The kirpan is a sword or small dagger, originating from the Indian subcontinent, carried by Sikhs. It is part of a religious commandment given by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699, in which he demanded that Sikhs must wear the five articles of faith at all times, the kirpan being one of five Ks; the Punjabi word kirpan has two roots: kirpa, meaning "mercy", "grace", "compassion" or "kindness". Sikhs are expected to embody the qualities of a Sant Sipahi or "saint-soldier" with the courage to defend the rights of all who are wrongfully oppressed or persecuted irrespective of their colour, caste, or creed. Kirpans have a single cutting edge that may be either blunt or sharp, they are between 3.0 inches and 9.0 inches long, must be made of steel or iron. Sikhism was founded in the 15th century in the Punjab region of medieval India. At the time of its founding, this culturally rich region had been conquered by the Mughal Empire from central Asia. During the time of the founder of the Sikh faith and its first guru, Guru Nanak, Sikhism flourished as a counter to both the prevalent Hindu and Muslim teachings.
The Mughal emperor Akbar was tolerant of non-Islamic religions and focused on religious tolerance. His relationship with Sikh Gurus was cordial; the relationship between the Sikhs and Akbar's successor Jehangir was not friendly. Mughal rulers reinstated sha'ria traditions of jizya, a poll tax on non-Muslims, encouraged conversions. There is no historical evidence to suggest systematic forced conversations, though many softer coercive strategies were implemented; the Guru Arjan Dev, the fifth guru, refused to remove references to Muslim and Hindu teachings in the Adi Granth and was summoned and executed. This incident is seen as a turning point in Sikh history, leading to the first instance of militarization of Sikhs under Guru Arjun's son Guru Hargobind. Guru Arjan Dev explained to the five Sikhs who accompanied him to Lahore, that Guru Hargobind has to build a defensive army to protect the people. Guru Hargobind trained in shashtra vidya, a form of martial arts that became prevalent among the Sikhs.
He first conceptualized the idea of the kirpan through the notion of Sant Sipahi, or "saint soldiers". The relationship between the Sikhs and the Mughals further deteriorated following the execution of the ninth Guru Tegh Bahadur by Aurengzeb, intolerant of Sikhs driven by his desire to impose Islamic law. Following the executions of their leaders and facing increasing persecution, the Sikhs adopted militarization for self-protection by creating on the Khalsa; the tenth and final guru, Guru Gobind Singh formally included the kirpan as a mandatory article of faith for all baptised Sikhs, making it a duty for Sikhs to be able to defend the needy, suppressed ones, to defend righteousness and the freedom of expression. In modern times there has been debate about allowing Sikhs to carry a kirpan that falls under prohibitions on bladed weapons, with some countries allowing Sikhs a dispensation. Other issues not of legality arise, such as whether to allow carrying of kirpans on commercial aircraft or into areas where security is enforced.
On 12 October 2009, the Antwerp Court declared carrying a kirpan a religious symbol, overturning a €550 fine from a lower court for "carrying a accessible weapon without demonstrating a legitimate reason". In most public places in Canada a kirpan is allowed, although there have been some court cases regarding carrying on school premises. In the 2006 Supreme Court of Canada decision of Multani v. Commission scolaire Marguerite‑Bourgeoys the court held that the banning of the kirpan in a school environment offended Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, that the restriction could not be upheld under s. 1 of the Charter, as per R. v. Oakes; the issue started. School staff and parents were concerned, the student was required to attend school under police supervision until the court decision was reached. A student is allowed to have a kirpan on his person if it is secured. In September 2008, Montreal police announced that a 13-year-old student was to be charged after he threatened another student with his kirpan.
