Peshwa Madhav Rao II was Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India, from his infancy. He was known as Madhav Rao Narayan, he was the posthumous son of Narayanrao Peshwa, murdered in 1773 on the orders of Raghunathrao. Madhavrao was considered the legal heir, was installed as Peshwa by the Treaty of Salbai in 1782. Madhavrao was the Posthumous son of Peshwa Narayanrao by Gangabai. After Narayanrao's murder, Raghunathrao became Peshwa but was soon deposed by the courtiers and knights of the Maratha Empire, they instead installed Gangabai's new born son, Madhavrao II, as the Peshwa with the courtiers, led by Nana Fadnavis, as the Regents. Madhavrao was made Peshawa when he was 40 days old, his time in power was dominated by the political intrigues of Nana Phadnis. After the British loss in 1782 in the First Anglo-Maratha War, Mahadji Shinde got Madhvrao recognized as Peshwa by the British. However, all powers of the peshwa were in the hands of ministers like Nana Fadnavis, Mahadaji Shinde and others. In,1788 when Ghulam Qadir attacked Delhi, Mahadaji Shinde led the army of marathas to Delhi and saved the mughal emperor and his family.
In 1790, the Marathas won over rajput states in the Battle of Patan. After the death of Mahadaji Shinde In 1794, the Maratha power got concentrated in the hands of Nana Fadnavis. Madhavrao was fond of the out-doors and had a private collection of exotic animals such as lions and rhinoceros; the area where he hunted became the Peshwe park zoo in Pune. He was fond of his herd of trained dancing deer. Madhavrao committed suicide at the age of 21 by jumping off from the high walls of the Shaniwar Wada in Pune.. The cause of the suicide was that he could not endure the highhandedness of Nana Fadnavis. Just before his suicide, it is said that in ordering the execution of the despised police commissioner, Ghashiram Kotwal, Madhavrao was able to defy the wishes of Nana for the first time Nana Fadnavis Mahadaji Pant Guruji Mahadaji Scindia Narayan Rao Jayapalan, N.. History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Limited. P. 79. ISBN 9788171569281. Retrieved 2014-10-12. Maratha Empire Peshawe Family Peshwa Maratha emperors
The Maratha are an Indian caste of Marathi-speaking peasant-warriors. They established the Maratha Empire in 1674 and were the dominant power on the subcontinent for much of the following century before their downfall in 1818, they were champions of Hinduism in the face of the Islamic Mughal Empire. The term Maratha is used in three overlapping senses: within the Marathi-speaking region it refers to the single dominant Maratha caste or to the group of Maratha and Kunbi castes; the "Maratha group of castes" is a rural class of peasant cultivators and soldiers."According to the Maharashtrian historian, B. R. Sunthankar, scholars such as Rajendra Vora, the "Maratha caste" is a "caste of peasants" which formed the bulk of the Maharashtrian society together with the other Kunbi peasant caste. Vora adds that the Maratha caste is the largest caste of India and dominate the power structure in Maharashtra in the rural society. According to Jeremy Black, British historian at the University of Exeter, "Maratha caste is a coalescence of peasants, ironworkers, etc. as a result of serving in the military in the 17th and 18th century".
According to one scholar, Marathas are dominant in rural areas and constitute the landed peasantry. As of 2018, 80% of the members of the Maratha caste were farmers. Robert Vane Russell, an untrained ethnologist of the British Raj period, basing his research on Vedic literature, wrote that the Marathas are subdivided into 96 different clans, known as the 96 Kuli Marathas or Shahānnau Kule The general body of lists are at great variance with each other; the term "Maratha" referred to the speakers of the Marathi language. In the 17th century, it emerged as a designation for peasants from Deccan who served as soldiers in the armies of Muslim rulers and in the armies of Shivaji Maharaj, thus the term'Maratha' became a marker of an endogamous caste. A number of Maratha warriors, including Shivaji's father, Shahaji served in those Muslim armies. By the mid-1660s, Shivaji had established an independent Maratha kingdom. After Shivaji's death, Marathas defeated Aurangzeb in the war of 27 years, it was further expanded into a vast empire by the Maratha Confederacy including Peshwas, stretching from central India in the south, to Peshawar on the Afghanistan border in the north, with expeditions to Bengal in the east.
