Monroe County, Florida
Monroe County is a county in the state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 73,090, its county seat is Key West. Monroe County includes the islands of the Florida Keys and comprises the Key West Micropolitan Statistical Area. Although 87% of the county's land area is on the mainland, that region is part of the Everglades and is uninhabited with only 60 people in total. Over 99% of the county's population lives on the Florida Keys. Monroe County was created in 1823, it was named for James Monroe, the fifth President of the United States, who served from 1817 to 1825. The Monroe County Public Library was South Florida’s first public library. By September 1892, the new library was established; the original Key West library had 1,200 volumes, it was funded by the dues and fees of its members. The Key West Library Association rescinded its charge of the library in 1896, the library was run by various civic groups for the next nineteen years. In 1915, the Key West Women’s Association took charge of the library.
This club ran the library for 44 years. Through fundraising activities, this group was able save enough money to build a new library that opened in November 1959; the new library was the official Monroe County Public Library, it serves as the Key West branch of the Monroe County Public Library. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,738 square miles, of which 983 square miles is land and 2,754 square miles is water, it is the largest county in Florida by total area. More than 99 percent of the Monroe County population lives in the island chain known as the Florida Keys. Two thirds of the large area in what local residents call "mainland Monroe" is uninhabited by virtue of being part of the Everglades National Park, the remainder by the Big Cypress National Preserve in the northeastern interior; the area named Cape Sable Census County Division, is uninhabited. As of the Census of 2000, this area had 86.9 percent of the county's land area, but only 0.075 percent of its population.
The Census Bureau defines this area as Census Tract 9701 of Florida. With a population density of only 0.0267/km², if it were a separate county or county-equivalent, only the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area of central Alaska would have a lower population density out of all U. S. counties. The only three populated places appearing on detailed maps and in the USGS geographic name database are Flamingo and Trail City. Flamingo, on the south coast and at the end of State Road 9336, is the location of the Flamingo Lodge and the Flamingo Ranger Station. 11 km northeast on the highway is the West Lake Trail. Pinecrest, located in the northern interior of the county on Loop Road, hosts the Loop Road Education Center. Trail City is 6 km west of Pinecrest on Loop Road. Loop Road can be found on most maps as CR 94, although the roadway no longer has a numbered designation and is now managed by the National Park Service. Between the south coast of Florida's mainland and the Florida Keys is Florida Bay, encompassed by the Everglades National Park and contains numerous islets or keys.
Collier County – north Miami-Dade County – east and north As of the census of 2000, there were 79,589 people, 35,086 households, 20,384 families residing in the county. The population density was 80 people per square mile. There were 51,617 housing units at an average density of 52 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.65% White, 4.77% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.55% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. 15.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2005 Monroe County had a population, 75.1% non-Hispanic white, 17.7% Latino, 5.4% African-American and 1.1% Asian. In 2000 there were 35,086 households out of which 20.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.80% were married couples living together, 7.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.90% were non-families. 28.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.73. In the county, the population was spread out with 17.10% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 30.90% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 113.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,283, the median income for a family was $50,734. Males had a median income of $31,266 versus $25,709 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,102. About 6.80% of families and 10.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.80% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. As of 2010, 77.57% spoke English as a first language, while 17.56% spoke Spanish, 0.96% spoke French Creole, 0.74% spoke French, 0.50% spoke Russian as their primary language. In total, 22.43% of the population spoke a main language other than English.
Key West International Airport Florida Keys Marathon Airport US 1 / SR 5 CR 905 CR 905A Monroe County is the home of conch culture. Co
The Caribbean is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, north of South America. Situated on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets and cays; these islands form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east, are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which includes the Lucayan Archipelago; the Lucayans and, less Bermuda, are sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas, are included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.
Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were British dependencies; the West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations. The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Americas; the two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean are, with the primary stress on the third syllable, with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.
This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer while North American speakers more use, but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too. According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct"; the Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English stresses the first syllable instead. The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses, its principal ones are political. The Caribbean can be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.
The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas presents the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea. To the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America. Politically, the "Caribbean" may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the bloc known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, the Republic of Suriname in South America and Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are associate members of the Caribbean Community; the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is in the Atlantic and is a full member of the Caribbean Community. Alternatively, the organisation called the Association of Caribbean States consists of every nation in the surrounding regions that lie on the Caribbean, plus El Salvador, which lies on the Pacific Ocean.
