Mueang Surat Thani District
Mueang Surat Thani named the Ban Don District, is the capital district of Surat Thani Province in southern Thailand. The district is at the mouth of the Tapi River, where it flows into Bandon Bay of the Gulf of Thailand. Neighboring districts are Kanchanadit, Ban Na San, Ban Na Doem, Phunphin. To the east of the district the Thathong River marks the natural boundary to Kanchanadit, while the boundary to Phunphin is marked by the western arm of the Tapi River. Khun Thale is a small lake in the center of the district; the Khao Tha Phet non-hunting area protects 4.65 km2 of a hill south of the city of Surat Thani. The Khun Thale swamp to the south of the district is the source of two short minor rivers which meander through the city, Khlong Makham Tia and Khlong Tha Kup; the district was formed when in 1897 Mueang Chaiya and Kanchanadit were merged into a single province named Chaiya, with its administrative center at Ban Don. The district was simply named Mueang. In 1915 the province was renamed Surat Thani.
In 1917 the district was renamed Ban Don. In 1938 the district was renamed Mueang Surat Thani, when all capital districts were named after their corresponding province; the district is divided into 11 sub-districts. Surat Thani itself is a city and covers the tambon Talat and Bang Kung, parts of the tambons Khlong Chanak, Bang Chana, Bang Bai Mai, Makham Tia. Wat Pradu and Khun Thale have sub-district municipality status, cover the whole same-named sub-district. There are a further eight tambon administrative organizations, for each sub-district except the three covered by municipalities. Amphoe.com
A stupa is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics, used as a place of meditation. A related architectural term is a chaitya, a prayer hall or temple containing a stupa. In Buddhism, circumambulation or pradakhshina has been an important ritual and devotional practice since the earliest times, stupas always have a pradakhshina path around them. Stupas may have originated as pre-Buddhist tumuli in which śramaṇas were buried in a seated position called chaitya; some authors have suggested that stupas were derived from a wider cultural tradition from the Mediterranean to the Indus valley, can be related to the conical mounds on circular bases from the 8th century BCE that can be found in Phrygia, Lydia, or in Phoenicia. Religious buildings in the form of the Buddhist stupa, a dome shaped monument, started to be used in India as commemorative monuments associated with storing sacred relics of the Buddha. After the parinirvana of the Buddha, his remains were cremated and the ashes divided and buried under eight mounds with two further mounds encasing the urn and the embers.
The relics of the Buddha were spread between eight stupas, in Rajagriha, Kapilavastu, Ramagrama, Pava and Vethapida. The Piprahwa stupa seems to have been one of the first to be built. Guard rails —consisting of posts, a coping— became a feature of safety surrounding a stupa; the Buddha had left instructions about how to pay homage to the stupas: "And whoever lays wreaths or puts sweet perfumes and colours there with a devout heart, will reap benefits for a long time". This practice would lead to the decoration of the stupas with stone sculptures of flower garlands in the Classical period. According to Buddhist tradition, Emperor Ashoka recovered the relics of the Buddha from the earlier stupas, erected 84.000 stupas to distribute the relics across India. In effect, many stupas are thought to date from the time of Ashoka, such as Sanchi or Kesariya, where he erected pillars with his inscriptions, Bharhut, Amaravati or Dharmarajika in Gandhara. Ashoka established the Pillars of Ashoka throughout his realm next to Buddhist stupas.
The first known appearance of the word "Stupa" is from an inscribed dedication by Ashoka on the Nigali Sagar pillar. Stupas were soon to be richly decorated with sculptural reliefs, following the first attempts at Sanchi Stupa No.2. Full-fledged sculptural decorations and scenes of the life of the Buddha would soon follow at Bharhut, Bodh Gaya, again at Sanchi for the elevation of the toranas and Amaravati; the decorative embellishment of stupas had a considerable development in the northwest in the area of Gandhara, with decorated stupas such as the Butkara Stupa or the Loriyan Tangai stupas. The stupa underwent major evolutions in the area of Gandhara. Since Buddhism spread to Central Asia and Korea and Japan through Gandhara, the stylistic evolution of the Gandharan stupa was influential in the development of the stupa in these areas; the Gandhara stupa followed several steps moving towards more and more elevation and addition of decorative element, leading to the development of the pagoda tower.
