Inertial navigation system
An inertial navigation system is a navigation device that uses a computer, motion sensors and rotation sensors to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, the velocity of a moving object without the need for external references. The inertial sensors are supplemented by a barometric altimeter and by magnetic sensors and/or speed measuring devices. INSs are used on vehicles such as ships, submarines, guided missiles, spacecraft. Other terms used to refer to inertial navigation systems or related devices include inertial guidance system, inertial instrument, inertial measurement unit and many other variations. Older INS systems used an inertial platform as their mounting point to the vehicle and the terms are sometimes considered synonymous. Inertial navigation is a self-contained navigation technique in which measurements provided by accelerometers and gyroscopes are used to track the position and orientation of an object relative to a known starting point and velocity.
Inertial measurement units contain three orthogonal rate-gyroscopes and three orthogonal accelerometers, measuring angular velocity and linear acceleration respectively. By processing signals from these devices it is possible to track the position and orientation of a device. Inertial navigation is used in a wide range of applications including the navigation of aircraft and strategic missiles, spacecraft and ships. Recent advances in the construction of microelectromechanical systems have made it possible to manufacture small and light inertial navigation systems; these advances have widened the range of possible applications to include areas such as human and animal motion capture. An inertial navigation system includes at least a computer and a platform or module containing accelerometers, gyroscopes, or other motion-sensing devices; the INS is provided with its position and velocity from another source accompanied with the initial orientation and thereafter computes its own updated position and velocity by integrating information received from the motion sensors.
The advantage of an INS is that it requires no external references in order to determine its position, orientation, or velocity once it has been initialized. An INS can detect a change in its geographic position, a change in its velocity and a change in its orientation, it does this by measuring the linear angular velocity applied to the system. Since it requires no external reference, it is immune to deception. Inertial navigation systems are used in many different moving objects. However, their cost and complexity place constraints on the environments in which they are practical for use. Gyroscopes measure the angular velocity of the sensor frame with respect to the inertial reference frame. By using the original orientation of the system in the inertial reference frame as the initial condition and integrating the angular velocity, the system's current orientation is known at all times; this can be thought of as the ability of a blindfolded passenger in a car to feel the car turn left and right or tilt up and down as the car ascends or descends hills.
Based on this information alone, the passenger knows what direction the car is facing but not how fast or slow it is moving, or whether it is sliding sideways. Accelerometers measure the linear acceleration of the moving vehicle in the sensor or body frame, but in directions that can only be measured relative to the moving system; this can be thought of as the ability of a blindfolded passenger in a car to feel himself pressed back into his seat as the vehicle accelerates forward or pulled forward as it slows down. Based on this information alone, he knows how the vehicle is accelerating relative to itself, that is, whether it is accelerating forward, left, right, up, or down measured relative to the car, but not the direction relative to the Earth, since he did not know what direction the car was facing relative to the Earth when they felt the accelerations. However, by tracking both the current angular velocity of the system and the current linear acceleration of the system measured relative to the moving system, it is possible to determine the linear acceleration of the system in the inertial reference frame.
Performing integration on the inertial accelerations using the correct kinematic equations yields the inertial velocities of the system and integration again yields the inertial position. In our example, if the blindfolded passenger knew how the car was pointed and what its velocity was before he was blindfolded and if he is able to keep track of both how the car has turned and how it has accelerated and decelerated since he can know the current orientation and velocity of the car at any time. All inertial navigation systems suffer from integration drift: small errors in the measurement of acceleration and angular velocity are integrated into progressively larger errors in velocity, which are compounded into still greater errors in position. Since the new position is calculated
Soviet Air Forces
The Soviet Air Forces was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces; the Air Forces were formed from components of the Imperial Russian Air Service in 1917, faced their greatest test during World War II. The groups were involved in the Korean War, dissolved along with the Soviet Union itself in 1991–92. Former Soviet Air Forces' assets were subsequently divided into several air forces of former Soviet republics, including the new Russian Air Force. "March of the Pilots" was its song. The All-Russia Collegium for Direction of the Air Forces of the Old Army was formed on 20 December 1917; this was a Bolshevik aerial headquarters led by Konstantin Akashev. Along with a general postwar military reorganisation, the collegium was reconstituted as the "Workers' and Peasants' Red Air Fleet", established on 24 May 1918 and given the top-level departmental status of "Main Directorate", it became the Directorate of the USSR Air Forces on 28 March 1924, the Directorate of the Workers-Peasants Red Army Air Forces on 1 January 1925.
