Jamkhed taluka, is a taluka in Karjat subdivision of Ahmednagar district in Maharashtra State of India. The table below shows area of the taluka by land type. There are around 88 villages in Jamkhed taluka. For list of villages see Villages in Jamkhed taluka; the table below shows population of the taluka by sex. The data is as per 2001 census; the Table below details of rainfall from year 1981 to 2004. Talukas in Ahmednagar district Villages in Jamkhed taluka
A Peshwa was the equivalent of a modern Prime Minister in the Maratha Empire of the Indian subcontinent. The Peshwas served as subordinates to the Chhatrapati, but they became the de facto leaders of the Marathas, the Chatrapati was reduced to a nominal ruler. During the last years of the Maratha Empire, the Peshwas themselves were reduced to titular leaders, remained under the authority of the Maratha nobles and the British East India Company. All the Peshwas during the rule of Chhatrapati Shivaji and Sambhaji belonged to Deshastha Brahmin community The first Peshwa was Moropant Pingle, appointed as the head of the Ashta Pradhan by Chhatrapati Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire; the initial Peshwas were all ministers. The Peshwas held the highest administrative office and controlled the Maratha confederacy. Under the Chitpavan Brahmin Bhat family, the Peshwas became the de facto hereditary administrators of the Confederacy; the Peshwa's office was most powerful under Baji Rao I. Under Peshwa administration and with the support of several key generals and diplomats, the Maratha Empire reached its zenith, ruling major areas of India.
However, after the Peshwa Raghunathrao allied himself with the British, the Peshwa's power declined substantially. The subsequent Peshwas were titular leaders and are said to be responsible for the downfall of the Maratha empire, due to inefficiency in handling the affairs of the state. On many provinces were controlled and administered either by the Maratha nobles such as Daulat Rao Sindhia or by the East India Company. During this period, the Maratha confederacy came to its end through its formal annexation into the British Empire in 1818; the word Peshwa is from Persian پیشوا pēshwā, meaning "foremost, leader". After the coronation of Shivaji in 1674, he appointed Moropant Trimbak Pingle as the first Peshwa. Shivaji renamed this designation as Pantpradhan in 1674 but this term was less used. Moropant Trimbak Pingale's son, Nilopant Moreshvar Pingale, succeeded him during Sambhaji's rule after Moropant's s death in 1683; the third Peshwa, Ramchandra Amatya, received royal status from Chhatrapati Rajaram as "Hukumatpanha" from 1689 to 1699.
He was a sound administrator who rose from the level of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashta Pradhan due to guidance and support from Shivaji. Amatya is a Sanskrit term denoting counselor, supervisor or overseer of both personal and governmental affairs, he recaptured many forts from the Mughals between 1690 and 1694, some in person, as well as conducting guerilla war techniques. When Chhatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689, before leaving from Maharashtra, he gave "Hukumat panha" to Pant. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges such as the Mughal influx, the betrayal of Vatandars, scarcity of food. With his help, Sachiv kept the Maratha State on a sound economic footing. Pant got tremendous military help from Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav, the great Maratha Generals. Many times he directly participated in battles during 1689–1695. In 1698, he stepped down from the post of "Hukumatpanha" and Rajaram offered this post to his wife Tarabai. Tarabai gave an important position to Pant in the administration of Maratha State.
He wrote a book called Adnyapatra, which explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc. The concepts in Adnyapatra and the wisdom and leadership of Tarabai helped the Maratha empire in building the foundation of the state; as he was more loyal to Tarabai than Shahu, he was sidelined after the arrival of Chhatrapati Shahu. The Peshwa post was given to Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandra Pant died in 1716 at Panhala fort. Parshuram Trimbak Kulkarni was born in a Deshastha Brahmin family and held the post of Pantpratinidhi. On, he became the Jagirdar of Aundh State and Vishalgad, he was instrumental in holding the fort Panhala against Aurangzeb. Though he lost the fort he recaptured it in 1692, he captured territories between Miraj and fort Rangana and Bhudargad, Pavangad and Vasantgad. He continued his loyalty towards Tarabai much to the chagrin of Shahu. Shahu imprisoned him twice between 1710-14. 14. But his life was spared by Shahu because of the intervention of Khando Ballal who reminded his king of Parshuram Trimbak's contribution to the Maratha cause.