By the 19th century, the empire had become a confederacy of individual states controlled by Maratha chiefs such as Gaikwad's of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore, the Scindias of Gwalior, the Puars of Dhar and Dewas, Bhonsles of Nagpur. The Confederacy remained the pre-eminent power in India until their defeat by the British East India Company in the Third Anglo-Maratha War. By 19th century, the term Maratha had several interpretations in the British administrative records. In the Thane District Gazetteer of 1882, the term was used to denote elite layers within various castes: for example, "Maratha-Agri" within Agri caste, "Maratha-Koli" within Koli caste and so on. In the Pune District, the words Kunbi and Maratha had become synonymous, giving rise to the Maratha-Kunbi caste complex; the Pune District Gazetteer of 1882 divided the Kunbis into two classes: Marathas and other Kunbis. The 1901 census listed three groups within the Maratha-Kunbi caste complex: "Marathas proper", "Maratha Kunbis" and Konkan Maratha.
According to Steele, in the early 19th century, who were agriculturists and the Marathas who claimed Rajput descent and Kshatriya status - were distinguished by their customs related to widow remarriage. The Kunbis allowed it and the higher status Marathas prohibited it. However, there is no statistical evidence for this; as per academic scholars the Maratha population was more than 31% in Maharashtra and the Kunbi was 7%, whereas the upper castes - Brahmins and Prabhus were earlier only about 4% of the population although modern values show that the percentage of Brahmins in Maharashtra is now close to 10%. The Other Backward Class population was 27% while the population of the Mahars was 12%; the term Maratha came to denote an endogamous caste. From 1900 onwards, the Satyashodhak Samaj movement defined the Marathas as a broader social category of non-Brahmin groups; these non-Brahmins gained prominence in Indian National Congress during the Indian independence movement. In independent India, these Marathas became the dominant political force in the newly-formed state of Maharashtra.
The caste hierarchy in Maharashtra is led by the Brahmins - Deshasthas, Karhades and the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus. The Maratha are ranked lower than the Pathare Prabhus, CKPs, Brahmins etc. in the caste hierarchy but are considered higher than the Kunbi, backward castes and castes that were considered ritually impure. Modern research has revealed that the Marathas and Kunbi have the same origin - although the two are treated as two different communities on a social level. Most the Kunbi origin of the Maratha has been explained in detail by Professor Richard Eaton from the University of Arizona and Professor Stewart Gordon; the Kunbis who served the Muslim rulers and over time adopted different customs like different dressing styles, started identifying as Maratha and caste boundaries solidified between them. In the nineteenth century, economic prosperity rather than marital service to the Muslims replaced the mobility into Maratha identity. Eaton gives an example of the Holkar family that belonged to the Dhangar caste but was given a Maratha or
Krishna Bai Holkar
Maharani Krishna Bai Holkar was a queen of Yashwant Rao Holkar, Maharaja of Indore, mother of Maharaja Malhar Rao Holkar II. Holkar
Baji Rao I
Baji Rao was a general of the Maratha Empire in India. He served as Peshwa to the fifth Maratha Chhatrapati Shahu from 1720 until his death. Bajirao was Peshwa in the Ashtapradhan mandal of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj, he is known by the name Bajirao Ballal. Baji Rao is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire alongwith other commanders like Holkars,Shindes,Gaekwads,Pawars,Bhonsales in India. Maratha empire reached its zenith on under reign of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj and he was one of the major contributors in expansion over the Indian subcontinent. In his military career spanning 20 years Baji Rao never lost a battle just like that of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj Bajirao was born into the Bhat family, his father Balaji Vishwanath was technically the third Peshwa of Chhatrapati Shahu. Baji Rao had two sisters, Bihubai Joshi and Anubai Ghorpade; the eldest of his sisters was married into a Deshastha family. He spent his childhood in his father's newly acquired fiefdom of Saswad. Bajirao would accompany his father on military campaigns.
He fought his first battle in Daulatabad at the age of 12. He was with his father when the latter was imprisoned by Damaji Thorat before being released for a ransom; when Vishwanath died in 1720, Chhatrapati Shahu appointed the 20-year old Baji Rao as the Peshwa. He was known as Shrimant Thorle Bajirao Balal Peshwa, he is said to have preached the ideal of Hindu Pad Padshahi,Bajirao intended to plant the Maratha flag upon the walls of Delhi and other cities governed by the Mughals and their subjects. He intended to create a Hindu-Pat-Padshahi; the twenty year old Bajirao was appointed Peshwa in succession to his father by Chhatrapati Shahu. By the time of Baji Rao's appointment, Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah had in 1719 recognized Marathas' rights over the territories possessed by Shivaji at his death; the treaty included the Maratha rights to collect taxes in the six provinces of Deccan. Bajirao believed that the Mughal Empire was in decline and wanted to take advantage of this situation with aggressive expansion in north India.