The court found the student not guilty of assault with the kirpan, but guilty of threatening his schoolmates, he was granted an absolute discharge on 15 April 2009. On February 9, 2011, the National Assembly of Quebec unanimously voted to ban kirpans from the provincial parliament buildings. However, despite opposition from the Bloc Québécois, it was voted that the kirpan be allowed in federal parliamentary buildings; as of November 27, 2017, Transport Canada has updated its Prohibited Items list to allow Sikhs to wear kirpans smaller than 6 cm in length on all domestic and international flights. On 24 October 2006, the Eastern High Court of Denmark upheld the earlier ruling of the Copenhagen City Court that the wearing of a kirpan by a Sikh was illegal, becoming the first country in the world to pass such a ruling. Ripudaman Singh, who now works as a scientist, was earlier convicted by the City Court of breaking the law by publicly carrying a knife, he was sentenced to a 3,000 kroner fine or six days' imprisonment.
Though the High Court quashed this sentence, it held that the carrying of a kirpan by a Sikh broke the law. The judge stated that "after all the information about the accused, the reason for the accused to possess a knife and the other circumstances of the case, such exceptional extenuating circumstances are found, that the punishment should be dropped, cf. Penal Co
Guru Arjan 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib, he was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who became Guru Ram Das, Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century, he completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, installed it in the Harimandir Sahib. Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one-tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization; the Masand not only collected these funds but taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region.
The dasvand financed the building of langars. Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam, he refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture, his martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003. Arjan was born in Goindval to Jetha Sodhi. Bibi Bhani was the daughter of Guru Amar Das, her husband Jetha Sodhi came to be known as Guru Ram Das. Arjan's birthplace site is now memorialized as the Gurdwara Chaubara Sahib, he had two brothers: Mahadev. Various Sikh chroniclers give his birth year as 1553 or 1563, the latter is accepted by scholarly consensus as the actual year of birth with 15 April as the accepted birth date. Arjan spent the first 11 years of his life in Goindwal and the next seven years with his father in Ramdaspur.
Per Sikh tradition, he had stayed for two years in Lahore during his youth after being sent by his father to attend the wedding of his first cousin Sahari Mal's son as well as to establish a Sikh congregation. He was appointed as the Sikh Guru in 1581 after the death of his father. Ram Das was a Khatri of the Sodhi sub-caste. With Arjan's succession, the Guruship remained in the Sodhi family of Ram Das. Arjan had Prithi Chand and Mahadev. Guru Ram Das chose the youngest, to succeed him as the fifth Sikh Guru. Mahadev, the middle brother chose the life of an ascetic, his choice of Arjan as successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. The stories in the Sikh tradition about the succession dispute around Guru Arjan are inconsistent. In one version, Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Guru Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community; the Sikhs following Guru Arjan called the Prithi Chand faction as Minas, who are alleged to have attempted to assassinate young Hargobind, befriended Mughal agents.
However, the second version, found in alternate competing texts written by the Prithi Chand led Sikh faction contradict this version. They offer a different explanation for the attempt on Hargobind's life, present the elder son of Guru Ram Das as devoted to his younger brother Guru Arjan; the competing texts do acknowledge their disagreement. They state Prithi Chand left Amritsar, became the Sahib Guru after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan and one who disputed the succession of Guru Hargobind as the next Guru; the mainstream Sikh tradition recognised Guru Arjan as the fifth Guru, Hargobind as the sixth Guru. Arjan, at age 18, became the fifth Guru in 1581 inheriting the title from his father. After his execution by the Muslim officials of the Mughal Empire, his son Hargobind became the sixth Guru in 1606 CE. Guru Arjan's martyrdom in Mughal custody has been one of the defining though controversial issues in Sikh history. Most Mughal historians considered Guru Arjan's execution as a political event, stating that the Sikhs had become formidable as a social group, Sikh Gurus became involved in the Punjabi political conflicts.
