Khan is a title of unknown origin for a ruler or military leader. It first implied a subordinate ruler. In the Seljuk Empire it was the highest noble title, ranking above emir. In the Mongol Empire it signified the ruler of a horde, while the ruler of all the Mongols was the khagan or great khan; the title subsequently declined in importance. In Safavid Persia it was the title of a provincial governor, in Mughal India it was a high noble rank restricted to courtiers. After the downfall of the Mughals it became a surname. Khan and its female forms occur in many personal names without any nobiliary of political relevance, although it remains a common part of noble names as well; the origin of the term is disputed and unknown a loanword from the Ruanruan language. According to Vovin the term comes from qaγan and was used in several languages in Turkic and Mongolic. Turkic and Para-Mongolic origin has been suggested by a number of scholars including Ramstedt, Shiratori and Doerfer, was first used by the Xianbei.
According to Vovin, the word *qa-qan "great-qan" is of non-Altaic origin, but instead linked to Yeniseian *qεʔ "big" or "great". The origin of qan itself is harder according to Vovin, he says that the origin for the word qan is not found in any reconstructed proto-language and was used by Turkic, Mongolic and Korean people with variations from kan, qan and hwan. A relation exists to the Yeniseian words *qij or *qaj meaning "ruler", it may be impossible to prove the ultimate origin of the title, but Vovin says: "Thus, it seems to be quite that the ultimate source of both qaγan and qan can be traced back to Xiong-nu and Yeniseian". "Khan" is first encountered as a title in the Xianbei confederation for their chief between 283 and 289. The Rourans may have been the first people who used the titles khan for their emperors. However, Russian linguist Alexander Vovin believes that the term qaγan originated among the Yeniseian-speaking Xiongnu people, diffused across language families. Subsequently, the Göktürks brought it to the rest of Asia.
In the middle of the sixth century the Iranians knew of a "Kagan – King of the Turks". Various Mongolic and Turkish peoples from Central Asia gave the title new prominence after period of the Mongol Empire in the Old World and brought the title "khan" into Northern Asia, where locals adopted it. Khagan is rendered as Khan of Khans, it was the title of Chinese Emperor Emperor Taizong of Tang and Genghis Khan's successors selected to rule the Mongol Empire starting from 1229. Genghis Khan himself was referred as qa'an only posthumously. For instance Möngke Khan and Ogedei Khan would be "Khagans" but not Chagatai Khan, not proclaimed ruler of the Mongol Empire by the Kurultai. Khans headed only minor tribal entities in or near the vast Mongolian and North Chinese steppe, the scene of an endless procession of nomadic people riding out into the history of the neighbouring sedentary regions; some managed to establish principalities of some importance for a while, as their military might proved a serious threat to such empires as China and kingdoms in Central Asia.
One of the earliest notable examples of such principalities in Europe was Danube Bulgaria, ruled by a khan or a kan at least from the 7th to the 9th century. The title "khan" is not attested directly in inscriptions and texts referring to Bulgar rulers – the only similar title found so far, has been found in the inscriptions of three consecutive Bulgarian rulers, namely Krum and Malamir. Starting from the compound, non-ruler titles that were attested among Bulgarian noble class such as kavkhan and boritarkhan, scholars derive the title khan or kan for the early Bulgarian leader – if there was a vicekhan there was a "full" khan, too. Compare the rendition of the name of early Bulgarian ruler Pagan as Καμπαγάνος resulting from a misinterpretation of "Kan Pagan", in Patriarch Nicephorus's so-called Breviarium In general, the inscriptions as well as other sources designate the supreme ruler of Danube Bulgaria with titles that exist in the language in which they are written – archontes, meaning'commander or magistrate' in Greek, knyaze, meaning "duke" or "prince" in Slavic.