Sensing the declining fortune of the Mughals, he is reported to have said, "Strike, strike at the roots and the biggest tree will fall down." However, as a new Peshwa, he faced several challenges: His appointment as the Peshwa at a young age had evoked jealousy from senior officials like Naro Ram Mantri, Anant Ram Sumant and Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi. This led Bajirao to promote as commanders young men like himself who were out of teens such as Malhar Rao Holkar, Ranoji Shinde, the Pawar brothers; these men did not belong to families that held hereditary Deshmukhi rights under the Deccan Sultanates. The Mughal viceroy of Deccan Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I, had created his own independent kingdom in the region, he challenged Shahu's right to collect taxes in Deccan on the pretext that he did not know whether Shahu or his cousin Sambhaji II of Kolhapur were the rightful heir to the Maratha throne. The Marathas needed to assert their rights over the nobles of the newly gained territories in Malwa and Gujarat.
Several areas that were nominally part of the Maratha territory, were not under Peshwa's control. For example, the Siddis controlled the Janjira fort. On 4 January 1721, Baji Rao met Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I at Chikhalthan to settle their disputes through agreement. However, Nizam refused to recognize the Maratha rights to collect taxes from the Deccan provinces. Nizam was made Vizier of Mughal Empire in 1721, but alarmed at his growing power, emperor Muhammad Shah transferred him from Deccan to Awadh in 1723. Nizam resigned as the Vizier and marched towards Deccan; the emperor sent an army against him. In response, Mughal emperor was forced to recognize him as the viceroy of Deccan; the Marathas, led by Bajirao, helped. In fact, for his bravery in the battle, Baji Rao was honored with a robe, a mansabdari of 7,000, an elephant and a jewel. After the battle, Nizam tried to appease both the Maratha Chhatrapati Shahu as well as the Mughal emperor. However, in reality, he wanted to carve out a sovereign kingdom and considered the Marathas his rivals in the Deccan.
In 1725, Nizam sent an army to clear out the Maratha revenue collectors from the Carnatic region. The Marathas dispatched a force under Fateh Singh Bhosle to counter him; the Marathas were forced to retreat. They launched a second campaign after the monsoon season, but once again, they were unable to prevent the Nizam from ousting the Maratha collectors. Meanwhile, in Deccan, Sambhaji II of Kolhapur State had become a rival claimant to the title of the Maratha Chhatrapati. Nizam took advantage of this dispute among the Marathas, he refused to pay the chauth or sardeshmukhi on the grounds that it was unclear, the real Chhatrapati: Shahu or Sambhaji II. Nizam offered to act as an arbitrator in this dispute. At the court of Shahu, Nizam's spokesman was Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi, a Deshastha Brahmin and a rival of Bajirao. At the court of Sambhaji II, his supporter was Chandrasen Jadhav, who had fought Bajirao's father a decade earlier. Bajirao convinced Shahu not to accept Nizam's arbitration offer and instead launch an assault against him.
On 27 August 1727, Baji Rao started a march against Nizam. He raided and plundered several of Nizam's territories, such as Jalna and Khandesh. While Bajirao was away, Nizam invaded Pune, where he installed Samb
Indore is the most populous and the largest city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It serves as the headquarters of both Indore Indore Division, it is considered as an education hub of the state and first city to have campuses of both the Indian Institute of Technology and the Indian Institute of Management. Located on the southern edge of Malwa Plateau, at an average altitude of 550 meters above sea level, it has the highest elevation among major cities of Central India; the city is 190 km west of the state capital of Bhopal. Indore had a census-estimated 2011 population of 1,994,397 and 2,170,295; the city is distributed over a land area of just 530 square kilometres, making Indore the most densely populated major city in the central province. It comes under Tier 2 cities in India. Indore traces its roots to its 16th century founding as a trading hub between the Delhi; the city and its surroundings came under Hindu Maratha Empire on 18 May 1724 after Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I assumed the full control of Malwa.