A similar theory floated in early 20th-century, asserts that this was just a politically-motivated single execution. According to this theory, there was an ongoing Mughal dynasty dispute between Jahangir and his son Khusrau suspected of rebellion by Jahangir, wherein Guru Arjan blessed Khusrau and thus the losing side. Jahangir was jealous and outraged, therefore he ordered the Guru's execution; the Sikh tradition has a competing view. It states that the Guru's execution was a part of the ongoing persecution of the Sikhs by Islamic authorities in the Mughal Empire, that the Mughal rulers of Punjab were alarmed at the growth of the Panth. According to Jahangir's autobiography Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, too many people were becoming persuaded by Guru Arjan's teachings and if Guru Arjan did not become a Muslim, the Sikh Panth had to be extinguished. In 1606 CE, the Guru was imprisoned in Lahore Fort, where by some accounts he was tortured and executed, by other accounts the method of his death remains unresolved.
The traditional Sikh account states that the Mughal emperor Jahangir demanded a fine of 200,000 rupees and demanded that Guru Arjan erase some of the hymns in the text that he found offensive. The Gu
Guru Har Rai
Guru Har Rai revered as the seventh Nanak, was the seventh of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion. He became the Sikh leader at age 14, on 8 March 1644, after the death of his grandfather and sixth Sikh leader Guru Hargobind, he guided the Sikhs for about seventeen years, till his death at age 31. Guru Har Rai is notable for maintaining the large army of Sikh soldiers that the sixth Sikh Guru had amassed, yet avoiding military conflict, he supported the moderate Sufi influenced Dara Shikoh instead of conservative Sunni influenced Aurangzeb as the two brothers entered into a war of succession to the Mughal Empire throne. After Aurangzeb won the succession war in 1658, he summoned Guru Har Rai in 1660 to explain his support for the executed Dara Shikoh. Har Rai sent his elder son Ram Rai to represent him. Aurangzeb kept Ram Rai as hostage, questioned Ram Rai about a verse in the Adi Granth – the holy text of Sikhs at that time. Aurangzeb claimed. Ram Rai changed the verse to appease Aurangzeb instead of standing by the Sikh scripture, an act for which Guru Har Rai is remembered for excommunicating his elder son, nominating his younger son Har Krishan to succeed him.
Har Krishan became the eighth Guru at age 5 after Guru Har Rai's death in 1661. Some Sikh literature spell his name as Hari Rai. Har Rai was born to Baba Gurditta into a Sodhi household, his father died. At age 10, in 1640, Guru Har Rai was married to Mata Kishan Kaur the daughter of Daya Ram, they had the latter of whom became the eighth Guru. Har Rai had brothers, his elder brother Dhir Mal had gained encouragement and support from Shah Jahan, with free land grants and Mughal sponsorship. Dhir Mal attempted to form a parallel Sikh tradition and criticized his grand father and sixth Guru Hargobind; the sixth Guru disagreed with Dhir Mal, designated the younger Har Rai as the successor. Authentic literature about Guru Har Rai life and times are scarce, he left no texts of his own and some Sikh texts composed spell his name as "Hari Rai"; some of the biographies of Guru Har Rai written in the 18th century such as by Kesar Singh Chhibber, the 19th-century Sikh literature are inconsistent. Guru Har Rai provided medical care to Dara Shikoh when he had been poisoned by Mughal operatives.
According to Mughal records, Har Rai provided other forms of support to Dara Shikoh as he and his brother Aurangzeb battled for rights to succession. Aurangzeb won, arrested Dara Shikoh and executed him on charges of apostasy from Islam. In 1660, Aurangzeb summoned Har Rai to appear before him to explain his relationship with Dara Shikoh. In the Sikh tradition, Guru Har Rai was asked why he was helping the Mughal prince Dara Shikoh whose forefathers had persecuted Sikhs and Sikh Gurus. Har Rai is believed to have replied that if a man plucks flowers with one hand and gives it away using his other hand, both hands get the same fragrance, he appointed youngest son Har Krishan as the eighth guru before his death. Guru Har Rai converted many to Sikhism, he started several public singing and scripture recital traditions in Sikhism. The katha or discourse style recitals were added by Guru Har Rai, to the sabad kirtan singing tradition of Sikhs, he added the akhand kirtan or continuous scripture singing tradition of Sikhism, as well as the tradition of jotian da kirtan or collective folk choral singing of scriptures.