The main stupa type are, in choronological order: 1) The Dharmarajika Stupa with a near-Indian design of a semi-hemispheric stupa directly on the ground surface dated to the 3rd century BCE. Similar stupas are the Manikyala stupa or the Chakpat stupa. 2) The Saidu Sharif Stupa and quincunxial, with a flight of stairs to a dome elevated on a square platform. Many Gandhara minutiures represent this spectacular type. 3) The Loriyan Tangai Stupa, with a elongated shape and many narrative reliefs, in many way the Classical Gandharan stupa. 4) The near-pyramidal Jaulian stupa. 5) The cruciform type, as in the Bhamala Stupa, with flights of stairs in the four cardinal directions. 6) The towering design of the second Kanishka stupa. It is thought that the temple in the shape of a truncated pyramid may have derived from the design of the stepped stupas which developed in Gandhara; the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya is one such example, formed of a succession of steps with niches containing Buddha images, alternating with Greco-Roman pillars.
The structure is crowned by the shape of an hemispherical stupa topped by finials, forming a logical elongation of the stepped Gandharan stupas such as those seen in Jaulian. Although the current structure of the Mahabdhodi Temple dates to the Gupta period, the "Plaque of Mahabhodi Temple", discovered in Kumrahar and dated to 150-200 CE based on its dated Kharoshthi inscriptions and combined finds of Huvishka coins, suggests that the pyramidal structure existed in the 2nd century CE; this is confirmed by archaeological excavations in Bodh Gaya. This truncated pyramid design marked the evolution from the aniconic stupa dedicated to the cult of relics, to the iconic temple with multiple images of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas; this design was influential in the development of Hindu temples. Stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it became prominent as a Buddh
Southern Thailand is a southernmost cultural region of Thailand, separated from Central Thailand region by the Kra Isthmus. Southern Thailand is on the Malay Peninsula, with an area of around 70,713 km2, bounded to the north by Kra Isthmus, the narrowest part of the peninsula; the western part has steep coasts, while on the east side river plains dominate. The largest river of the south is the Tapi in Surat Thani, which together with the Phum Duang in Surat Thani drains more than 8,000 km2, more than 10 percent of the total area of southern Thailand. Smaller rivers include the Pattani, Saiburi and the Trang; the biggest lake of the south is Songkhla Lake. The largest artificial lake is the Chiao Lan, occupying 165 km2 of Khao Sok National Park in Surat Thani. Running through the middle of the peninsula are several mountain chains, with the highest elevation at Khao Luang, 1,835 m, in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. Ranging from the Kra Isthmus to Phuket Island is the Phuket chain, which connects to the Tanao Si Mountain Range further north.
Parallel to the Phuket chain, but 100 km to the east is the Nakhon Si Thammarat or Banthat chain, which begins with Samui Island, Ko Pha Ngan, Ko Tao in Surat Thani Province and ends at the Malaysian border at the Ko Ta Ru Tao archipelago. The border with Malaysia is formed by the Sankalakhiri range, sometimes sub-divided into the Pattani and Songkhla chain. At the Malaysian border the Titiwangsa chain rises up; the limestone of the west coast has been eroded into many steep singular hills. The parts submerged by the rising sea after the last ice age now form many islands, like the well-known Phi Phi Islands. Well known is the so-called James Bond Island in Phang Nga Bay, featured in the movie The Man with the Golden Gun; the population of the growing region is projected to be 9,156,000 in 2015, up from 8,871,003 in 2010, despite these figures are adjusted for citizens who have left for Bangkok or who have moved to the region from elsewhere, as well as registered permanent residents, the figure is still misleading.
There are still a huge number of migrant or informal workers, temporary workers, stateless people, a large expatriate population, not included. The Malay peninsula has been settled since prehistoric times. Archeological remains were found in several caves, some used for others as burial sites; the oldest remains were found in Lang Rongrien Cave, dating 38,000 to 27,000 years before present, in the contemporary Moh Khiew cave. In the first millennium Chinese chronicles mention several coastal city-states. No exact geographical locations were recorded, so the identification of these cities with settlements is difficult; the most important of these states were Langkasuka considered a precursor of the Pattani Kingdom. The cities were influenced by Indian culture, have adopted Brahman or Buddhist religion; when Srivijaya in Chaiya extended its sphere of influence, those cities became tributary states of Srivijaya. The city Chaiya in Surat Thani Province contains several ruins from Srivijaya times, was a regional capital of the kingdom.
