Muhammad Khair ud-din Mirza, Khurshid Jah Bahadur
Shahzada Muhammad Khair ud-din Mirza, Khurshid Jah Bahadur was born in Rang Mahal, Delhi the only son of Mirza Muhammad Fayazuddin. He was recognised as head in 1931 by the Government of India, he emigrated to Lahore in Pakistan following the independence of Pakistan in 1947. He was married to Nawabzadi Arghwani Begum Sahiba and they had two sons and four daughters, with his eldest son succeeding him as head of the Timurid Dynasty on his death on 3 August 1975. Sons Mirza Ghulam Moinuddin Muhammad Javaid Jah Bahadur married to Mrs. Malahat Javaid Jah Mirza Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar married to Lubna Akbar Sahiba Daughters Sabahat Jah Begum Sahiba married to Kamran Muzaffar Zeejah Zakawat Jah Begum Sahiba married to Khayum Rafi Ahmed Fasahat Jah Begum Sahiba married to Sajid Arif Nomani Nabahat Jah Begum Sahiba married to Husnain Lotia Timurid Dynasty
Hayreddin Pasha was an Ottoman-Tunisian politician, born to a Circassian family. First serving as Beylerbeyi of Ottoman Tunisia, he achieved the high post of Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, he was a political reformer during a period of growing European ascendancy. Of Abkhaz origin, Hayreddin was born in Abkhazia into "a family of warrior notables", his father Hassan Leffch, a local chieftain, died fighting against a Russian attack on the city of Sukhum. Thereafter as a young orphan Hayreddin was sold into slavery still a familiar event for Circassian youth. At Istanbul, however, he was traded into a prestigious household, that of the notable Tahsin Bey, a Cypriot Ottoman, the naqib al-ashraf and qadi al-'askar of Anatolia, a poet. Tahsin Bey moved the boy to his country palace at Kanlıca near the Bosporus, where he became the childhood companion of the Bey's son for a span of years. Khayr al-Din received a "first-rate education" which included the Islamic curriculum the Turkish language, French.
Following "the son's tragic premature death" his father Tahsin Bey sold Khayr al-Din in Istanbul to an envoy of Ahmed Bey of Tunis. This new uprooting would provoke emotional turmoil in Khayr al-Din about 17 years old. Soon he was on board a ship bound for Africa. Circa 1840 Hayreddin became situated at the Bardo Palace, in the court of Ahmad Bey, as a mamluk bi-l-saraya, he resumed his high-level studies at the Bardo Military Academy a nearby institution newly established by the bey. A key part of his education now was learning to converse in Arabic acquaintance with French. At the Husaynid court his abilities were soon recognized, he was favored with the attention and trust of Ahmad Bey, he rose in the elite cavalry, the nucleus of the bey's new army. Moreover, during the 1840s and 1850s he was sent by the Bey on several key diplomatic missions, e.g. to the Ottoman Porte at Istanbul, pursuing its Tanzimat reforms, to European capitals, including Paris. His political career thus began auspiciously under this famously modernizing ruler.
In 1846 he accompanied the bey, as part of small staff which included the influential advisor Bin Diyaf, during a two-month state visit to France. This trip was of special cultural and political significance in that the orthodox bey traveled for an extended stay to a non-Islamic country in order to acquire familiarity with its modern methods of operation and governance; the trip "expanded the cultural space deemed acceptable for Muslim rulers." The French took care to show France to advantage. "Having traveled beyond the land of Islam, Ahmad Bey was blessed upon his return to Tunis by the grand mufti."In 1853 Hayreddin was elevated to the highest military grade, commander of the cavalry. Yet shortly thereafter he was sent to Paris to arrange a loan for the bey's regime, but where instead he spend four years attempting to reclaim large sums embezzled by the notable Mahmud bin'Ayyad, former head of the newly created national bank of Tunis, who with foresight had secured French citizenship. During his years occupied with negotiations in Paris, Hayreddin managed to browse libraries and bookshops, to improve his French, asking many questions, to study European society and finance.
Because of the dire financial situation caused in part by the embezzlement of bin'Ayyad, the bey's loan did not appear prudent to Hayreddin, according to Prof. Abun-Nasr. Nonetheless, the bey had stifled most political opposition to his financial schemes by long cultivation of the urban ulama and the rural tribal leaders. Due to Hayreddin's passive resistance, the loan was still being negotiated when Ahmed Bey died in 1855. Upon his return to Tunisia from Paris, Khayr al-Din was appointed Minister of Marine in 1857, he held responsibility for the expanding ports and Goulette, as well as distant Sfax. This involved construction to improve harbor facilities in order to handle the increased commercial shipping, as Mediterranean trade grew markedly; the number of ships in the Tunisian navy had declined in the face of vessels of modern European design. Immigration into Tunisia began to surge. Hayreddin proposed the issuance of passports. Here the Ottoman capitulatory agreements, which gave extraterritorial legal rights to Europeans resident or transient in Tunis, complicated the situation.