The third Sikh leader Guru Amar Das had started the tradition of appointing manji, introduced the dasvandh system of revenue collection in the name of Guru and as pooled community religious resource, the famed langar tradition of Sikhism where anyone, without discrimination of any kind, could get a free meal in a communal seating. The organizational structure that had helped Sikhs to grow and resist the Mughal persecution had created new problems for Guru Har Rai; the donation collectors, some of the Masands led by Dhir Mal – the older brother of Guru Har Rai, all of them encouraged by the support of Shah Jahan, land grants and Mughal administration, had attempted to internally split the Sikhs into competing movements, start a parallel guruship, thereby weaken the Sikh religion. Thus a part of the challenge for Guru Har Rai was to keep Sikhs united, he appointed new masands such as Bhai Jodh, Bhai Gonda, Bhai Nattha, Bhagat Bhagwan, Bhai Pheru, Bhai Bhagat, as the heads of Manji's. Macauliffe, M.
A.. The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus Sacred Writings and Authors. Low Price Publications. ISBN 81-7536-132-8. Singh, Khushwant. A History of the Sikhs: 1469-1839 Vol.1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-567308-5. Guru Har Rai, Sikhs.org Guru Har Rai, Sikh-History.com Guru Har Rai, Official Website of Gurudwara Shri Guru Har Rai Village Bhungarni
Langar, sometimes called Mahaparasada, is the term used in Sikhism for the community kitchen in a Gurdwara where a free meal is served to all the visitors, without distinction of religion, gender, economic status or ethnicity. The free meal is always vegetarian. People sit on the floor and eat together, the kitchen is maintained and serviced by Sikh community volunteers. At the langar, all people eat a vegetarian meal; the exception to vegetarian langar is. Langar came into Punjabi from it. Langar, in its earliest form, was first started in ancient India, where a form of it was practised by some Hindus. Hospitals and certain temples distributed free meals at limited times. Baba Farid, a Muslim of the Chishti Sufi order, was said to practice a form of langar, when visitors came to visit his sufi Darbar. A form of langar was popular in the 12th and 13th centuries among Sufis and Hindus of the Indian subcontinent; the practice grew and is documented in the Jawahir al-Faridi, compiled in 1623 CE. According to Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair, a professor of Sikh Studies, forms of community kitchens were operating in Punjab when Guru Nanak founded Sikhism, these were run by Muslim Sufi orders and by Hindu Gorakhnath orders.
The khanqas of the Chisti and other Sufi saints had langar open to visitors, though Hindus and others did not attend them. The issue with the Hindu and Sufi Muslim forms of langar was that there was a certain division, as Hindus would go to Mandars and Muslims would go to Sufi mosques, where different religions and castes would not mix or eat with each other; the Sikhs created the Sikh langar, by making it an institution for all regardless of background and making it available 24 hours a day to all. The Sikh langar concept was an innovative charity and symbol of equality created by the founder of Sikhism, Guru Nanak, around 1500 CE. Guru Nanak started the Sikh langar when, as a young boy, he came across people from different backgrounds who were in need of food. In an act of grace and charity, he spent all of the money his father had given to him to start a business, he described it as sucha sauda to bring all people together. In Sikhism, the practice of the langar, or free kitchen, is believed to have been started by the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak.
It was designed to uphold the principle of equality among all people, regardless of religion, colour, age, gender or social status. The second Guru of Sikhism, Guru Angad, is remembered in Sikh tradition for systematizing the institution of langar in all Sikh temple premises, where visitors from near and far could get a free simple meal in a communal seating, he set rules and training method for volunteers who operated the kitchen, placing emphasis on treating it as a place of rest and refuge, being always polite and hospitable to all visitors. It was the third Guru, Amar Das, who established langar as a prominent institution, required people to dine together irrespective of their caste and social rank, he encouraged the practice of langar, made all those who visited him attend langar before they could speak to him. He was a Vaishnavite, is said to have accompanied Guru Angad to a langar that served meat; when Guru Angad saw that Amar Das was nervous and sat aloof, he ordered the server to give Amar Das only cereals.
