Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj was the fifth Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Shivaji Maharaj. He was Shivaji's eldest son and successor. Shahu, as a child, was taken prisoner along with his mother in 1689 by Mughal sardar, Zulfikar Khan Nusrat Jang After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, leading Mughal courtiers released Shahu with a force of fifty men, thinking that a friendly Maratha leader would be a useful ally. At that time he fought a brief war with his aunt Tarabai in an internecine conflict to gain the Maratha throne in 1707; the battle is known as Battle of Khed, On 12th of October 1707 Supreme commander of Maratha forces Dhanaji Jadhav joined Shahuji in that battle. Tarabai along with her son Shivaji 2 left for Panhala fort and Finally Shahuji captured Satara and became the emperor of Marathas with the capital at Satara, he crowned himself as the Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire on 12th January 1708. Meanwhile Tarabai set up a new court at Kolhapur with her son Shivaji II as the Emperor.
Under Shahu's reign, Maratha power and influence extended to all corners of the Indian subcontinent. He was a powerful ruler of Maratha Samrajya after his grandfather father Sambhaji; however after his death, power moved from the ruling chhatrapati to his ministers and the generals who had carved out their own fiefdoms such as Bhonsle of Nagpur, Gaekwad of Baroda, Scindia of Gwalior and Holkar of Indore. He remained the most famous ruler expanding the territories of Maratha empire Chhatrapati Shahu's Seal। श्री वर्धिष्णुर्विक्रमे विष्णोः। सा मूर्तिरिव वामनी । । शंभूसुतोरिव । मुद्रा शिवराजस्य राजते ।। Early in his reign, Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj appointed Bahiroji Pingale as the Peshwa and Dhanaji Jadhav as the Sar Senapati. Bahiroji Pingale was taken as prisoner by Kanhoji Angre in 1711. In 1713 Shahu Maharaj appointed Balaji Vishwanath as his Peshwa and other 7 ministers as Ashtapradhan Mandal. Over the next few years, Under the directions and orders of Chhatrapati Shahu, Balaji followed by his son, Bajirao I and grandson Balaji Bajirao with help of capable military leaders such as Shinde, Gaekwad and Bhonsle of Nagpur expanded Maratha power in all directions of the Indian subcontinent..
Shahu fathered four daughters. He adopted two sons, Fatehsinh I and Rajaram II of Satara. Rajaram II had been brought to him by Shahu's paternal aunt, who claimed that the young man was her grandson and a descendant of Shivaji, but disowned him as an imposter. After Shahu's death the powers were indirectly shifted to the Peshwa Balaji Bajirao and other ministers with Shrimant Rajaram 2 as the Chhatrapati of the Kingdom Shahu died in 1749, his adopted son Rajaram II of Satara succeeded him. Rajaram 2 was a powerful ruler but Tarabai tried to control his decisions, This led to a conflict between Tararani Sarkar and Rajaram 2, She told that Rajaram was just a imposter and so the actual power of Chhatrapati declined but still he continued to be the Chhatrapati and Chhatrapati enjoyed a lot of respect and ransom from the ministers as they were the real kings of the Maratha Empire, but the actual power was held by others: first by Tarabai and by Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao. Moreover the Peshwas lost their power and other independent kings started exercising real control.
Satara district Mehta, Jaswant Lal. Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813. Sterling Publishers. Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 441. Kasar, D. B. Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji the great, Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan, Rs. 165. Akkalkot, Solapur district gazette
Rajaram Raje Bhosale was the younger son of Maratha ruler Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, half-brother of Sambhaji Maharaj. He took over the Maratha Empire as its third Chhatrapati after his brother's death at the hands of the Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb in 1689, his eleven-year reign was marked with a constant struggle against the Mughals. Rajaram was born to Shivaji and his younger wife, Soyarabai on 24 February, 1670, he was thirteen years younger than Sambhaji. Given the ambitious nature of Soyarabai, Rajaram was installed on the Maratha throne upon the death of his father in 1680. However, Sambhaji won over the Maratha generals to his side and claimed the throne. Upon Sambhaji's death, Rajaram was crowned as Chhatrapati of the Maratha state.. Rajaram married three times, his first marriage was at the age of ten to Jankibai, the five-year-old daughter of Shivaji's army chief, Prataprao Gujar. His other wives were Tarabai, the daughter of Hambirrao Mohite, the army chief who succeeded Prataprao, Rajasbai from the influential Ghatge family of Kagal.
