in the Township of Albion of Peel County.
It was established on the River Humber on the line of the proposed Toronto and Bruce Railway. There were stages to and from Weston; the average price of land was $40 to $50 an acre. The suburban housing developments began near King Street, up to 15th Sideroad of Albion; the urban area did not expand until the late 1970s and early 1980s, which led to development of an industrial area in the southwest. The urban area up to Columbia Way - the northern boundary - began booming in the late 1980s. Housing developments continued towards the southern and the western parts of the town about 1 km northwest of the heart of town in the 1990s and the 15th Sideroad in about 1995 to the north; the industrial area began adding buildings to the southwest up to Simpson Road. The urban areas merged with the southern part in the northwest. Future growth is a subject of debate amongst the village's residents as well as within the upper- and lower-tier municipal governments. Freemasonry Kinsmen Club of Bolton, chartered in 1964 The 1996 Warner Bros. film Twister and the 2005 film Four Brothers were shot here.
Bolton is home to several public and Catholic schools: Public Elementary Institutions: Allan Drive Middle School Ellwood Memorial Public School James Bolton Public School Macville Public School Public Secondary Institutions: Humberview Secondary SchoolCatholic Elementary Institutions: Holy Family Elementary School St. John Paul II Elementary School St. John the Baptist Elementary School St. Nicholas Elementary SchoolCatholic Secondary Institutions: St. Michael Catholic Secondary SchoolPrivate Institutions: King's College School Creative Children's Montessori School Lorne Duguid – hockey player Keith McCreary - hockey player, former Chairman of the NHL Alumni, politician James East – politician Todd Elik – hockey player Organik – musician Steven Halko – hockey player Peter Holland – hockey player Andrew Mangiapane – hockey player Skye Sweetnam – singer Jason Saggo – UFC Fighter Albion Bolton Community Centre " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-25; the Town of Caledon official website
As a physical object, a book is a stack of rectangular pages oriented with one edge tied, sewn, or otherwise fixed together and bound to the flexible spine of a protective cover of heavier inflexible material. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex. In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet in a codex is a leaf, each side of a leaf is a page; as an intellectual object, a book is prototypically a composition of such great length that it takes a considerable investment of time to compose and a still considerable, though not so extensive, investment of time to read. This sense of book has an unrestricted sense. In the restricted sense, a book is a self-sufficient section or part of a longer composition, a usage that reflects the fact that, in antiquity, long works had to be written on several scrolls, each scroll had to be identified by the book it contained.
So, for instance, each part of Aristotle's Physics is called a book, as of course the Bible encompasses many different books. In the unrestricted sense, a book is the compositional whole of which such sections, whether called books or chapters or parts, are parts; the intellectual content in a physical book need not be a composition, nor be called a book. Books can consist only of drawings, engravings, or photographs, or such things as crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In a physical book the pages can be left blank or can feature an abstract set of lines as support for on-going entries, i.e. an account book, an appointment book, a log book, an autograph book, a notebook, a diary or day book, or a sketch book. Some physical books are made with pages thick and sturdy enough to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photograph album. Books may be distributed in electronic form as other formats. Although in ordinary academic parlance a monograph is understood to be a specialist academic work, rather than a reference work on a single scholarly subject, in library and information science monograph denotes more broadly any non-serial publication complete in one volume or a finite number of volumes, in contrast to serial publications like a magazine, journal, or newspaper.
An avid reader or collector of books or a book lover is a bibliophile or colloquially, "bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookstore. Books are sold elsewhere. Books can be borrowed from libraries. Google has estimated that as of 2010 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the use of e-books, though sales of e-books declined in the first half of 2015; the word book comes from Old English "bōc", which in turn comes from the Germanic root "*bōk-", cognate to "beech". In Slavic languages "буква" is cognate with "beech". In Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word "букварь" or "буквар" refers to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing, it is thus conjectured. The Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense meant "block of wood"; when writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, bones, were used for writing.
A tablet is a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. Clay tablets were flattened and dry pieces of clay that could be carried, impressed with a stylus, they were used as a writing medium for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age. Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered in a thick enough coating of wax to record the impressions of a stylus, they were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, reformed into a blank; the custom of binding several wax tablets together is a possible precursor of modern bound books. The etymology of the word codex suggests that it may have developed from wooden wax tablets. Scrolls can be made from papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool until it is flattened. Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egypt as early as the First Dynasty, although the first evidence is from the account books of King Nefertiti Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty.
Papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll. Tree bark such as lime and other materials were used. According to Herodotus, the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the 10th or 9th century BC; the Greek word for papyrus as writing material and book come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece. From Greek we derive the word tome, which meant a slice or piece and from there began to denote "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with the same meaning as volumen. Whether made from papyrus, parchment, or paper, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Chinese and Macedonian culture
Conrad Moffat Black, Baron Black of Crossharbour, KCSG is a Canadian-born British former newspaper publisher and convicted felon. In 2007, Black was convicted on four counts of fraud in U. S. District Court in Chicago. While two of the criminal fraud charges were dropped on appeal, a conviction for felony fraud and obstruction of justice were upheld in 2010 and he was re-sentenced to 42 months in prison and a fine of $125,000. Black controlled Hollinger International, once the world's third-largest English-language newspaper empire, which published The Daily Telegraph, Chicago Sun-Times, The Jerusalem Post, National Post, most of the leading newspapers in Australia and Canada and hundreds of community newspapers in North America, before controversy erupted over the sale of some of the company's assets. Black was born in Montreal, Quebec, to a well-to-do family from Winnipeg, Manitoba, his father, George Montegu Black, Jr. a Chartered Accountant, became the president of Canadian Breweries Limited, an international brewing conglomerate that had earlier absorbed Winnipeg Breweries.
Conrad Black's mother was the former Jean Elizabeth Riley, a daughter of Conrad Stephenson Riley, whose father founded The Great-West Life Assurance Company, a great-granddaughter of an early co-owner of The Daily Telegraph. His father was a shareholder in The Daily Telegraph. Biographer George Toombs said of Black's motivations: "He was born into a large family of athletic, handsome people, he wasn't athletic or handsome like they were, so he developed a different skill – wordplay, which he practiced a lot with his father." Black has written that his father was "cultured humorous" and that his mother was a "natural and altogether virtuous person." Of his older brother George Montegu Black III, Black has written that he was "one of the greatest natural athletes I have known", that though "generally more sociable than I was, he was never a cad or inconstant, or an ungenerous friend or less than a gentleman." The Black family maintains a family plot at Mt. Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto where Black's parents and brother are buried along with his good friend and his wife's former husband, journalist and broadcaster, George Jonas.
Black was first educated at Upper Canada College, during which time, at age eight, he invested his life savings of $60 in one share of General Motors. Six years he was expelled from UCC for selling stolen exam papers, he attended Trinity College School in Port Hope, where he lasted less than a year, being expelled for insubordinate behaviour. He did complete the year as an extramural student. Black went on to a small, now defunct, private school in Toronto called Thornton Hall, continuing on to post-secondary education at Carleton University, he attended Toronto's Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, but his studies ended after he failed his first year exams. He completed a law degree at Université Laval, in 1973 completed a Master of Arts degree in History at McGill University. Black's thesis at McGill would become the first half of his first book of Quebec premier Maurice Duplessis. Black had been granted access to Duplessis' papers, housed in Duplessis' former residence in Trois-Rivières, which included "figures from the famous Union Nationale Caisse Electorale, a copy of the Leader of the Opposition's tax returns, gossip from bishops," as well as significant letters from Cardinal Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve and Paul-Émile Léger, Governor General Field Marshal Alexander, Lord Beaverbrook and French Prime Ministers and Eminent Canadian and American finance ministers side-by-side with hand-written, ungrammatical requests for jobs with the Quebec Liquor Board, unpaid bills, the returns of his ministers who were cheating on their taxes, a number of scribbled notes for Assembly speeches, tidbits of political espionage, compromising photographs, a ledger listing the political contributions of every tavern-keeper in the province.
Black subsequently had the principal items from the papers copied and microfilmed, he donated copies to McGill and Windsor universities. Black's first marriage was in 1978 to Joanna Hishon of Montreal, who worked as a secretary in his and his brother Montegu's brokerage office; the couple had a daughter. They separated in 1991, their divorce was finalized in 1992. Black described Amiel, in the first volume of his autobiography as "beautiful, ideologically a robust spirit" and "chic and preternaturally sexy". Courtroom evidence revealed. In a February 2011, public Valentine's Day greeting, Black wrote: I have been persecuted and Barbara was under no obligation to share in the life-enhancing and undoubtedly character-building experience of sharing that fate with me completely, but she has, no one can know, it is beyond my power adequately to express here, what her constancy has meant to me. For more than four years before I was sent to prison, she toiled with me against the heavy odds generated by the legal and media onslaught.
She endured an avalanche of abuse directed at her as extravagant, apt to bolt and what Kafka called "nameless crimes". For the next 29 months, she led a lonely life in Florida, in a climate that aggravated her medical problems, and once or twice every week, she got up at 3 a.m. to drive over four hours to see me. "My family", Black wrote in 2009, "was divided between atheism and agnosticism, I followed rather unthinkingly and inactively in those path