According to the ACS, the total population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have flat terrain of non-volcanic origin; these islands include Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Dominica, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe and Trinidad and Tobago. Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles vary; the Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles; the waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish and coral reef
Fat Deer Key
Fat Deer Key is an island in the middle Florida Keys. U. S. 1 crosses the key at mile markers 53.5-56, between Long Point Key and Key Vaca. It is within the cities of Marathon and Key Colony Beach, Florida, it has the only road leading to the city of Key Colony Beach, known as Sadowski Causeway
Miami the City of Miami, is the cultural and financial center of South Florida. Miami is the seat of the most populous county in Florida; the city covers an area of about 56.6 square miles, between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay on the east. The Miami metropolitan area is home to 6.1 million people and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Miami's metro area is the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States and fourth-largest urban area in the U. S. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the United States with over 300 high-rises, 80 of which stand taller than 400 feet. Miami is a major center, a leader in finance, culture, entertainment, the arts, international trade; the Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha − level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, political engagement.
In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power. Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, is home to many large national and international companies; the Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world, it accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.
Metropolitan Miami is a major tourism hub in the southeastern U. S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City. The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes; the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B. C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River. In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively ruled Florida. Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole; the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle", a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native.
The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness; the area was characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida." The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami." Miami was incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. It was derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee. Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space.
When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J, a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed. During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure; the legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman."The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines.
The war brought an increase in Miami's population. After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population; the city developed cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s
Florida Bay is the bay located between the southern end of the Florida mainland and the Florida Keys in the United States. It is a large, shallow estuary that while connected to the Gulf of Mexico, has limited exchange of water due to various shallow mudbanks covered with seagrass; the banks separate the bay into each with their own unique physical characteristics. Encompassing one-third of Everglades National Park, its area is variously stated to be 800 square miles, or 850 square miles, or 1,000 square miles. Nearly all of Florida Bay is included in Everglades National Park; the southern edge, along the Florida Keys is in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. The bay muds of portions of Florida Bay have been cored to develop insights on the paleontology of previous biota; the bay receives freshwater from two major drainage basins: Taylor Slough. The clean freshwater delivered by these sloughs is essential for maintaining water levels and preventing salinity levels from getting too high.
The bay receives less than half of the freshwater from the sloughs compared to historic, pre-drainage conditions. The bay's many basins that are broken up by banks serve as plentiful fishing grounds for snook, spotted seatrout, tarpon and permit, among others; the bay is home to many species of wading birds. Most notably, Roseate spoonbills, Reddish egrets, Great White Herons have unique subpopulations that are restricted to Florida Bay. Other bird species include Bald eagles, pelicans, cormorants and flamingos. Bay land animals include raccoons, opossums and fox squirrels. Florida Bay has undergone a series of ecological changes beginning in the late 1980s that have altered the ecosystem. Clean freshwater flowed south through the state into the Florida Bay. To support the state's agricultural water needs, namely for sugar cultivation, the water was rerouted and no longer flows into the Bay, causing numerous and severe environmental issues and loss of native wildlife; the rerouting of the flow of freshwater to the Bay coupled with periods of drought have caused massive seagrass die-offs.
The first major die-off occurred from 1987 to 1991 as thousands of hectares of turtlegrass beds were devastated by high levels of toxic dissolved sulfide. 10,000 acres died in the central and western bay, 60,000 additional acres suffered reduced productivity and biomass as a result. Following the 2015 drought, extreme temperatures and heightened salinity reduced the amount of oxygen that could remain dissolved in the water, causing periods of anoxia during nighttime and thereby damaging the health of the turtlegrass in the bay. During the summer and fall of 2015 40,000 areas of seagrass died; the 2015 drought period of low precipitation combined with high temperatures and calm winds that produced rapid evaporation caused salinity to increase in the semi-enclosed basins in north-central Florida Bay. Without the freshwater, the water has become stagnant and salty with excess nitrogen from the fertilizer; this hyper-salinity contributes to the massive seagrass die-offs and algal blooms, kills submerged aquatic vegetation.
Cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms have flourished in the bay due to a variety of environmental stressors: Agricultural fertilizer run-off increases nutrients in the delicately balanced environment and the excess increases the bacteria's rate of growth. Blue-green algae causes numerous severe health consequences for the marine ecosystem as well surrounding human populations. Blooms result in reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations, alterations in aquatic food webs, algal scum lining the shores, the production of compounds that cause distasteful drinking water and fish flesh, the production of toxins severe enough to poison aquatic as well as terrestrial organisms. Blooms have been reported throughout the continental United States, resulting cyanotoxins have been associated with human and animal illness and death in at least 43 states. Most cyanobacteria produce the neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-l-alanine, implicated as a significant environmental risk in the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
The cyanobacteria has been linked to liver cancer, chronic fatigue illness, skin rashes, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting. The 2002 algal bloom in the central portion of the Florida Bay was associated with high concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen and organic phosphorus, whereas the eastern bay regions bloom was associated with high concentration of inorganic nutrients. By the mid 1930s, the three main species of wading birds in the bay were driven to near extinction by human harvesting for food and feathers; the cyanobacteria create an oxygen-free environment teaming with toxic gases, creating an unsuitable living environment for many marine and terrestrial animal species. As a result, seasons during which algal blooms flourish cause a temporary loss in wildlife. Spotted seatrout populations in the coasted Everglades are declining; as the second most caught species of fish in the Florida
Straits of Florida
The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait is a strait located south-southeast of the North American mainland accepted to be between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, between the Florida Keys and Cuba. It is 150 km wide at the narrowest point between Key West and the Cuban shore, has been sounded to a depth of 6,000 feet; the strait carries the beginning of the Gulf Stream, from the Gulf of Mexico. Five wells were drilled in state waters south of the Florida Keys from 1947 to 1962. Gulf Oil drilled three wells in federal waters south of the Florida Keys in 1960 and 1961. All the wells were dry holes; the boundary between the Exclusive Economic Zones of the US and Cuba is halfway between Cuba and Florida, as determined by a 1977 treaty between the US and Cuba. Cuba has three producing offshore oil fields within 5 km of its north coast opposite Florida; the US Geological Survey estimates that the North Cuba Basin contains 5,500,000,000 barrels of undiscovered petroleum liquids and 9.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas all in the offshore part of the basin.
The issue of allowing oil and gas exploration offshore Florida became a hotly contested topic in the 2008 US elections. In a column published 5 June 2008, syndicated columnist George Will wrote that a Chinese oil company was drilling in Cuban waters 60 miles from the Florida coast, a claim, repeated by candidates in favor of offshore drilling. In fact, no drilling was taking place in that part of Cuban waters. In 2004 the Spanish oil company Repsol drilled in deep Cuban waters between Cuba and the Florida Keys, found an oil deposit. In October 2008, Cuba signed an agreement with the Brazilian state oil company Petrobras, which provides for Petrobras to drill for oil and gas in deep waters off the north shore of Cuba. In July 2009, Cuba signed an agreement with the Russian government giving the Russian oil company Zarubezhneft oil exploration rights off the north shore of Cuba. By May 2011 Petrobas had withdrawn from the 2008 agreement due to poor prospects. In 2009 the Falkland Islands-registered company Bahamas Petroleum Company Ltd. and Norwegian company Statoil announced a joint venture to drill for oil in Bahamian waters north of Cuba and southeast of Florida.
The government of the Bahamas has indicated that applications for offshore drilling are on hold pending negotiations with Cuba, the United States, the Turks and Caicos Islands on the exact boundaries between their respective Exclusive Economic Zones. Florida Straits, an action-adventure film starring Fred Ward. Cay Sal Bank
U.S. Route 1 in Florida
U. S. Highway 1 in Florida runs 545 miles along the state's east coast– from Key West to its crossing of the St. Marys River into Georgia north of Boulogne –and south of Folkston. US 1 was designated through Florida when the United States Numbered Highway System was established in 1926; the road is maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation. From its national southern terminus in Key West, US 1 carries the Overseas Highway– the Keys main highway –north to the mainland, entering South Florida. From South Florida to Jacksonville, US 1 runs close to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean and the Intracoastal Waterway east of Interstate 95 and west of State Road A1A, running parallel with both roads. North of Jacksonville, US 1 curves inland towards the St. Mary's River as it enters Georgia; as is the case with all Florida roads with national designations, the entirety of US 1 has a hidden FDOT designation: SR 5 from Whitehead Street / Fleming Street in Key West to US 1 Alternate/US 17 in Jacksonville with one exception: SR 805 from Federal Highway in Lantana to Belvedere Road in West Palm Beach.