Rajaram had three sons, Raja Karna, born out of wedlock to a slave woman, Shivaji II with Tarabai, Sambhaji II with Rajasbai. After the death of Sambhaji, Rajaram was crowned at Raigad on 12 March 1689; as the Mughals started laying siege to the region around Raigad on 25 March 1689, the widow of Sambhaji and her minister Ramchandra Pant Amatya sent young Rajaram to the stronghold of Pratapgad through Kavlya ghat. The Maratha army fought with the Mughals and led the new Maratha king, Rajaram to escape through Kavlya ghat to the fort of Jinji in present-day state of Tamil Nadu via Pratapgad and Vishalgad forts, Rajaram reached Keladi in disguise and sought refuge from Keladi Chennamma - The brave queen fought the Mughals and ensured safe passage and escape of Rajaram to Jinji where he reached after a month and a half on 1 November 1689, Keladi Chennamma fought the jungle warfare which frustrated the Mughals and the Mughals proposed peace accord for the first time with an Indian ruler, Keladi Chennamma.
Details of this escape are known from the incomplete poetical biography of Rajaram, the Rajaramacharita written by his Rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, in Sanskrit. Aurangzeb deputed Ghazi-ud-din Firoze Jung against the Marathas in the Deccan, specially sent Zulfiqar Khan Nusrat Jung to capture the Jingi Fort, he laid siege to it in September, 1690. After three failed attempts, it was captured after seven years on 8 January 1698. Rajaram, however and fled first to Vellore and to Vishalgarh. Rajaram occupied the fort at Jinji from 11 Nov. 1689, but left before it fell in 1698, setting up his court at fort Satara. During that period when Jinji remained unconquered, "the intrepid Maratha commanders, Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav, wrought havoc in the Karnataka and Maharashtra by defeating the Mughal generals and cutting off their lines of communication." Rajaram died of lung disease in 1700 at Sinhagad near Pune in Maharashtra leaving behind widows and infants. Janakibai, one of his widows, committed Sati upon Rajaram's death.
Another of Rajaram's widows, Tarabai proclaimed her young son, Shivaji II as the Chhatrapati and ruled as his regent. However, the release of Shahu, by the successors of Aurangzeb led to an internecine conflict between Tarabai and Shahu with the latter becoming the winner and occupant of the throne. Tarabai installed her son as the rival Chhatrapati, she was shortly deposed by the other surviving widow of Rajaram. Rajasbai installed; the Kolhapur line has continued to this day through natural succession and adoptions per Hindu custom. Rajaram commissioned a history of his father, known as Sabhasad Bakhar after the writer of the work, Krishnaji Anant Sabhasad, an officer in the service of Rajaram; this is the only Marathi historical work about Shivaji, written by an author, a contemporary of Shivaji. All biographies were written decades or centuries after Shivaji's death and use content from Sabhasad Bakhar. Khando Ballal List of people involved in the Maratha Empire Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 440
The Holkar dynasty was a Maratha clan of Dhangar origin in India. The Holkars were generals under Peshwa Baji Rao I, becane Maharajas of Indore in Central India as an independent member of the Maratha Empire until 1818, their kingdom became a princely state under the protectorate of British India. The dynasty was founded with Malhar Rao, who joined the service of the Peshwas of the Maratha Empire in 1721, rose to the ranks of Subedar; the name of the dynasty was associated with the title of the ruler, known informally as Holkar Maharaja. Malhar Rao Holkar, a Maratha chief serving Peshwa Baji Rao, established the dynasty's rule over Indore. In the 1720s, he led Maratha armies in Malwa region, in 1733 was granted 9 parghanas in the vicinity of Indore by the Peshwa; the township of Indore had existed as an independent principality established by Nandlal Mandloi of Kampel, Nandlal Mandloi was won by the Maratha force and allowed them to camp across the Khan River. In 1734, Malhar Rao established a camp called Malharganj.