Contraband was another issue. Public health became a concern of major importance with quarantine procedures imposed regarding a plague of cholera; the Minister of Marine oversaw at Goulette the operation of an arsenal, a prison, a hospital. During this period in his life, as he would be completing his fortieth year, Hayreddin began to consider Tunisia as his adopted country. At about the age of forty, circa 1862, Hayreddin married his first wife, the niece of the Bey; the wedding was announced and celebrated with "great pomp". The father of Janina was the insider politician Mustapha Khaznadar from Greece, who served for many years as Grand Vizier, their marriage was blessed with three children. Yet Janina and the son died in 1870.
Hayreddin Barbarossa, or Barbaros Kheireddin Pasha, born Khizr or Khidr, was an Ottoman admiral of the fleet, born on the island of Lesbos and died in Constantinople, the Ottoman capital. Barbarossa's naval victories secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean during the mid 16th century, from the Battle of Preveza in 1538 until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Hayreddin was an honorary name given to him by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, he became known as "Barbarossa" in Europe, a name he inherited from his elder brother Oruç Reis after he was killed in a battle with the Spanish in Algeria. Oruç was known as "Baba Oruç", which sounded like "Barbarossa" to the Europeans, since Oruç did have a red beard, the nickname stuck. In a process of linguistic reborrowing, the nickname stuck back to Hayreddin's native Ottoman name, in the form Barbaros. Khizr was born in 1466 or around 1478 in the village Palaiokipos on the Ottoman island of Midilli, the son of Yakup Ağa, a converted Ottoman sipahi of Albanian origin from Giannitsa, an Orthodox Christian Greek woman, named Katerina, from Mytilene.
His mother was a widow of a Greek Orthodox priest. His parents had two daughters and four sons: Ishak, Oruç, Khizr and Ilyas. Yakup took part in the Ottoman conquest of Lesbos in 1462 from the Genoese Gattilusio dynasty and as a reward, was granted the fief of the Bonova village in the island, he purchased a boat to trade his products. The four sons helped their father with his business, but not much is known about the daughters. At first Oruç helped with the boat. All four brothers became seamen, engaged in international sea trade; the first brother to become involved in seamanship was Oruç, joined by his brother Ilyas. Obtaining his own ship, Khizr began his career at sea; the brothers worked as sailors, but turned privateers in the Mediterranean to counteract the privateering of the Knights Hospitaller who were based in the island of Rhodes. Oruç and Ilyas operated in the Levant, between Anatolia and Egypt. Khizr operated in the Aegean Sea and based his operations in Thessaloniki. Ishak, the eldest, remained on Mytilene and was involved with the financial affairs of the family business.
Oruç was a successful seaman. He learned to speak Italian, French and Arabic in the early years of his career. While returning from a trading expedition in Tripoli, with his younger brother Ilyas, they were attacked by the Knights of St. John. Ilyas was killed in the fight, Oruç was wounded, their father's boat was captured, Oruç was taken as a prisoner and detained in the Knights' castle at Bodrum for nearly three years. Upon learning the location of his brother, Khizr managed to help Oruç escape. Oruç went to Antalya, where he was given 18 galleys by the Şehzade Korkut, an Ottoman prince and governor of the city, charged with fighting against the Knights of St. John, who were inflicting serious damage on Ottoman shipping and trade. In the following years, when Korkut became governor of Manisa, he gave Oruç a larger fleet of 24 galleys at the port of İzmir and ordered him to participate in the Ottoman naval expedition to Apulia in Italy, where Oruç bombarded several coastal castles and captured two ships.
On his way back to Lesbos, he captured three galleons and another ship. Reaching Mytilene with these captured vessels, Oruç learned that Korkut, the brother of the new Ottoman sultan Selim I, had fled to Egypt in order to avoid being killed because of succession disputes – a common practice at that time. Fearing trouble due to his well-known association with the exiled Ottoman prince, Oruç sailed to Egypt, where he met Korkut in Cairo and managed to get an audience with the Mamluk Sultan Qansuh al-Ghawri, who gave him another ship and appointed him with the task of raiding the coasts of Italy and the islands of the Mediterranean that were controlled by Christians. After passing the winter in Cairo, he set sail from Alexandria and operated along the coasts of Liguria and Sicily. In 1503, Oruç managed to seize three more ships and made the island of Djerba his new base, thus moving his operations to the Western Mediterranean. Khizr joined Oruç at Djerba. In 1504, the brothers contacted Abu Abdullah Mohammed Hamis, Sultan of Tunisia from the Beni Hafs dynasty, asked permission to use the strategically located port of La Goulette for their operations.