Among the best known Bulgar khans were: founder of Great Bulgaria. "Khan" was the official title of the ruler until 864 AD, when Kniaz Boris adopted the Eastern Orthodox faith. The title Khan rose to unprecedented prominence with the Mongol Temüjin's creation of the Mongol empire, the largest contiguous land empire in history, which he ruled as Genghis Khan. Before 1229 the title was used to designate leaders of important tribes as well as tribal confederations, rulers of non-Mongol countries. Shortly before the death of the Genghis Khan, his sons became khans in different dominions and the title became unsuitable for the supreme ruler of the empire, needing a more exalted one. Being under Uighur cultural influen
Sara Shamma is a UK-based Syrian artist whose paintings are uncompromisingly figurative in style. The importance of storytelling and narrative is paramount in her work. Shamma has a long-standing interest in the psychology associated with the suffering of individuals and has made work on the subject of war, modern slavery and human trafficking, her works can be divided into series. Shamma, was born in Syria to a Syrian father and Lebanese mother, she graduated from the Painting Department of the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Damascus in 1998. She moved to London in 2016 where she lives and works, under the auspices of an Exceptional Talent Visa. Shamma has taught at the Adham Ismail Fine Arts Institute in Damascus Shamma was selected as one of the prize winners for the 2004 BP Portrait Award, she was subsequently invited to participate in a number of solo and group exhibitions around the world, including Q at The Royal College of Art, 2013, The Royal Society of Portrait Painters' Annual Exhibition at The Mall Galleries in 2013, NordArt in Büdelsdorf, Germany in 2012.
In 2010 she was selected as the'Celebrity Partner' artist to the United Nations' World Food Programme. 2019 Sara Shamma: Modern Slavery, Bush House, The Strand, King’s College London, London 2017 London, Art Sawa Gallery, Dubai, UAE 2015 World Civil War Portraits, The Old Truman Brewery, London 2014 Diaspora, Art Sawa Gallery, Dubai 2013 Q, Royal College of Art, London 2011 Birth, Art House, Damascus 2009 Love, 360 MALL, Kuwait 2008 Sara Shamma Finishing Touch, Knowledge Village, Dubai 2008 Sara 1978, Art House, Damascus 2007 Music, Cornish Club Event Gallery, Kuwait. 2004 Sara Shamma, Kalemaat Art Gallery and Kuwait 2002 Sara Shamma, Nassir Choura Art Gallery, Damascus 2001 Sara Shamma, Shell Cultural Club, Damascus 1999 Sara Shamma, French Cultural Center, Damascus 2019 The Ruth Borchard Self-portrait Prize, Piano Nobile, King’s Place, London 2019 Multi-colour, 9 Cork Street, London 2018 The Summer Exhibition, Royal Academy of Arts, London 2018 New collective show, Mark Hachem Gallery, Lebanon 2015 Guest artist, 33rd Emirates Fine Arts Society Annual Exhibition, Sharjah Art Museum 2013 The Royal Society of Portrait Painters Annual Exhibition, The Mall Galleries, London 2013 Florence Biennale, Florence 2012 Nord Art 2012 organised by KiC – Kunst in der Carlshütte, Büdelsdorf 2010 Art Prize 2010, Kendall College of Art and Design, Grand Rapids, Michigan 2010 Nord Art 2010 organized by KiC – Kunst in der Carlshütte, Büdelsdorf 2010 Contemporary Art from the Middle East, Ayyam Gallery, Dubai 2008/9 Damas-Paris, Regards Croisés, The Arab World Institute and National Museum, Damascus 2008 UAE Through Arabian Eyes, International Financial Centre, Dubai 2008 Syrian Artists, Souq Wakef Art Center, Doha 2008 The Waterhouse Natural History Art Prize, South Australian Museum and the National Archives of Australia, Canberra 2007 Panorama of Syrian Arts, Catzen Arts Centre at The American University, Washington D.