Most Sikh langars serve vegetarian food, though the nihangs of Anandpur Sahib do serve meat on special occasions. Langars are held all over the world to feed the homeless. Major Indian Gurdwaras operate langars where thousands of visitors join together for a simple vegetarian meal everyday. Bhog Prasad Desjardins, Michel. "Food that Builds Community: The Sikh Langar in Canada". Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures. Consortium Erudit. 1. Doi:10.7202/037851ar
Guru Amar Das
Guru Amar Das was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Sikh Guru on 26 March 1552 at age 73. Before becoming a Sikh, Amar Das had adhered to the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism for much of his life. One day he heard his nephew's wife, Bibi Amro, reciting a hymn by Guru Nanak, was moved by it. Bibi Amro was the daughter of Guru Angad, the second and current Guru of the Sikhs. Amar Das persuaded Bibi Amro to introduce him to her father and in 1539, Amar Das, at the age of sixty, met Guru Angad and became a Sikh, devoting himself to the Guru. In 1552, before his death, Guru Angad appointed Amar Das as Guru Amar Das, the third Guru of Sikhism. Guru Amar Das was an important innovator in Sikhism, who introduced a religious organization called the Manji system by appointing trained clergy, a system that expanded and survives into the contemporary era, he wrote and compiled hymns into a Pothi that helped create the Adi Granth. Guru Amar Das helped establish the Sikh rituals relating to baby naming and funeral, as well as the practice of congregation and celebrations of festivals such as Diwali and Vaisakhi.
He founded centres of Sikh pilgrimage, picked the site for the Golden Temple. Guru Amar Das remained the leader of the Sikhs till age 95, named his son-in-law Bhai Jetha remembered by the name Guru Ram Das as his successor. Guru Amar Das was born to mother Bakht Kaur and father Tej Bhan Bhalla on 5 May 1479 in Basarke village in what is now called Amritsar district of Punjab, he married Mansa Devi and they had four children which they named as Mohri, Mohan and Bhani. Amar Das was a religious Hindu, reputed to have gone on some twenty pilgrimages into the Himalayas, to Haridwar on river Ganges. About 1539, on one such Hindu pilgrimage, he met a Hindu monk who asked him why he did not have a guru and Amar Das decided to get one. On his return, he heard Bibi Amro, the daughter of the Sikh Guru Angad, singing a hymn by Guru Nanak, he learnt from her about Guru Angad, with her help met the second Guru of Sikhism and adopted him as his spiritual Guru, much younger than his own age. He is famous in the Sikh tradition for his relentless service to Guru Angad, with legends about waking up in the early hours and fetching water for his Guru's bath and cooking for the volunteers with the Guru, as well devoting much time to meditation and prayers in the morning and evening.
Guru Angad named Amar Das his successor instead of naming of his surviving son Shri Chand. After Amar Das became the third Guru, he continued his pilgrimages to religious sites, one of, authenticated in a hymn of the Guru Granth Sahib as being to Kurukshetra in January 1553, he died in 1574, like other Sikh Gurus he was cremated, with the "flowers" immersed into harisar. The use of fire being most appropriate way was explained by Guru Nanak in religious terms of god Agni burning the trap of death, Guru Amar Das was consigned to the same tradition. Guru Amar Das emphasised both spiritual pursuits as well an ethical daily life, he encouraged his followers to wake up before dawn, do their ablutions and meditate in silent seclusion. A good devotee, taught Amar Das, should be truthful, keep his mind in control, eat only when hungry, seek company of pious men, worship the Lord, make an honest living, serve holy men, not covet another's wealth and never slander others, he recommended holy devotion with Guru image in his follower's heart.