They were granted this right with the condition of leaving one-third of their gains to the sultan. Oruç, in command of small galliots, captured two much larger Papal galleys near the island of Elba. Near Lipari, the two brothers captured a Sicilian warship, the Cavalleria, with 380 Spanish soldiers and 60 Spanish knights from Aragon on board, who were on their way from Spain to Naples. In 1505, they raided the coasts of Calabria; these accomplishments increased their fame, they were joined by several other well-known Muslim corsairs, including Kurtoğlu. In 1508, they raided the coasts of Liguria Diano Marina. In 1509, Ishak left Mytilene and joined his brothers at La Goulette; the fame of Oruç increased when, between 1504 and 1510, he transported Muslim Mudéjar
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Hayredin is a village in northwestern Bulgaria, part of Vratsa Province. It is the administrative centre of Hayredin Municipality, which lies in the northwestern part of Vratsa Province; the village is located along the Ogosta River, 30 kilometres south of Kozloduy, 25 kilometres south of the Danube River, 52 kilometres from the provincial capital Vratsa and 186 kilometres from Sofia. Hayredin was founded in 1574 by four families who settled on land presented to them by a high-ranking Ottoman official, it may have existed before the Ottoman conquest of the Second Bulgarian Empire, as it was mentioned among the places burnt down by the invaders. The local Bulgarian Orthodox church of Saint Paraskeva was built in 1858-1862, the Prosveta community centre was founded in 1909; the village has a mineral spring. Hayredin at Selo.bg
Hajrudin "Hari" Varešanović is a Bosnian rock vocalist. Known for his impassioned lyrical tenor vocals, distinct stage presence and specific brand of poetic lyrics, Varešanović remains the vocal soloist, primary composer and lyricist for the musical group Hari Mata Hari. Born as Hajrudin Varešanović in early 1961, in Sarajevo and Herzegovina Hari grew up in the Vratnik neighborhood of Sarajevo's old town, his grandfather was one of the more well-known singers of traditional Bosnian music called sevdalinka. At the age of six, Hajrudin learned to play the guitar. At the local cultural center, he was asked to sing at the age of ten he sang with the group "Omi", for the group "Sedam šuma". In Vratnik, Hari recorded his first song "Zašto da ne uzmem nju". After finishing electrical school, Varešanović began to study Philosophy and attended classes of natural politics, but he never completed the courses. Music took up much of his time. In 1979, Hari joined the group Zov with whom he recorded the hit song "Poletjela golubica sa Baščaršije."
The song is still popular. Next, Varešanović sang with the group "Ambasadori", with whom, it is said, that he matured into a professional artist. After his serving mandatory military service in the town of Niš, he appeared on the music scene by himself releasing the album Zlatne Kočije, his professional career has lasted over a quarter of a century and he has performed at over 1,000 concerts. In 1999, Varešanović performed his song "Starac i More" in hope of representing Bosnia and Herzegovina at the Eurovision Song Contest 1999. However, after "Starac i More" had won it turned out the song had been recorded, since Varešanović had sold the song to record label Unirecords in Finland, Finnish artist Janne Hurme recorded that song in 1997 in name "Heart Blood". Hari Mata Hari was disqualified; the runner-up, Dino Merlin, was sent to the ESC instead. In 1999, he recorded a duet with Hanka Paldum; the song, "Crni snijeg", was featured on her album Nek' je od srca and was covered the same year by Serbian singer Ceca on her album Ceca 2000.
On 9 February 2006, the Bosnian television network PBSBiH announced that Hari Varešanović would represent Bosnia and Herzegovina with the song "Lejla" at the Eurovision Song Contest 2006. The announcement confirmed rumors circulating throughout the country for more than two months. Varešanović performed a song with music written by Serbian composer Željko Joksimović and lyrics written by Bosnian writer Fahrudin Pecikoza and Serbian Dejan Ivanović. Hari Varešanović told the Bosnian newspaper Nezavisne Novine:... The song is the best in the world. I have to admit. I am impressed with Pecikoza's lyrics. We have made a song that comes out the spirit of our people and I am glad to be singing it... On 20 May 2006, Hari Varešanović and his group Hari Mata Hari reached third place at the Eurovision Song Contest 2006 held in Athens, Greece. In 2011, Varešanović composed the music to and wrote the lyrics to Briši me, a song sung by Bosnian singer Lepa Brena for her sixteenth studio album Začarani krug, he wrote the lyrics to her 2014 song Zaljubljeni veruju u sve.
On 14 February 2010, Varešanović married girlfriend Jasminka Ištuk from Croatia. They live in Munich, it is the second marriage for both. Each have children from previous marriages. Sarajevo school of pop rock