C. 2006 Syrian Artists, Syrian Cultural Centre, Paris 2005-06 International Painting Prize of the Castellon County Council, ESPAId, Castellon and the Municipal Arts Centre of Alcorcon, Madrid 2005 Women and Arts, International Vision, Expo Sharjah, Sharjah 2004/5 BP Portrait Award, National Portrait Gallery, London. 2008 1st prize Waterhouse Natural History Art Prize, South Australian Museum, Australia. 2006 Fine Arts Syndicate Award, Damascus 2006 Member of the jury for the Annual Exhibition for Syrian Artists, Damascus 2005 Short listed for the International Painting Prize of the Castellon County Council, Spain. 2004: Fourth Prize at the BP Portrait Award at the National Portrait Gallery, London, UK. 2002 Represented Syria in the Mediterranean Biennial, Kheir El Din Palace, Tunis 2001 1st prize in Latakia Biennial, Syria 2000 2nd prize Spanish Cultural Center Art Competition, Damascus 2000 2nd prize British Council Art Competition, Damascus 1998 2nd prize Youth Exhibition, Damascus Sara Shamma 2000-05, Damascus, 2005 Sara Shamma 2005-07, Damascus, 2007 Sara Shamma Music, Kuwait, 2007 Sara Shamma, Damascus, 2008 Sara Shamma Love, Kuwait, 2009 Sara Shamma 2009-10, Damascus, 2011 Sara Shamma Q by Jessica Lack, Royal College of Art, London, 2013 Diaspora Sara Shamma by Edward Lucie-Smith, Art Sawa Gallery, Dubai, 2014 Sara Shamma by Edward Lucie-Smith and Sacha Craddock, London, 2014 World Civil War Portraits: Sara Shamma by Sacha Craddock, Old Truman Brewery, London, 2015 London Sara Shamma by Charlotte Mul
Cleo Simmons is a former American football tight end in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys. He played college football at Jackson State University. Simmons attended Murphy High School, where he practiced basketball, he played as a safety. He accepted a football scholarship from Jackson State University, he was converted into a tight end, playing on special teams in his first years. As a junior, he became a starter; as a senior, he led the team with 46 receptions for 7 touchdowns. He finished his college career with 54 receptions for 8 touchdowns. Simmons was signed as an undrafted free agent by the Dallas Cowboys after the 1983 NFL Draft, he was waived on August 29. He was recalled off waivers on August 30, making the team's roster over fourth round draft choice Chris Faulkner; as a rookie, he was the third-string tight end. He was released on August 14, 1984. On March 20, 1985, he was signed as a free agent by the Indianapolis Colts, he was cut on August 19
Masters of the Universe: Hayek and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics is a 2012 book by barrister Daniel Stedman Jones, in which the author traces the intellectual development and political rise of neoliberalism in the United States and the United Kingdom. A PhD thesis, the author adapted it into a book. According to Jones, neoliberalism began after the Great Depression as a movement of intellectuals committed to protecting liberal values of individual liberty and limited government, which they believed were threatened in Britain and the United States by expanding government, they aimed to construct a distinctly new liberalism by charting a middle way between the laissez-faire economics of the pre-Depression era and the "collectivism" of New Deal liberalism and British social democracy. He argues that between the 1950s and 1970s this commitment evolved into one of greater conviction in the superiority of the free market, such that by the 1980s neoliberal policy proposals centered entirely around market liberalization.
Modern neoliberalism, according to Jones, is associated with economic liberalism, a staunch support of free market capitalism, advocates political policies of deregulation and other market-based reforms. Jones structures the book around what he argues are the three phases of the history of neoliberalism. In the first, lasting from 1920 until 1950, he details how early European neoliberal thinkers like Friedrich Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Karl Popper, motivated by expanding government and the rise of totalitarian regimes in Europe during World War II, developed critiques of "collectivism", which to them included British social democracy and American New Deal liberalism. Influential during this time was the formation of the Mont Pelerin Society, which brought together intellectuals committed to the defense of liberalism and individualism. In the second phase, lasting from 1950 until 1980, the locus of neoliberal thought moved to the United States, where academics like Milton Friedman and George Stigler built upon the earlier neoliberal foundation by developing new academic and political arguments and introducing a range of neoliberal policy prescriptions.
It was during this time that Jones contends neoliberal thought evolved from its more moderate early stance into a "faith" in the power and efficiency of markets. Jones argues that during this period a transatlantic network of intellectuals, businessmen and think tanks arose to promote neoliberal ideology moving neoliberalism out of the political fringes and into the mainstream; the third phase, taking place after 1980, was the period of neoliberal political prominence. After a decade of stagflation in the United States and the United Kingdom, the neoliberal alternative to the Keynesian consensus that had dominated politics was adopted by politicians, finding particular influence with US president Ronald Reagan and British prime minister Margaret Thatcher; this era, Jones notes, was characterized by sweeping deregulation, market liberalization, tax reductions. The book is divided into an introduction, seven chapters, a conclusion; the introduction lays out the structure of the book. Chapter one provides context for the rise of neoliberalism by describing the development of embedded liberalism and Keynesianism after the Great Depression.
Chapter two discusses the critiques of social democracy by the early neoliberals Karl Popper, Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich Hayek, outlines the birth of the Mont Pelerin Society. Chapter three discusses the two Chicago Schools, the relation of Adam Smith to neoliberalism, the early ideas of Milton Friedman, the ordoliberals in West Germany, the economic theories of regulatory capture, public choice, rational choice theory. Chapter four discusses fusionism in the United States, conservatism in Britain during the 1950s, the growth of neoliberal organizations and think tanks from the 1950s through the 1970s, the spread of neoliberal thought to journalists and politicians. Chapter five discusses Keynesianism, American economic policy in the 1960s, the development of monetarism by Milton Friedman. Chapter six discusses the stagflation of the 1970s in the United States and United Kingdom and how it set the stage for the political rise of monetarism, which ushered in further neoliberal reforms. Chapter seven considers the effects of neoliberal policies on housing and urban policy in the United States and the United Kingdom.