During the days of the British Raj, Indore State was a 19 Gun Salute princely state ruled by the Maratha Holkar dynasty, until they acceded to the Union of India. Indore served as the capital of the Madhya Bharat from 1950 until 1956. Indore's financial district, based in central Indore, functions as the financial capital of Madhya Pradesh and is home to the Madhya Pradesh Stock Exchange, India's third-oldest stock exchange. Indore has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission, it qualified the first round of Smart Cities Mission and was selected as one of the first twenty cities to be developed as Smart Cities. Indore has been elected as the cleanest city of India three years in a row as per the Swachh Survekshan 2017, the Swachh Survekshan 2018 and 2019; the city is named after its Indreshwar Temple. By 1720, the headquarters of the local pargana were transferred from Kampel to Indore, due to the increasing commercial activity in the city.
On 18 May 1724, the Nizam accepted the rights of the Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I to collect chauth from the area. In 1733, the Peshwa assumed the full control of Malwa, appointed his commander Malhar Rao Holkar as the Subhedar of the province. Nandlal Chaudhary accepted the suzerainty of the Marathas. On 29 July 1732, Bajirao Peshwa-I granted Holkar State by merging 28 and one-half parganas to Malhar Rao Holkar, the founding ruler of Holkar dynasty, his daughter-in-law Ahilyabai Holkar moved the state's capital to Maheshwar in 1767, but Indore remained an important commercial and military centre In 1818, the Holkars were defeated by the British during the Third Anglo-Maratha War, in the Battle of Mahidpur by virtue of which the capital was again moved from Maheshwar to Indore. A residency with British resident was established at Indore, but Holkars continued to rule Indore State as a princely state due to efforts of their Dewan Tatya Jog. During that time, Indore was established the headquarters of British Central Agency.
Ujjain was the commercial centre of Malwa. But the British administrators such as John Malcolm decided to promote Indore as an alternative to Ujjain, because the merchants of Ujjain had supported anti-British elements. In 1906 electric supply was started in the city, fire brigade was established in 1909 and in 1918, first master-plan of city was made by noted architect and town planner, Patrick Geddes. During the period of Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar II efforts were made for the planned development and industrial development of Indore. With the introduction of Railways in 1875, the business in Indore flourished during the reigns of Maharaja Shivaji Rao Holkar, Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar III and Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar. After India's independence in 1947, Holkar State, along with a number of neighbouring princely states, acceded to Indian Union. In 1948, with the formation of Madhya Bharat, Indore became the summer capital of the state. On 1 November 1956, when Madhya Bharat was merged into Madhya Pradesh, the state capital was shifted to Bhopal.
Indore, a city today of nearly 2.1 million residents, has transformed from a traditional commercial urban centre into a modern dynamic commercial capital of the state. Indore is the most populous city in the Madhya Pradesh. Indore is the largest metropolitan city in Central India. According to the 2011 census of India, the population of Indore city is 1,994,397; the population of the Indore metropolis is 2,170,295. In 2011, the city had a population density of 25,170 people per square mile, rendering it the most densely populated of all municipalities with over 100,000 population in the Madhya Pradesh; as per 2011 census, the city of Indore has an average literacy rate of 87.38%, higher than the national average of 74%. Male literacy was 91.84%, female literacy was 82.55% In Indore, 12.72% of the population is under 6 years of age. The average annual growth rate of population is around 2.85% as per the statistics of census 2001. Religion-wise, according to the 2011 census reports, Hindus constitute the majority, 80.18% of Indore's total population, while Muslims are 14.09%, Jains 3.25%, others 2.48%.
Hindi is the official language of the Indore city, is spoken by majority of the population. The populace of Indore converse in Hindi. A number of Hindi dialects such as Bundeli and Nimadi are spoken in significant numbers. Other languages with substantial number of speakers include Marathi, Urdu
Bhosle and Bhosale lead here. For other uses, see Bhosle and Bhosale The Bhonsle are a prominent group within the Maratha clan system. Traditionally a warrior clan, some members served as rulers of several states in India, the most prominent being Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire which opposed the rule of Mughal Empire in Indian subcontinent, his successors like Sambhaji was a powerful ruler. Sambhaji's brother Rajaram became the Ruler followed by Shivaji 2 under his mother Tarabai. Shahu ruled as chhatrapati from their capital at Satara. In addition to the Bhonsle chhatrapatis of Satara, rulers of the Bhonsle clan established themselves as junior branch of chhatrapatis at Kolhapur, as maharajas of Nagpur in modern-day Maharashtra in the 18th century. After the British defeat of the Marathas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818, the four Bhonsle dynasties continued as rulers of their princely states, acknowledging British suzerainty while retaining local autonomy; the states of Satara and Nagpur came under direct British rule in the mid-nineteenth century when their rulers died without male heirs, although the British allowed titular adoptions to take place.