Its influence on aircraft design became greater. From its earliest days, the force mimicked ground forces' organization in the 1930s, by which time it was made up of air armies, aviation corps, aviation divisions, aviation regiments. After the creation of the Soviet state many efforts were made in order to modernize and expand aircraft production, led by its charismatic and energetic commander, General Yakov Alksnis, an eventual victim of Joseph Stalin's Great Purge. Domestic aircraft production increased in the early 1930s and towards the end of the decade, the Soviet Air Force was able to introduce Polikarpov I-15 and I-16 fighters and Tupolev SB and SB-bis and DB-3 bombers. One of the first major tests for the VVS came in 1936 with the Spanish Civil War, in which the latest Soviet and German aircraft designs were employed against each other in fierce air-to-air combat. At first, the I-16 proved superior to any Luftwaffe fighters, managed to achieve local air superiority wherever they were employed.
However, the Soviets refused to supply the plane in adequate numbers, their aerial victories were soon squandered because of their limited use. Bf 109s delivered to Franco's Spanish Nationalist air forces secured air superiority for the Nationalists, one they would never relinquish; the defeats in Spain coincided with the arrival of Stalin's Great Purge of the ranks of the officer corps and senior military leadership, which affected the combat capabilities of the expanding Soviet Air Forces. Newly promoted officers lacked flying and command experience, while older commanders, witnessing the fate of General Alksnis and others, lacked initiative referring minor decisions to Moscow for approval, insisting that their pilots comply with standardized and predictable procedures for both aerial attack and defence. On 19 November 1939, VVS headquarters was again titled the Main Directorate of the Red Army Air Forces under the WPRA HQ. Between 1933 and 1938, the Soviet government planned and funded missions to break numerous world aviation records.
Not only did aviation records and achievements become demonstrations of the USSR's technological progress, they served as legitimization of the socialist system. With each new success, Soviet press trumpeted victories for socialism, popularizing the mythology of aviation culture with the masses. Furthermore, Soviet media idolized record-breaking pilots, exalting them not only as role models for Soviet society, but as symbols of progress towards the socialist-utopian future; the early 1930s saw a shift in ideological focus away from collectivist propaganda and towards "positive heroism." Instead of glorifying socialist collectivism as a means of societal advancement, the Soviet Communist Party began uplifting individuals who committed heroic actions that advanced the cause of socialism. In the case of aviation, the government began glorifying people who utilized aviation technology instead of glorifying the technology itself. Pilots such as Valery Chkalov, Georgy Baydukov, Alexander Belyakov, Mikhail Gromov—as well as many others—were raised to the status of heroes for their piloting skills and achievements.
In May 1937, Stalin charged pilots Chkalov and Belyakov with the mission to navigate the first transpolar flight in history. On 20 June 1937, the aviators landed their ANT-25 in Washington. A month Stalin ordered the departure of a second crew to push the boundaries of modern aviation technology further. In July 1937 Mikhail Gromov, along with his crew Sergei Danilin and Andrei Yumashev, completed the same journey over the North Pole and continuing on to Southern California, creating a new record for the longest nonstop flight; the public reaction to the transpolar flights was euphoric. The media called the pilots "Bolshevik knights of culture and progress." Soviet citizens celebrated Aviation Day on 18 August with as much zeal as they celebrated the October Revolution anniversary. Literature including poems, short stories, novels emerged celebrating the feats of the aviator-celebrities. Feature films like Victory, Tales of Heroic Aviators, Valery Chkalov reinforced the "positive hero" imagery, celebrating the aviators' individuality within the context of a socialist government.