The conclusion discusses the lasting effects of neoliberalism and lays out the author's belief in the need to return "reason-based policymaking" to political and economic debates. The author divides the history of neoliberalism into three phases. In the first phase, lasting from 1920 to 1950, Jones contends that the crises of the Great Depression and Second World War produced two competing economic ideologies: Keynesianism and neoliberalism. Keynesianism, developed by economist John May
Shuttlesworth v. Birmingham, 394 U. S. 147, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Supreme Court struck down a Birmingham, Alabama ordinance that prohibited citizens from holding parades and processions on city streets without first obtaining a permit. The Petitioner was Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth, an African American minister who helped lead 52 African Americans in an orderly civil rights march in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, he was arrested and convicted for violating 1159 of the city's General Code, an ordinance which proscribes participating in any parade or procession on city streets or public ways without first obtaining a permit from the City Commission. Section 1159 permits the Commission to refuse a parade permit if its members believe "the public welfare, safety, decency, good order, morals or convenience require that it be refused." Petitioner had been given to understand by a member of the Commission that under no circumstances would petitioner and his group be allowed to demonstrate in Birmingham.
The Alabama Court of Appeals reversed the conviction on the grounds, inter alia, that 1159, as written, unconstitutionally imposed an "invidious prior restraint" without ascertainable standards for the granting of permits, that the ordinance had been discriminatorily enforced. However, the Alabama Supreme Court in 1967 narrowly construed 1159 as an objective, even-handed traffic regulation which did not allow the Commission unlimited discretion in granting or withholding permits, upheld petitioner's conviction; the case was taken to the U. S. Supreme Court, where Shuttlesworth was represented by the prominent civil rights attorney James Nabrit III. Writing for the court, Justice Potter Stewart held that though the actual construction of § 1159 of the Birmingham General City Code was unconstitutional, the judicial construction of the ordinance prohibited only standing or loitering on public property that obstructed free passage, but it was unclear from the record, whether the literal or judicial construction was applied.
Though Justice Stewart's opinion for the Court mentioned that "the Supreme Court of Alabama performed a remarkable job of plastic surgery upon the face of the ordinance", the Court reversed Shuttlesworth's conviction because the circumstances indicated that the parade permit was denied not to control traffic, but to censor ideas. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 394 Brown v. Board of Education Birmingham campaign Works related to Shuttlesworth v. City of Birmingham at Wikisource Text of Shuttlesworth v. City of Birmingham, 394 U. S. 147 is available from: Findlaw Justia Library of Congress Oyez
John Ghazvinian is an Iranian-American journalist and historian. He is the Interim Director of the Middle East Center at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Ghazvinian was raised in Los Angeles. Born in Iran and lives in Philadelphia, he is known for his writing on African oil politics as the author of Untapped: The Scramble for Africa's Oil, an exposé of the petroleum industry in Africa. Ghazvinian is Interim Director of the Middle East Center at the University of Pennsylvania. Untapped has received widespread praise among progressives. Andrew Leonard at salon.com wrote of the book that it "should be must reading for anyone who still believes that unregulated markets are the best way to cure all the ills of the poor nations of the world." The Boston Globe called Untapped a "riveting account and superb analysis of what African oil means to a fuel-hungry world and to the African nations involved." The New York Times called the book "perceptive" and said that it "drills home the point...that a thoughtful strategy to lift the neglected bottom billion must compete against the global oil giants going about their business."Ghazvinian writes for The Nation, Newsweek, GQ and The Virginia Quarterly Review.
He is the author of Iran and America: A History as well as coeditor of American and Muslim Worlds before 1900. Ghazvinian earned his doctorate in history at Oxford University, was the recipient of a "Public Scholar" fellowship from the National Endowment for the Humanities in 2016-2017 as well as a fellowship from the Carnegie Corporation's special initiative on Islam in 2009–2010. "The Curse of Oil" from The Virginia Quarterly Review "John Ghazvinian" from Middle East Center at the University of Pennsylvania