Kolhapur state remained autonomous until India's independence in 1947, when the rulers acceded to the Indian government. Akkalkot State, Sawantwadi State and Barshi were amongst other prominent states ruled by the Bhonsles; the Bhonsles originated among the populations of the Deccani tiller-plainsmen who were known by the names Kunbi and Maratha. At the time of coronation of Shivaji, Bhonsles claimed their origin from Suryavanshi Sisodia Rajput. Allison Busch, Professor at the University of Columbia states that Shivaji was not a Kshatriya as required and hence had to postpone the coronation until 1674 and hired Gaga Bhatt to trace his ancestry back to the Sisodias. While the preparations for the coronations were in process, Bhushan, a poet, wrote a poem about this genealogy claimed by Bhatt in "Shivrajbhushan". Using this example, Busch shows how poetry was an "important instrument of statecraft" at the time; some scholars suggest that Pandit Gaga Bhatt was secured in charge of authoritatively declaring him a Kshatriya.
He was made a compliant, he accepted the Bhonsle pedigree as fabricated by the secretary Balaji Avji, declared that Rajah was a Kshatriya, descended from the Maharanas of Udaipur. The Brahman acknowledgement of Kshatriyahood is therefore taken as political; the passage from the Dutch records suggest the plausibility of this argument. The report of Shivaji's coronation in the contemporary Dutch East India Company archives indicates that Shivaji's claim was contested twice at the ceremony itself. Firstly the Brahmins did not want to grant him the status of Kshatriya and they refused him the recitation of the Vedas, indicating Shivaji was admitted to the fold of the higher varnas as far as the sign of the sacred thread was concerned, but restricted in their use of the concomitant ritual rights including the recitation of the Vedas. Historians such as Surendra Nath Sen and V. K. Rajwade reject the Sisodia origin by citing the temple inscription of Math, dated to 1397 A. D and holds the view. According to R. C.
Dhere, Bhonsles are descendants of the founder of Balip. He argues that the name Bhonsle is linguistically descended from'Hoysala'. There is a branch of Bhonsle clan extant in Maharashtra that goes by the name'Śirsāṭ Bhosale' and Balip's full name, from inscriptional sources cited by Dhere, was'Baliyeppā Gopati Śirsāṭ'; some Mudhol firmans in the possession of the Rajah of Mudhol claim the descent of the Ghorpades under the Adil Shahs and the Bhonsles, from the Sisodia Rajputs of Udaipur. However historians consider these firmans spurious as these are the copies, written by a scholar of Bijapur dated to c.1709, much after the coronation of Shivaji. André Wink, a professor of History at University of Wisconsin–Madison, states that the Sisodia genealogical claim is destined to remain disputed forever. Following historical evidence, Shivaji's claim to Rajput, Sisodia ancestry may be interpreted as being anything from tenuous at best, to inventive in a more extreme reading. Babaji Bhonsle, father of Maloji Bhonsle, a patil of the Hingni Berdi and Devalgaon villages around Pune Maloji Bhonsle, father of Shahaji who served as a knight for the Ahmadnagar Sultanate Shahaji, father of Shivaji who served as a knight for the Ahmadnagar Sultanate and the Adilshahi of Bijapur Shivaji, first Chhatrapati of the Maratha realm Sambhaji, son of Shivaji and his successor as Chhatrapati Rajaram Chhatrapati, second son of Shivaji.
Other maharajas of the dynasty include: Shahu I, son of Sambhaji, became Chhatrapati in 1708 after defeating his aunt Tarabai in a war of succession. Ramaraja, grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai. Shahu II of Satara, son of Ramaraja. Pratap Singh. Chatrapati Shahaji 3 of Satara Venkatji or Vyankoji Raje bhosale Chatrapati Ramraja 3 Shahu III of Satara Pratapsinhraje 2 Shahu Pratapsinh Raje bhosale Chatrapati Pratapsinh Raje 3 Udayanraje Shivaji II of Maratha Realm Shivaji I of Kolhapur.