Soviet propaganda, newspaper articles, other forms of media sought to connect Soviet citizens to relevant themes from daily life. For aviation, Stalin's propagandists drew on Russian folklore. Examples i
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 is a high-subsonic fighter aircraft produced in the USSR from 1952 and operated by numerous air forces in many variants. It is an advanced development of the similar looking MiG-15 of the Korean War; the MiG-17 was license-built in China as the Shenyang J-5 and Poland as the PZL-Mielec Lim-6. MiG-17s first saw combat in 1958 in the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis and proved to be an effective threat against more modern supersonic fighters of the United States in the Vietnam War, it was briefly known as the Type 38 by U. S. Air Force designation prior to the development of NATO codes. While the MiG-15bis introduced swept wings to air combat over Korea, the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau had begun work on its replacement in 1949 in order to fix any problems found with the MiG-15 in combat; the result was one of the most successful transonic fighters introduced before the advent of true supersonic types such as the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 and North American F-100 Super Sabre.
The design would still prove effective into the 1960s when pressed into subsonic dogfights over Vietnam against much faster planes which were not optimized for maneuvering in such slower speed, short-range engagements. While the MiG-15 used a Mach sensor to deploy airbrakes because it could not safely exceed Mach 0.92, the MiG-17 was designed to be controllable at higher Mach numbers. Early versions which retained the original Soviet copy of the Rolls-Royce Nene VK-1 engine were heavier with equal thrust. MiG-17s would be the first Soviet fighter application of an afterburner which offered increased thrust on demand by dumping fuel in the exhaust of the basic engine. Though the MiG-17 still resembles its forebear, it had an new thinner and more swept wing and tailplane for speeds approaching Mach 1. While the F-86 introduced the "all-flying" tailplane which helped controllability near the speed of sound, this would not be adopted on MiGs until the supersonic MiG-19; the wing had a "sickle sweep" compound shape with a 45° angle like the U.
S. F-100 Super Sabre near the fuselage, a 42° angle for the outboard part of the wings; the stiffer wing resisted the tendency to bend its wingtips and lose aerodynamic symmetry unexpectedly at high speeds and wing loads. Like its forebearer, the MiG-17 inherited a major design deficit which caused its fuel tanks to develop an under-pressure condition if more than half the fuel had been used which could lead to tank implosions, crushing the main fuselage of the aircraft in mid-flight with always fatal results. 30% of the fatal accidents of Soviet MiG-17 were attributed to this problem. Other visible differences to its predecessor were the addition of a third wing fence on each wing, the addition of a ventral fin and a longer and less tapered rear fuselage that added about one meter in length; the MiG-17 shared the same Klimov VK-1 engine, much of the rest of its construction such as the forward fuselage, landing gear and gun installation was carried over. The first prototype, designated I-330 "SI" by the construction bureau, was flown on the 14 January 1950, piloted by Ivan Ivashchenko.
In the midst of testing, pilot Ivan Ivashchenko was killed when his aircraft developed flutter which tore off his horizontal tail, causing a spin and crash on 17 March 1950. Lack of wing stiffness resulted in aileron reversal, discovered and fixed. Construction and tests of additional prototypes "SI-2" and experimental series aircraft "SI-02" and "SI-01" in 1951, were successful. On 1 September 1951, the aircraft was accepted for production, formally given its own MiG-17 designation after so many changes from the original MiG-15, it was estimated that with the same engine as the MiG-15's, the MiG-17's maximum speed is higher by 40–50 km/h, the fighter has greater manoeuvrability at high altitude. Serial production started in August 1951, but large quantity production was delayed in favor of producing more MiG-15s so it was never introduced in the Korean War, it did not enter service until October 1952, when the MiG-19 was ready to be flight tested. During production, the aircraft was modified several times.
The basic MiG-17 was a general-purpose day fighter, armed with three cannons, one Nudelman N-37 37mm cannon and two 23mm with 80 rounds per gun, 160 rounds total. It could act as a fighter-bomber, but its bombload was considered light relative to other aircraft of the time, it carried additional fuel tanks instead of bombs. Although a canopy which provided clear vision to the rear necessary for dogfighting like the F-86 was designed, production MiG-17Fs got a cheaper rear-view periscope which would still appear on Soviet fighters as late as the MiG-23. By 1953, pilots got safer ejection seats with protective face curtain and leg restraints like the Martin-Baker seats in the west; the MiG-15 had suffered for its lack of a radar gunsight, but in 1951, Soviet engineers obtained a captured F-86 Sabre from Korea and they copied the optical gunsight and SRD-3 gun ranging radar to produce the ASP-4N gunsight and SRC-3 radar. The combination would prove deadly over the skies of Vietnam against aircraft such as the F-4 Phantom whose pilots lamented that guns and radar gunsights had been omitted as obsolescent.