He was a reformer, discouraged veiling of women's faces as well as sati. He encouraged the Kshatriya people to fight in order to protect people and for the sake of justice, stating this is Dharma. Guru Amar Das started the tradition of appointing manji, introduced the dasvandh system of revenue collection in the name of Guru and as pooled community religious resource, the famed langar tradition of Sikhism where anyone, without discrimination of any kind, could get a free meal in a communal seating, he started and inaugurated the 84-level step well called baoli at Goindval with a resting place, modeled along the lines of the Indian tradition of dharmsala, which became a Sikh pilgrimage center. He met the Mughal Emperor Akbar. According to the Sikh legend, he neither received Akbar nor was Akbar directly ushered to him, rather the Guru suggested that Akbar like everyone sit on the floor and eat in the langar with everyone before their first meeting. Akbar, who sought to encourage tolerance and acceptance across religious lines accepted the suggestion.
The Sikh hagiographies called janam-sakhis mention that Guru Amar Das persuaded Akbar to repeal the tax on Hindu pilgrims going to Haridwar. Guru Amar Das composed the rapturous hymn called Anand and made it a part of the ritual of Sikh marriage called "Anand Karaj", which means "blissful event"; the Anand hymn is sung, in contemporary times, not only during Sikh weddings but at major celebrations. Parts of the "Anand hymn" are recited in Sikh temples every evening, at the naming of a Sikh baby, as well as during a Sikh funeral, it is a section of the Anand Sahib composition of Guru Amar Das, printed on pages 917 to 922 of the Adi Granth and set to the "Ramkali" raga. Guru Amar Das's entire Anand Sahib composition is a linguistic mix of Panjabi and Hindi languages, reflecting Guru Amar Das' upbringing and background; the hymn celebrates the freedom from suffering and anxiety, the union of the soul with t
Kirtan or Kirtana is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, telling, describing" of an idea or story. It refers to a genre of religious performance arts, connoting a musical form of narration or shared recitation of spiritual or religious ideas. With roots in the Vedic anukirtana tradition, a kirtan is a call-and-response style song or chant, set to music, wherein multiple singers recite or describe a legend, or express loving devotion to a deity, or discuss spiritual ideas, it may include dancing or direct expression of bhavas by the singer. Many kirtan performances are structured to engage the audience where they either repeat the chant, or reply to the call of the singer. A person performing kirtan is known as a kirtankara. A Kirtan performance includes an accompaniment of regionally popular musical instruments, such as the harmonium, the veena or ektara, the tabla, the mrdanga or pakhawaj and karatalas or talas, it is a major practice in Hinduism, Vaisnava devotionalism, the Sant traditions and some forms of Buddhism, as well as other religious groups.
Kirtan is sometimes accompanied by acting. Texts cover religious, mythological or social subjects. Kirtan has Vedic roots and it means "telling, describing, reporting"; the term is found as Anukirtan in the context of Yajna, wherein team recitations of dialogue-style and question-answer riddle hymns were part of the ritual or celebratory dramatic performance. The Sanskrit verses in chapter 13.2 of Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, are written in the form of a riddle play between two actors. The Vedic sacrifice is presented as a kind of drama, with its actors, its dialogues, its portion to be set to music, its interludes, its climaxes; the root of kirtan is kirt. The root is found in the Samhitas, the Brahmanas and other Vedic literature, as well as the Vedanga and Sutras literature. Kirt, according to Monier-Williams contextually means, "to mention, make mention of, name, recite, relate, communicate, celebrate, glorify".kirtan, sometimes referred to as sankirtana, is a call-and-response chanting or musical conversation, a genre of religious performance arts that developed during India's bhakti devotional traditions.
However, it is a heterogeneous practice that varies regionally according to Christian Novetzke, includes varying mixture of different musical instruments, oration, audience participation and moral narration. In Maharashtra for example, states Novetzke, a kirtan is a call-and-response style performance, ranging from devotional dancing and singing by a lead singer and audience, to an "intricate scholarly treatise, a social commentary or a philosophical/linguistic exposition", that includes narration, humor and entertainment – all an aesthetic part of ranga of the kirtana. Kirtan is locally known as Abhang, Samaj Gayan, Haveli Sangeet, Harikatha; the Vaishnava temples and monasteries of Hinduism in Assam and northeastern, called Satra, have a large worship hall named Kirtan ghar – a name derived from their being used for congregational singing and performance arts. In regional languages, Kirtana is scripted as Bengali: কীর্তন. Musical recitation of hymns and the praise of deities has ancient roots in Hinduism, as evidenced by the Samaveda and other Vedic literature.