In 1747, he started the construction of the Rajwada. By the time of his death, he ruled much of Malwa, was acknowledged as one of the five independent rulers of the Maratha Confederacy, he was succeeded by his daughter-in-law. She was born in the Chaundi village in Maharashtra, she moved the capital to Maheshwar, south of Indore on the Narmada River. Rani Ahilyabai was a prolific patron of Hindu temples in Maheshwar and Indore, she built temples at sacred sites outside her kingdom, from Dwarka in Gujarat east to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple at Varanasi on the Ganges. The adopted son of Malhar Rao Haolkar, Tukoji Rao Holkar succeeded Rani Ahilyabai upon her death. Tukoji Rao had been a commander under Ahilyabai for her entire rule, his son Yashwantrao Holkar succeeded him upon his death. He tried to free the Delhi Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II from the British in the unsuccessful Second Anglo-Maratha War; the grateful Shah Alam gave him the title of Maharajadiraj Rajrajeshwar Alija Bahadur in honor of his bravery.
Attempts by Yashwantrao Holkar to unite the kings failed, he was approached to sign a peace treaty with the British. The Treaty of Rajghat, signed late December 1805, recognised him as a sovereign king. In 1811, the four-year-old Maharaja Malharrao Holkar II succeeded Yashwantrao Holkar, his mother, Maharani Tulsabai Holkar, looked after the administration. However, with the help of Pathans and the British, Dharama Kunwar and Balaram Seth plotted to imprison Tulsabai and Malharrao; when Tulsabai learnt about this, she appointed Tantia Jog. As a result, Gaffur Khan Pindari secretly signed a treaty with the British on 9 November 1817 and killed Tulsabai on 19 December 1817; the treaty was signed on 6 January 1818 at Mandsaur. Bhimabai Holkar did not accept the treaty, kept attacking the British by guerilla methods. Rani Lakshmibai of Jhanshi took inspiration from Bhimabai Holkar and fought against the British. At the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the Holkars lost much of their territory to the British and were incorporated into the British Raj as a princely state of the Central India Agency.
The capital was shifted from Bhanpura to Indore. Malharrao Holkar III entered Indore on 2 November 1818. Tantia Jog was appointed his Diwan; as the old palace was destroyed by the army of Daulat Rao Scindia, a new palace was constructed in its place. Malharrao III was succeeded by Martandrao Holkar, who formally ascended to the throne on 17 January 1834, but he was replaced by Harirao Holkar, nephew of Yashwantrao, who ascended to the throne on 17 April 1834. He adopted Khanderao Holkar on 2 July 1841 and died on 24 October 1843. Khanderao was formally installed as the ruler on 13 November 1843, but he died on 17 February 1844. Tukojirao Holkar II was installed on the throne on 27 June 1844. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he was loyal to the British East India Company. In October 1872, he appointed T. Madhava Rao as the Diwan of Indore, he succeeded by his eldest son, Shivajirao. Yashwantrao Holkar II ruled Indore state until shortly after India's independence in 1947, when he acceded to the Indian Government.