Some Thai historians claim that it was the capital of the kingdom itself for some time, but this is disputed. After Srivijaya lost its influence, Nakhon Si Thammarat became the dominant kingdom of the area. During the rule of King Ramkhamhaeng the Great of Sukhothai, Thai influence first reached Nakhon Si Thammarat. According to the Ramkhamhaeng inscription, Nakhon Si THammarat was a tributary state of Sukhothai. During most of periods, Nakhon became a tributary of Ayutthaya; the deep south belonged to the Malay sultanates of Pattani and Kedah, while the northernmost part of the peninsula was under the control of Bangkok. During the Thesaphiban reforms at the end of the 19th century, both Nakhon Si Thammarat and Pattani were incorporated into the central state; the area was subdivided into 5 monthon. Minor mueang were merged into larger ones. With the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 the boundary to Malaysia was fixed. Kedah came under British control; the main language is Southern Thai known as Pak Thai or Dambro, a southwestern Tai language spoken in the 14 changwat of southern Thailand as well as by small communities in the northernmost Malaysian states.
It is spoken by five million people, as a second language by the 1.5 million speakers of Patani Malay. Third language is Central Thai which speak by local non-Peranakan Chinese origin, Central Thai speak large city such as Hat Yai and Bandon districts, it's common in Betong District, however most of people in Southern Thailand are fluent or understand the Central Thai dialects; the south is identified as 14 provinces Southern Thailand has around 8.734 million inhabitants and its population density is around 126 per square kilometre. The bulk of the southern population relies on agriculture for 27 percent of its gross regional product in 2014, it is followed by industry, transportation and construction and property. Southern Thailand is connected with Bangkok by railway as well as highway. S
Surat Thani is a city in Amphoe Mueang Surat Thani, Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand. It lies 651 km south of Bangkok, it is the capital of Surat Thani Province. The city has a population of 128,179, an area of 68.97 square kilometers. The city's population density is 1,858.47 inhabitants per km². Surat Thani is near the mouth of the Tapi River on the Gulf of Thailand; the city offers no major tourist attractions in itself, is known to tourists as the jumping-off point to Ko Samui, Ko Tao, Ko Pha Ngan. It is the regional commercial center, with a seaport dealing in the main products of the province and coconuts; the city received its name, which means "city of good people", by King Vajiravudh in 1915. The name was given to the city due to the intense devotion of the locals to Buddhism; the city was known as Bandon, meaning "village on higher ground". The name of the city is taken from the Indian city Surat in Gujarat on the Indian River Tapi. King Vajiravudh gave this name to his city. On 21 December 1930 Surat Thani became a sanitary district, upgraded to a town on 7 December 1935, with a municipal area of 2.67 km².
The area of the municipality was enlarged to 6.95 km² on 14 October 1958, on 22 December 1994 it was further enlarged to 68.97 km². On 4 May 2007, the town was upgraded to city status. Since 1969 Surat Thani is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Surat Thani, responsible for about 6,000 Catholics in southern Thailand. Surat Thani has a tropical savanna climate. Temperatures are stable throughout the year, although the pre-monsoon months are somewhat hotter. There is a short dry season from January to April, followed by the wet season that lasts from May to December; the heaviest rains occur in November. Chak Phra - Celebrating Buddha’s symbolic return to earth at the end of Buddhist Lent. Parade and long-boat races. Tham Bun Dern Sip - Southern Thai Festival of the Tenth Lunar Month Surat Food Fair – Held annually in March along the Tapi River; the largest food festival in Southern Thailand. Surat Thani Vegetarian Festival - Held annually in October. Parades, more vegetarian options in restaurants and shops, free food at the Chinese temples Songkran - Thai New Year Festival Loi Krathong - Surat Thani is home to the Surat Thani Football Club and the Surat Thani Futsal Club.
Prince of Songkla University, Surat Thani Campus Surat Thani Rajabhat University Tapee University Suratthani Technical College Surat Thani Vocational Education College Surat Commercial Technology College Surat Thani Polytechnic College Primary and secondary schools with English instruction include: Surat Thani International School Oonrak International Bilingual School Joy Bilingual School Sarasas Witaed Suratthani School Surat Thani Hospital - public hospital Bangkok Hospital Surat - private hospital Thaksin Hospital - private hospital Fort Wiphavadirangsit Hospital - military hospital Suratthani Cancer Hospital - cancer hospital Suan Saranrom Hospital - psychiatric hospital Surat Thani is connected with Bangkok by the Southern Line of the State Railway of Thailand. Surat Thani Railway Station is the main station of the province, it is in about 15 kilometres from Surat Thani. Surat Thani is connected to Nakhon Si Thammarat by Route 401. Asian highway AH2 passes the city at Phunphin. Surat Thani International Airport is about 30 kilometres from the city by road.