SR 15 from the I-95 interchange in Jacksonville to the Georgia state line near Boulogne. Among other designations, US 1 is a designated Blue Star Memorial Highway along its entire route through the state. Markers are placed including one in Rockledge and Fort Lauderdale. US 1 begins at the Monroe County courthouse at the intersection of Whitehead and Fleming Streets, Key West, it proceeds south as Whitehead Street, a two-laned street, until the intersection with Truman Avenue, which takes it east through central Key West. Truman Avenue becomes North Roosevelt Boulevard about a mile east, remains so until leaving the island; the road follows the northern shore of this section of Key West after curving southward, it meets State Road A1A head-on at a T-intersection before continuing east. This intersection marks the southern terminus of the Overseas Highway, which US 1 is known by between here and mainland Florida. After crossing to Stock Island and forming the boundary between the eponymous district and incorporated Key West, US 1 proceeds through unincorporated Monroe County on Boca Chica Key, past the Naval Air Station Key West, Rockland Key, where the Overseas Highway drops down to a two-laned road.
It crosses East Rockland Key, Big Coppitt Key, Saddlebunch Keys, Sugarloaf Key, Park Key, Cudjoe Key, Summerland Key, Ramrod Key, Middle Torch Key, Little Torch Key, Big Pine Key, Scout Key, Spanish Harbor Key. The highway expands to four lanes as it crosses the Bahia Honda Bridge reduces to two lanes as it traverses Bahia Honda Key, Ohio Key, Missouri Key, Little Duck Key. After Little Duck Key, US 1 enters Knight's Key, Boot Key, Key Vaca and the town of Marathon via the Seven Mile Bridge, thus leaving the lower Keys. US 1 runs through Marathon as a four-laned road. After Key Vaca, the road becomes two-laned once more and runs through Fat Deer Key, where it forms the northern boundary of the city of Key Colony Beach, it continues wholly in Marathon through Long Point Key, Crawl Key and Grassy Key. The road crosses to Little Conch Key and Conch Key, both part of the Duck Key district. US 1 crosses to and traverses Long Key, unincorporated except for the city of Layton, which the highway passes through.
The road reaches Craig Key, the village of Islamorada including Lower Matecumbe Key, Tea Table Key, Upper Matecumbe Key and Windley Key. US 1 crosses a drawbridge onto Plantation Key, where it expands to four lanes and leaves Islamorada as it crosses to Key Largo; the Overseas Highway enters Tavernier, where it temporarily splits into a pair of one-way roads through the community. Soon the road enters the community of Key Largo, which features another pair of one-way roads. At the northern end of the Key Largo district, about two-thirds of the way along the island, US 1 intersects County Road 905, which offers an alternative route out of the Keys via North Key Largo and the Card Sound Bridge. Signage approaching the intersection directs northbound motorists to take this alternative route if the lights on it are flashing. US 1 swings to the northwest, forms the southern boundary of North Key Largo, becomes a two-laned divided road after the intersection. After crossing the Jewfish Creek Bridge and travelling along Cross Key, US 1 crosses Manatee Creek, along with the Miami-Dade County boundary, reaches the mainland.
For the first 14 miles in Miami-Dade County, US 1 is a divided two-lane road bordering the Everglades National Park on the west. It is named South Dixie Highway from the county line to Miami, its first major intersection is with the north end of Card Sound Road south of Florida City. To the south, signage directs southbound travelers approaching this intersection to take Card Sound Road if the lights on it are flashing, rather than taking US 1 south to Key Largo. Just north of the Card Sound Road intersection, US 1 meets the southern end of Krome Avenue, enters Florida City. Here, US 1 intersects State Road 9336. From here northbound, the South Dixie Highway is paralleled by the South Miami-Dade Busway along the former Florida East Coast