Indore became a district of Madhya Bharat state, merged into Madhya Pradesh state in 1956. Malhar Rao Holkar I. Born 16 March 1693, died 20 May 1766 Male Rao Holkar. Born 1745, died 5 April 1767 Ahilya Bai Holkar. Born 1725, died 13 August 1795 Tukoji Rao Holkar I. Born 1723, died 15 August 1797 Kashi Rao Holkar Born before 1776, died 1808 Khande Rao Holkar Born in 1798, died 1807 Yashwant Rao Holkar I. Born 1776, died 27 October 1811 Malhar Rao Holkar II Born 1806, died 27 October 1833 Marthand Rao Holkar. Born 1830, died 2 June 1849 Hari Rao Holkar. Born 1795, died 24 October 1843 Khande Rao Holkar II. Born 1828, died 17 March 1844 Tukoji Rao Holkar II. Born 3 May 1835, died 17 June 1886 Shivaji Rao Holkar. Born 11 November 1859, died 13 October 1908 Tukoji Rao Holkar III. Born 26 November 1890, died 21 May 1978 Yashwant Ra
Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi
Shriniwasrao Parshuram, popularly known as Shripatrao Pratinidhi or Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi, was a General of the Maratha Empire. He served as Pratinidhi during Chhatrapati Shahu I reign. After the death of his father Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi in 1718, Shripat Rao won the favour of Shahu by his brilliant efforts as a soldier fighting many battles in the defence of the Maratha Empire. In 1718, he was appointed as the Pant Pratinidhi of Maratha Empire. Shripatrao was not only a able administrator and organizer, but a great statesman too, his work to consolidate the Maratha Raj has been praised by most of its historians. Shahu Maharaj depended upon the advice of Shripatrao. If owing to some unavoidable reasons Rao didn't present at the court at the usual hour the king would go to his house and inquire about him, thus Shripatrao, unlike his father had no problem of loyalty to Chatrapathi Shripatrao was asked by peshwas to establish his headquarters at Poona. Rao refused to do so, he wanted to be at the side of King of the Maratha Empire, away from the intrigues pomp and debauchery of the Peshwa court.
Shripatrao, was born in 1687. He must have been influenced by his father, he had lived a life of turmoil as well as of glory, benefited from it. Shahu Maharaj had great regard for Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi. Krishnaji Khatavkar had received the pargana of Khatav in 1689 A. D from the Mughal Emperor, Aurangazeb, he had become overbearing. Shripatro defeated him in battle. Submitting to Shahu's authority was appreciated by Shahu, who released Shripatro's father. In between 1724 and 1727, the Marathas led two expeditions into the Karnatak, one led jointly by Shripatrao Pratinidhi, Peshwa Bajirao I and the Sarlashkar, the other by Peshwa and Senapati; the first Karnatak expedition, which lasted for two years, from November 1724 and May 1726, led by Fateh Singh Bhonsale, accompanied by both Shripatrao Pratinidhi and Bajirao I, proved to be futile. The Nizam gave lukewarm support to Marathas; however he regarded the south as his sphere of influence and did not want Marathas to interfere with it. He therefore gave secret instructions to officers to thwart the plans of Marathas in Karnatak.
The Maratha leaders who led this campaign could not shed their differences. The Marathas could not realize their objective in this campaign; the second Karnatak expedition was led by Bajirao him in October 1727. The Pratinidhi, secretly negotiating with the Nizam, rewarded with a personal jagir i Varhad by Nizam. Bajirao therefore did not associate with Pratinidhi with this expedition, he besieged the fort of Serinaapatnam and succeeded in levying chauth and Sardeshmukhi from the rulers of Mysore and Arcot. After the death of Shripatrao Pratinidhi in 1746 Shahu Maharaj made his younger brother, Jagjivan Parshuram the next Pratinidhi. Jagjivan parashuram was the youngest son of Parashuram Trimbak Pant, he became Pratinidhi at the age of fifty-five. Pant Pratinidhi family Udgaonkar, P. B. Political Institutions & Administration. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. Bond, J. W. Indian States: A Biographical and Administrative Survey. Asian Educational Services. Pant, Apa. An Extended Family Or Fellow Pilgrims.
Sangam Books. Kulkarni, A. R.. The Marathas. Diamond Publications. Vaidya, Sushila. Role of women in Maratha politics, 1620-1752 A. D. Sharada Publication House
Jijabai Shahaji Bhosale, referred to as Rajmata Jijabai, was the mother of Shivaji, founder of Maratha Empire. She was a daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindhkhed. Jijabai was born on 12 January 1598, as the daughter of Laojiao Jadhav of Deulgaon, near Sindkhed, in present-day Buldhana district of Maharastra, her mother's name was Mhalsabai. Jijabai was married at an early age to Shahaji Bhosle, son of Maloji Bhosle of Verul village, a military commander serving under the Adil Shahi sultans. Jijabai's father-in-law, Maloji Bhosle, had begun his career as a shilledh 5, 2019edar serving under the command of her father, Lakhojirao Jadhav, her natal family the Jadhav family was of high standing in the region, whereas her husband's family were just raising into importance newly. Jijabai had given birth to six children. Out of six, four children died in infancy and only the two sons and Shivaji, reached adulthood. Jijabai died on 17 June 1674. Today in Maharashtra, she is regarded as an ideal mother.