Parshuram Trimbak continued holding the position of Pant Pratinidhi in the time of Tarabai until his death in 1718. He had composed poems praising her might, he was succeeded by his son Shrinivasrao, aka Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi, who continued albeit as the feudatory ruler of Aundh State. The Maratha war of succession between Tara Bai and Shahu resulted in latter's victory and assumption of Maratha throne as Chhatrapati. In 1713, Shahu appointed Balaji Vishwanath, as Peshwa; the appointment of Balaji's son, Baji Rao I, as Peshwa in 1719 by Shahu made the position hereditary in the Bhat family. Baji Rao proved his loyalty and patriotism by controlling the feudal chieftains who wanted independence from the Maratha Empire; the rebellion of General Trimbak Rao Dabhade, the senapati, over Chauthai of Gujarat is one example of such internal Maratha feuds. The followers of Baji and Trimbak clashed at the Battle of
Pune called Poona, is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai. It is the ninth most populous city in the country with an estimated population of 3.13 million. Along with its Industrial Estate Pimpri Chinchwad and the three cantonment towns of Pune and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region. According to the 2011 census, the urban area has a combined population of 5.05 million while the population of the metropolitan region is estimated at 7.27 million. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is the administrative headquarters of its namesake district. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and so was one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent. Pune is ranked the number one city in India in the ease of living ranking index; the city is considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra.
It is known as the "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Research institutes of information technology, education and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas. Several colleges in Pune have student-exchange programmes with colleges in Europe. Pune is an important centre for civil services training; the earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning "sacred news". By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi. Copper plates dated 858 and 868 CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune; the plates indicate. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327.
Pune was part of the Jagir granted to Maloji Bhosale in 1599 for his services to the Nizamshahi. Pune was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate. Maloji Bhosale's grandson, the founder of the Maratha Empire, was born at Shivneri, a fort not far from Pune. Pune changed hands several times between the Mughals and the Marathas in the period 1660 to 1705. After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647, Dadoji Konddeo, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town, he stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring Maval region. He developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order; the Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Shivaji spent his young years at the Lal Mahal, his mother, Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity of the city.
From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long Mughal–Maratha Wars, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb and its name was changed to Muhiyabad. Two years the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort, Pune, from the Mughals. In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa of the Maratha Empire by Chhatrapati Shahu, he moved his base from Saswad to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a kasbah into a large city. He commissioned the construction of the Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha River; the construction was completed in 1730. Bajirao's son and successor, Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city; the aqueduct was still in working order in 2004. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill and many Maruti, Vishnu, Rama and Ganesh temples.
The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa, he developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed; the Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805; the Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II by the British East India Company in 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817; the Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city.
The Southern Command of the Indian Army was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. The city was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A rai
Bayas is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Pathardi taluka, is a taluka in Ahmednagar subdivision of Ahmednagar district in Maharashtra State of India. The table below shows area of the taluka by land type. There are around 138 villages in Pathardi taluka. For list of villages see Villages in Pathardi taluka; the table below shows population of the taluka by sex. The data is as per 2001 census; the Table below details of rainfall from year 1981 to 2004. Talukas in Ahmednagar district Villages in Pathardi taluka dharwadi
Harishchandragad is a hill fort in the Ahmednagar district of India. Its history is linked with that of Malshej Ghat, kothale village and it has played a major role in guarding and controlling the surrounding region; the fort is quite ancient. Remnants of Microlithic man have been discovered here; the various Puranas like Matsyapurana and Skandapurana include many references about Harishchandragad. Its origin is said to have been during the rule of Kalachuri dynasty; the citadel was built during this era. The various caves have been carved out in the 11th century. In these caves are idols of Lord Vishnu. Though the cliffs are named Taramati and Rohidas, they are not related to Ayodhya. Great sage Changdev, used to meditate here in the 14th century; the caves are from the same period. The various constructions on the fort and those existing the surrounding region point to the existence of diverse cultures here; the carvings on the temples of Nageshwar, in the Harishchandreshwar temple and in the cave of Kedareshwar indicate that the fort belongs to the medieval period, since it is related to mahadeva as a totem of tribes Mahadev Koli.