The second prototype variant, "SP-2", was an interceptor equipped with a radar. Soon a number of MiG-17P all-weather fighters were produced with the Izumrud radar and front air intake modifications. In early 1953 the MiG-17F day fighter entered production; the "F" indicated it was fitted with the VK-1F engine with an afterburner by modifying the rear fuselage with a n
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy used to describe the energy released in an explosion. The "ton of TNT" is a unit of energy defined by that convention to be 4.184 gigajoules, the approximate energy released in the detonation of a metric ton of TNT. In other words, for each gram of TNT exploded, 4,184 joules of energy are released; this convention intends to compare the destructiveness of an event with that of traditional explosive materials, of which TNT is a typical example, although other conventional explosives such as dynamite contain more energy. The "kiloton" is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 terajoules. The "megaton" is a unit of energy equal to 4.184 petajoules. The kiloton and megaton of TNT have traditionally been used to describe the energy output, hence the destructive power, of a nuclear weapon; the TNT equivalent appears in various nuclear weapon control treaties, has been used to characterize the energy released in such other destructive events as an asteroid impact.
Alternative values for TNT equivalency can be calculated according to which property is being compared and when in the two detonation processes the values are measured. Where for example the comparison is by energy yield, an explosive's energy is expressed for chemical purposes as the thermodynamic work produced by its detonation. For TNT this has been measured as 4686 J/g from a large sample of air blast experiments, theoretically calculated to be 4853 J/g, but on this basis, comparing the actual energy yields of a large nuclear device and an explosion of TNT can be inaccurate. Small TNT explosions in the open, don't tend to burn the carbon-particle and hydrocarbon products of the explosion. Gas-expansion and pressure-change effects tend to "freeze" the burn rapidly. A large open explosion of TNT may maintain fireball temperatures high enough so that some of those products do burn up with atmospheric oxygen; such differences can be substantial. For safety purposes a range as wide as 2673–6702 J has been stated for a gram of TNT upon explosion.
So, one can state. These complications have been sidestepped by convention; the energy liberated by one gram of TNT was arbitrarily defined as a matter of convention to be 4184 J, one kilocalorie. A kiloton of TNT can be visualized as a cube of TNT 8.46 metres on a side. 1 ton TNT equivalent is approximately: 1.0×109 calories 4.184×109 joules 3.96831×106 British thermal units 3.08802×109 foot pounds 1.162×103 kilowatt hours The relative effectiveness factor relates an explosive's demolition power to that of TNT, in units of the TNT equivalent/kg. The RE factor is the relative mass of TNT to which an explosive is equivalent: The greater the RE, the more powerful the explosive; this enables engineers to determine the proper masses of different explosives when applying blasting formulas developed for TNT. For example, if a timber-cutting formula calls for a charge of 1 kg of TNT based on octanitrocubane's RE factor of 2.38, it would take only 1.0/2.38 kg of it to do the same job. Using PETN, engineers would need 1.0/1.66 kg to obtain the same effects as 1 kg of TNT.
With ANFO or ammonium nitrate, they would require 1.0 / 1.0 / 0.42 kg, respectively. Calculating a single RE factor for a explosive is, impossible, it depends on the specific case of use. Given a pair of explosives, one can produce 2× the shockwave output but the difference in direct metal cutting ability maybe 4× higher for one type of metal and 7× higher for another type of metal; the relative differences between two explosives in shaped charges will be greater. The table below should be taken as an example and not as a precise source of data. *: TBX or EBX, in a small, confined space, may have over twice the power of destruction. The total power of aluminized mixtures depends on the condition of explosions. Brisance Net explosive quantity Nuclear weapon yield Orders of magnitude Relative effectiveness factor Table of explosive detonation velocities Ton Tonne Tonne of oil equivalent, a unit of energy exactly 10 tonnes of TNT Thompson, A.. N.. Guide for the Use of the International System of Units.