Her upbringing of Shivaji is a subject of folklore. The 2011 film Rajmata Jijau is a biography of Jijabai. List of Maratha dynasties and states Maratha clan system Bhosale Maratha Kranti Morcha
The Maratha are an Indian caste of Marathi-speaking peasant-warriors. They established the Maratha Empire in 1674 and were the dominant power on the subcontinent for much of the following century before their downfall in 1818, they were champions of Hinduism in the face of the Islamic Mughal Empire. The term Maratha is used in three overlapping senses: within the Marathi-speaking region it refers to the single dominant Maratha caste or to the group of Maratha and Kunbi castes; the "Maratha group of castes" is a rural class of peasant cultivators and soldiers."According to the Maharashtrian historian, B. R. Sunthankar, scholars such as Rajendra Vora, the "Maratha caste" is a "caste of peasants" which formed the bulk of the Maharashtrian society together with the other Kunbi peasant caste. Vora adds that the Maratha caste is the largest caste of India and dominate the power structure in Maharashtra in the rural society. According to Jeremy Black, British historian at the University of Exeter, "Maratha caste is a coalescence of peasants, ironworkers, etc. as a result of serving in the military in the 17th and 18th century".
According to one scholar, Marathas are dominant in rural areas and constitute the landed peasantry. As of 2018, 80% of the members of the Maratha caste were farmers. Robert Vane Russell, an untrained ethnologist of the British Raj period, basing his research on Vedic literature, wrote that the Marathas are subdivided into 96 different clans, known as the 96 Kuli Marathas or Shahānnau Kule The general body of lists are at great variance with each other; the term "Maratha" referred to the speakers of the Marathi language. In the 17th century, it emerged as a designation for peasants from Deccan who served as soldiers in the armies of Muslim rulers and in the armies of Shivaji Maharaj, thus the term'Maratha' became a marker of an endogamous caste. A number of Maratha warriors, including Shivaji's father, Shahaji served in those Muslim armies. By the mid-1660s, Shivaji had established an independent Maratha kingdom. After Shivaji's death, Marathas defeated Aurangzeb in the war of 27 years, it was further expanded into a vast empire by the Maratha Confederacy including Peshwas, stretching from central India in the south, to Peshawar on the Afghanistan border in the north, with expeditions to Bengal in the east.
By the 19th century, the empire had become a confederacy of individual states controlled by Maratha chiefs such as Gaikwad's of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore, the Scindias of Gwalior, the Puars of Dhar and Dewas, Bhonsles of Nagpur. The Confederacy remained the pre-eminent power in India until their defeat by the British East India Company in the Third Anglo-Maratha War. By 19th century, the term Maratha had several interpretations in the British administrative records. In the Thane District Gazetteer of 1882, the term was used to denote elite layers within various castes: for example, "Maratha-Agri" within Agri caste, "Maratha-Koli" within Koli caste and so on. In the Pune District, the words Kunbi and Maratha had become synonymous, giving rise to the Maratha-Kunbi caste complex; the Pune District Gazetteer of 1882 divided the Kunbis into two classes: Marathas and other Kunbis. The 1901 census listed three groups within the Maratha-Kunbi caste complex: "Marathas proper", "Maratha Kunbis" and Konkan Maratha.
According to Steele, in the early 19th century, who were agriculturists and the Marathas who claimed Rajput descent and Kshatriya status - were distinguished by their customs related to widow remarriage. The Kunbis allowed it and the higher status Marathas prohibited it. However, there is no statistical evidence for this; as per academic scholars the Maratha population was more than 31% in Maharashtra and the Kunbi was 7%, whereas the upper castes - Brahmins and Prabhus were earlier only about 4% of the population although modern values show that the percentage of Brahmins in Maharashtra is now close to 10%. The Other Backward Class population was 27% while the population of the Mahars was 12%; the term Maratha came to denote an endogamous caste. From 1900 onwards, the Satyashodhak Samaj movement defined the Marathas as a broader social category of non-Brahmin groups; these non-Brahmins gained prominence in Indian National Congress during the Indian independence movement. In independent India, these Marathas became the dominant political force in the newly-formed state of Maharashtra.