There are three main ferry companies that operate from mainland Surat Thani to the islands: Lomprayah and Raja. There are only two ferry piers in Muang Surat Thani: Tapee Pier, which Lomprayah's High Speed Catarman operates from, Bandon Pier, for night boats only. Seatran Pier and Raja Pier are both located in Don Sak District, 65km east of Surat Thani city centre. Surat Thani covers tambon Talad and Bang Kung, parts of tambons Khlong Chanak, Bang Chana, Bang Baimai, Makham Tia, all of Mueang Surat Thani District; the city is divided into 45 communities. Category: People from Surat Thani Province Surat Thani City Website Surat Thani travel guide from Wikivoyage
Bhumibol Adulyadej, conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX. Reigning since 9 June 1946, he was, at the time of his death, the world's longest-reigning head of state, the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history and the longest-reigning monarch having reigned only as an adult, reigning for 70 years, 126 days. During his reign, he was served by a total of 30 prime ministers beginning with Pridi Banomyong and ending with Prayut Chan-o-cha. Forbes estimated Bhumibol's fortune – including property and investments managed by the Crown Property Bureau, a unique body, neither private nor government-owned – to be US$30 billion in 2010, he headed the magazine's list of the "world's richest royals" from 2008 to 2013 despite the fact the same magazine estimated the worth of the British monarchy triple that of the Thai one. In May 2014, Bhumibol's wealth was once again listed as US$30 billion. After 2006, Bhumibol suffered declining health and spent extended periods at Siriraj Hospital, where he died on 13 October 2016.
He was highly revered by the people in Thailand – many saw him as close to divine. Notable political activists and Thai citizens who criticized the king or the institution of monarchy were forced into exile or to suffer frequent imprisonments, yet many cases were dropped before being proceeded or were given royal pardon. His cremation was held on 26 October 2017 at the royal crematorium at Sanam Luang, his son, succeeded him as King. Bhumibol's U. S. birth certificate reads "Baby Songkla", as the parents had to consult his uncle, King Rama VII head of the House of Chakri, for an auspicious name. The king chose a name of Sanskrit origin, Bhumibol Adulyadej, a compound of Bhūmi, meaning "Land". Thus, Bhūmibala Atulyateja, or Bhumibol Adulyadej as it is transliterated in Thai means "Strength of the Land, Incomparable Power". Bhumibol was born at Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the United States, on 5 December 1927, he was the youngest son of Prince Mahidol Adulyadej, the Prince of Songkla, his commoner wife Mom Sangwan.
His father was enrolled in the public health program at Harvard University, why Bhumibol was the only monarch to be born in the US. Bhumibol had an older sister, Princess Galyani Vadhana, an older brother, Prince Ananda Mahidol. Bhumibol came to Thailand in 1928, his father died of kidney failure in September 1929. He attended Mater Dei school in Bangkok, but in 1933 his mother took her family to Switzerland, where he continued his education at the École nouvelle de la Suisse romande in Lausanne. In 1934 Bhumibol was given his first camera; when Bhumibol's childless uncle Prajadhipok abdicated in 1935, his nine-year-old brother Ananda became the new King Rama VIII. However, the family remained in Switzerland and the affairs of the head of state were conducted by a regency council, they returned to Thailand for only two months in 1938. In 1942, Bhumibol became a jazz enthusiast, started to play the saxophone, a passion that he kept throughout his life, he received the baccalauréat des lettres from the Gymnase Classique Cantonal of Lausanne, by 1945 had begun studying sciences at the University of Lausanne, when World War II ended and the family was able to return to Thailand.
Bhumibol ascended the throne following the death by gunshot wound of his brother, King Ananda Mahidol, on 9 June 1946, under circumstances that remain unclear. While a first government statement stated that Ananda had accidentally shot himself, an investigation committee ruled this was impossible. Two palace aides were convicted of regicide and executed. A third possibility, that Bhumibol accidentally shot his brother while the brothers played with their pistols, was never considered. Bhumibol succeeded his brother, but returned to Switzerland before the end of the 100-day mourning period. Despite his interest in science and technology, he changed his major and enrolled in law and political science to prepare for his duties as head of state, his uncle, Prince of Chainat, was appointed Prince Regent. In Bhumibol's name, Prince Rangsit acknowledged a military coup that overthrew the government of Thamrongnawasawat in November 1947; the regent signed the 1949 constitution, which returned to the monarchy many of the powers it had lost by the 1932 Revolution.
In December 1946, the Siamese government allocated several hundred thousand dollars for the ceremonial cremation of the remains of the late King Ananda, a necessary preliminary to the coronation of Bhumibol, required by religious custom to light the funeral pyre. Unsettled conditions in 1947 following a coup d'état resulted in a postponement, court astrologers determined that 2 March 1949 was the most auspicious date. While doing his degree in Switzerland, Bhumibol visited Paris frequently, it was in Paris that he first met Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitiyakara, daughter of the Thai ambassador to France and a great-granddaughter