NIST Special Publication. 811. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Version 3.2. Nuclear Weapons FAQ Part 1.3 Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-7761-4. Cooper, Paul W. Explosives Engineering, New York: Wiley-VCH, ISBN 978-0-471-18636-6 HQ Department of the Army, Field Manual 5-25: Explosives and Demolitions, Washington, D. C.: Pentagon Publishing, pp. 83–84, ISBN 978-0-9759009-5-6 Explosives - Compositions, Alexandria, VA: GlobalSecurity.org, retrieved September 1, 2010 Urbański, Tadeusz and Technology of Explosives, Volumes I–IV, Oxford: Pergamon Mathieu, Jörg. Thermobaric Explosives, Advanced Energetic Materials, 2004; the National Academies Press, nap.edu, 2004
The Bisnovat R-4 was an early Soviet long-range air-to-air missile. It was used as the sole weapon of the Tupolev Tu-128 interceptor, matching its RP-S Smerch radar. Development of the R-4 began in 1959 designated as K-80 or R-80, entering operational service around 1963, together with Tu-128. Like many Soviet weapons, it was made in infrared-homing versions. Standard Soviet doctrine was to fire the weapons in SARH/IR pairs to increase the odds of a hit. Target altitude was from 8 to 21 km. For the slow-climbing Tu-128, the missile could be fired from 8 km below the target. In 1973 the weapon was modernized to R-4MR / MT standard, with lower minimal target altitude, improved seeker performance, compatibility with the upgraded RP-SM Smerch-M radar; the R-4 survived in limited service until 1990. Soviet UnionSoviet Air Defence Forces Length: 5.2 m. Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-188-1. К-80, Р-4 - description in Russian, with pictures
Mikhail Gurevich (aircraft designer)
Mikhail Iosifovich Gurevich was a Soviet Jewish aircraft designer, a partner who co-founded the famous MiG military aviation bureau. MiG is an abbreviation of their surnames; the bureau now known as Mikoyan, is famous for its fighter aircraft, rapid interceptors and multi-role combat aircraft which were staples of the Soviet Air Forces throughout the Cold War. The main focus in designing the aircraft were on high speed, fast ascent, high flight altitude; the bureau designed 170 projects. In total 45,000 aircraft of "MiG" brand have been manufactured domestically, of which 11,000 aircraft were exported. Over 14,000 "MiG" fighters have been produced under licence abroad; the last plane which Gurevich worked on before his retirement was the MiG-25. Born to a Jewish family winery mechanic in the small township of Rubanshchina, in 1910 he graduated from gymnasium in Okhtyrka with the silver medal and entered the Mathematics department at Kharkov University. After a year, for participation in revolutionary activities, he was expelled from the university and from the region and continued his education in Montpellier University.
He was at SUPAERO in Toulouse in the 1913 class with Marcel Dassault. In the summer 1914 Gurevich was visiting his home; this and the Russian Civil War interrupted his education. In 1925 he graduated from the Aviation faculty of Kharkov Technological Institute and worked as an engineer of the state company "Heat and Power". In 1929 Gurevich moved to Moscow to pursue the career of aviation designer. Soviet design was a state-run affair, organised in so-called OKBs or design bureaus. In 1937 Gurevich headed a designer team in the Polikarpov Design Bureau, where he met his future team partner, Artem Mikoyan. In late 1939 they created the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau, with Gurevich in the position of Vice Chief Designer, after 1957 as its Chief Designer, a post he kept until his retirement in 1964; this is quite remarkable, considering. In 1940 Mikoyan and Gurevich designed and built the high-altitude MiG-1 fighter plane, starting from a project developed by Polikarpov's team; the improved MiG-3 fighter aircraft was used during World War II.