Kirtan were popularized by the Bhakti movement of medieval era Hinduism, starting with the South Indian Alvars and Nayanars around the 6th century, which spread in central, northern and eastern India after the 12th century, as a social and congregational response to Hindu-Muslim conflicts. The foundations of the Kirtan traditions are found in other Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavad-gita where Krishna describes multiple paths to spiritual freedom, including karma marga, jnana marga and bhakti marga. Kirtan relates to the bhakti marga tradition of Hinduism. References to Kirtan as a musical recitation are found in the Bhagavata Purana, an important Vaishnava text. Kirtan is practiced as a kind of theatrical folk song with call-and-response chanting or antiphon; the ancient sage Narada revered as a musical genius, is called a kirtankar in the Padma Purana. The famous story of Prahlada in the Avatara Katha mentions kirtan as one of nine forms of worship, called the nava vidha bhakti along with shravanam, pada sevanam, vandanam, dasyam and atmanivedanam.
The so-called Naradiya Kirtan divides kirtan into five parts: naman, chanting, katha or akhyan and a final prayer for universal welfare. Kirtan as a genre of religious music has been a major part of the Vaishnavism tradition starting with the Alvars of Sri Vaishnavism sub-tradition between the 7th to 10th century CE. After the 13th-century, two subgenres of kirtan emerged in Vaishnavism, namely the Nama-kirtana wherein the different names or aspects of god are extolled, the Lila- kirtana wherein the deity's life and legends are narrated; the Marathi Varkari saint Namdev used the kirtan
A finial or hip-knob is an element marking the top or end of some object formed to be a decorative feature. In architecture it is a decorative device carved in stone, employed to emphasize the apex of a dome, tower, roof, or gable or any of various distinctive ornaments at the top, end, or corner of a building or structure. Where there are several such elements they may be called pinnacles. Smaller finials in materials such as metal or wood are used as a decorative ornament on the tops or ends of poles or rods such as tent-poles or curtain rods or any object such as a piece of furniture; these are seen on top of bed posts or clocks. Decorative finials are commonly used to fasten lampshades, as an ornamental element at the end of the handles of souvenir spoons; the charm at the end of a pull chain is known as a finial. During the various dynasties in China, a finial was worn on the top of the hats civil or military officials wore during formal court ceremonies; the finial was changed to a knob for other daily usage.
The Pickelhaube is a Central European military helmet with a finial topped by a spike. In Java and Bali, a rooftop finial is known as kemuncak. A "ball-style" finial is mounted to the top of a stationary flagpole; the United States Army, Marine Corps and Coast Guard employ a variety of different finials depending on the flag in question, the Marines and Coast Guard deferring to the Navy's protocols. Bed posts and public garden railings end in finials. Wooden posts tend to have turned wood finials. While the purpose of finials on bed posts is decorative, they serve a purpose on curtain rods, providing a way to keep a curtain from slipping off the end of a straight rod. Curtain rod finials can be seen to act much like a barometer of public taste. Many designs hark back to the Gothic and Neogothic of architectural finials, while other contemporary finials reflect minimalist, art nouveau and other traditional styles of décor; the use of different materials is as wide as the range of designs with brass, stainless steel, various woods and aluminium being employed with a variety of finishes such as ‘satin steel’ and'antique brass'.
The durability and machinability of modern alloys have lent themselves to intricate and dazzling designs. Some lampshades or light fittings in glass terminate in a finial which serves to affix the shade to the lamp or fixture. Finials are twisted onto the lamp harp; the finial is externally decorative whilst hiding an internal screw thread. There are several standard thread sizes. Acroterion Alem Crocket Souvenir spoon Word-of-the-day on finial