The caste hierarchy in Maharashtra is led by the Brahmins - Deshasthas, Karhades and the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus. The Maratha are ranked lower than the Pathare Prabhus, CKPs, Brahmins etc. in the caste hierarchy but are considered higher than the Kunbi, backward castes and castes that were considered ritually impure. Modern research has revealed that the Marathas and Kunbi have the same origin - although the two are treated as two different communities on a social level. Most the Kunbi origin of the Maratha has been explained in detail by Professor Richard Eaton from the University of Arizona and Professor Stewart Gordon; the Kunbis who served the Muslim rulers and over time adopted different customs like different dressing styles, started identifying as Maratha and caste boundaries solidified between them. In the nineteenth century, economic prosperity rather than marital service to the Muslims replaced the mobility into Maratha identity. Eaton gives an example of the Holkar family that belonged to the Dhangar caste but was given a Maratha or
Muddupalani was a Telugu speaking poet and devadasi attached to the court of Pratap Singh, the Maratha king of Tanjore. Some commentators date her life to 1739-90, her place of birth as Nagavasram in Thanjavur district, she is noted as a poet and scholar and for her erotic epic Rādhikā-sāntvanam Muddupalani was well versed in Telugu and Sanskrit literature, was an accomplished dancer, came from a devadasi family: Muddupalani was the granddaughter of an exceptionally gifted courtesan called Tanjanayaki, not only a talented musician but was adept at the nava rasas. At her soirees, where music and conversation flowed, she entertained learned scholars and aristocrats. But... she longed to have children. She adopted children of Ayyavaya, a man she considered her brother, she raised the young boy, whom she named Muthyalu, to adulthood, got him married to another talented and beautiful courtesan called Rama Vadhuti. A staunch devotee of Lord Subramanya Swami, Muthyalu named his first-born daughter after the temple town of Palani where stands a famour temple dedicated to the beautiful warrior son of Lord Shiva.
Keeping the surname Muddu before the name, a general practise in the south, Muddupalani was thus born into an talented and devout household. She became one of the consorts of Pratap Singh, whose court was noted for its patronage of the arts, whose predecessors included Raghunatha Nayak, whose court played host to numbers of skilled female poets and musicians, such as Ramabhadramba and Madhuravani: Unlike a family woman in her time, as a courtesan Muddupalani would have had access to learning and the leisure to write and practise the arts, she would have expected and enjoyed functional equality with men. The esteem in which Muddupalani was held and the acclaim her work received can be attributed as much to the contexts and social, she drew upon as to her own talent; the Rādhikā-sāntvanam seems to reflect Muddupalani's own experiences of sexual and interpersonal relationships: her grandmother Tanjanayaki too had been a consort of the king, displaced by Muddupalani. After a few years, when the king renewed his attentions towards the older woman, the young and petulant Muddupalani is said to have become progressively jealous and taciturn, leaving the kind no option but to appease her.
Little more is known of Muddupalani's life, beyond what can be gleaned from the Rādhikā-sāntvanam, in which she says Which other woman of my kind has felicitated scholars with such gifts and money? To which other women of my kind have epics been dedicated? Which other woman of my kind has won such acclaim in each of the arts? You are incomparable, among your kind. A face that glows like skills of conversation, matching the countenance. Eyes filled with compassion. A great spirit of generosity, matching the glance; these are the ornaments. Her best-known work is Rādhikā-sāntvanam, an erotic narrative poem that deals with the marital relationship of the deity Krishna, his female friend Radha and new wife Ila, the appeasement of the jealousy of Radha, she received the concept of this poem when Krishna visited her in a dream and suggested that she write about the subject. The poem became the subject of a censorship controversy in the early 20th century, because of its sexual frankness, because it portrayed its women characters as taking the initiative in sex.
Muddupalani's other well-known work is a Telugu translation of Jayadeva's eponymous work. She translated the Thiruppavai by Andal, experimented with a form called saptapadalu, seven-lined songs, none of which survive