In the years after the war, the two designed the first Soviet jet fighters, including the first supersonic models. The last model Gurevich worked on was the MiG-25 interceptor, among the fastest military aircraft to enter service, their main focus was on high speed, fast ascent, high flight altitude. For his winning designs, Mikhail Gurevich won several major Soviet awards. Five State Stalin Prizes The Order of Lenin The title of Hero of Socialist Labor Artem Mikoyan for a much more elaborate article about their common work at the MiG design bureau
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel, or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is colorless to straw-colored in appearance; the most used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. Jet fuel is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons; because the exact composition of jet fuel varies based on petroleum source, it is impossible to define jet fuel as a ratio of specific hydrocarbons. Jet fuel is therefore defined as a performance specification rather than a chemical compound. Furthermore, the range of molecular mass between hydrocarbons is defined by the requirements for the product, such as the freezing point or smoke point. Kerosene-type jet fuel has a carbon number distribution between about 8 and 16. Jet fuels are sometimes classified as naphtha-type.
Kerosene-type fuels include Jet A, Jet A-1, JP-5 and JP-8. Naphtha-type jet fuels, sometimes referred to as "wide-cut" jet fuel, include Jet B and JP-4. Fuel for piston-engine powered aircraft has a high volatility to improve its carburetion characteristics and high autoignition temperature to prevent preignition in high compression aircraft engines. Turbine engines can operate with a wide range of fuels because fuel is injected into the hot combustion chamber. Jet and gas turbine aircraft engines use lower cost fuels with higher flash points, which are less flammable and therefore safer to transport and handle; the first axial compressor jet engine in widespread production and combat service, the Junkers Jumo 004 used on the Messerschmitt Me 262A fighter and the Arado Ar 234B jet recon-bomber, burned either a special synthetic "J2" fuel or diesel fuel. Gasoline was a third option but unattractive due to high fuel consumption. Other fuels used were kerosene and gasoline mixtures. Most jet fuels in use since the end of World War II are kerosene-based.
Both British and American standards for jet fuels were first established at the end of World War II. British standards derived from standards for kerosene use for lamps—known as paraffin in the UK—whereas American standards derived from aviation gasoline practices. Over the subsequent years, details of specifications were adjusted, such as minimum freezing point, to balance performance requirements and availability of fuels. Low temperature freezing points reduce the availability of fuel. Higher flash point products required for use on aircraft carriers are more expensive to produce. In the United States, ASTM International produces standards for civilian fuel types, the U. S. Department of Defense produces standards for military use; the British Ministry of Defence establishes standards for both military jet fuels. For reasons of inter-operational ability and United States military standards are harmonized to a degree. In Russia and former Soviet Union countries, grades of jet fuels are covered by the State Standard number, or a Technical Condition number, with the principal grade available in Russia and members of the CIS being TS-1.
Jet A specification fuel has been used in the United States since the 1950s and is not available outside the United States and a few Canadian airports such as Toronto and Vancouver, whereas Jet A-1 is the standard specification fuel used in the rest of the world other than the former Soviet states where TS-1 is the most common standard. Both Jet A and Jet A-1 have a flash point higher than 38 °C, with an autoignition temperature of 210 °C; the primary difference is the lower freezing point of A-1: Jet A's is −40 °C Jet A-1's is −47 °C The other difference is the mandatory addition of an anti-static additive to Jet A-1. Jet A trucks, storage tanks, plumbing that carry Jet A are marked with a black sticker with "Jet A" in white printed on it, adjacent to another black stripe. Jet A-1 fuel must meet: DEF STAN 91-91, ASTM specification D1655, IATA Guidance Material, NATO Code F-35. Jet A fuel must reach ASTM specification D1655 Typical physical properties for Jet A / Jet A-1 Jet B is a fuel in the naphtha-kerosene region, used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.
However, Jet B's lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle. For this reason, it is used, except in cold climates. A blend of 30% kerosene and 70% gasoline, it is known as wide-cut fuel, it has a low freezing point of −60 °C, a low flash point as well. It is used in some military aircraft, it is used in Northern Canada and sometimes Russia, because of its low freezing point. The DEF STAN 91-91 and ASTM D1655 specifications allow for certain additives to be added to jet fuel, including: Antioxidants to prevent gumming based on alkylated phenols, e.g. AO-30, AO-31, or AO-37. Biocides are to remediate microbial (i.e. bacterial a