They were controlling the fort before Moguls. The fort was under the control of Moguls; the Marathas captured it in 1747. To the east of the temple is a well-built lake called “Saptatirtha”. On its bank are temple-like constructions in which there are idols of Lord Vishnu; these idols have been shifted in the caves near the temple of Harishchandreshwar. These days many trekkers have been responsible for the sad plight of this place, as they throw plastic wastes and other things in the pond. 7 years back the water was potable, now it isn't suitable to swim. Towards the right of Harishchandreshwar temple, there is the huge cave of Kedareshwar, in which there is a big Shiva Linga, surrounded by water, its height from the base is five feet, the water is waist-deep. It is quite difficult to reach the Shiva Linga. There are sculptures carved out in the cave. In the monsoon it is not possible to reach this cave; this is the origin of River Mangalganga. As can be seen from the picture, there is a huge rock above the Shiva Linga.
There were four pillars built around the Shiva Linga to support the cave. Another interesting thing about this place is that water seeps into this temple from the four walls on an everyday basis, and owing to the water being cold, it's difficult to reach inside too. The water continues to seep in during all the seasons during the year, except during rainy season and it is said that there is no water during rainy season; this cliff looks down upon the Konkan. It provides views of the surrounding region; the cliff has been climbed many times. Sometimes a circular rainbow can be seen from this point, it can be seen only when there is a bit of mist in the valley, the sun is right behind the person facing the valley. One phenomenon that can be observed at this place is the vertical cloud burst, in which the clouds nearing the cliff get sucked into the pit fall area below and are thrown vertically into the sky reaching more than 50 feet, creating the impression of a wall, rising straight from the edge of the cliff without entering the landmass area.
Known as Taramanchi. This is the top most point on the fort. Leopards are seen in the forests beyond this peak. From here we can have a glimpse of the forts near Murbad. From this Taramati point, we can have a glimpse of forts till Siddhagad near Bhimashankar in the south and Napta twin peaks, Ajoba, Kulang fort in the north near the Kasara region; these caves are spread out all over the fort. Many of these are the place of accommodation. A few are near the temple, whereas some are near some far away in the forests. A 30 feet deep natural cave is to the right of Kokan Kada. Many other caves are still said to remain undiscovered; this is a great antique construction, diverse artistic works are seen on this. On the ceiling of the temple are carvings; the main attraction of the carvings here is the 1.5 m long sculpture of Lord Vishnu in the sleeping posture, popularly known as "Sheshshayi Vishnu" in Marathi. It hence holds a lot of importance. There are a lot of legends told about this sculpture. There are caves near the temple.
This temple is marvelous example of the fine art of carving sculptures out of stones that prevailed in ancient India. It is about 16 m high from its base. Around this temple there a few caves & ancient water tanks; the river Mangal Ganga is said to originate from one of the tanks located close to the temple. The top of the temple resembles construction with the north-Indian temples. A similar temple is situated in Buddha-Gaya. Here we can see many tombs; these are built by well-finished arranging stones one on top of the other. There are three main caves near the temple; the cisterns near the temple provide drinking water. A short distance away, another temple called; the fascinating thing about this temple is. There are entrances from all four sides. On the main entrance there are sculptures of faces; these are faces of guards of the temple. On the l
The Ahmadnagar Sultanate was a late medieval Indian kingdom, located in the northwestern Deccan, between the sultanates of Gujarat and Bijapur. Malik Ahmad, the Bahmani governor of Junnar after defeating the Bahmani army led by general Jahangir Khan on 28 May 1490 declared independence and established the Nizam Shahi dynasty rule over the sultanate of Ahmednagar, his capital was in the town of Junnar with its fort renamed Shivneri. In 1494, the foundation was laid for the new capital Ahmadnagar. In 1636 Aurangzeb Mugal viceroy of Deccan annexed the sultanate to the Mughal empire. Malik Ahmad was the son of Nizam-ul-Mulk Malik Hasan Bahri a Hindu Brahmin from Beejanuggar named Timapa. After the death of his father, he assumed the appellation of his father and from this the dynasty found by him is known as the Nizam Shahi dynasty, he founded the new capital Ahmadnagar on the bank of the river Sina. After several attempts, he secured the great fortress of Daulatabad in 1499. After the death of Malik Ahmad in 1510, his son Burhan, a boy of seven installed in his place.
In the initial days of his reign, the control of the kingdom was in the hands of Mukammal Khan, an Ahmadnagar official and his son. Burhan Shah I died in Ahmadnagar in 1553, he left six sons. After the death of Hussain Shah I in 1565, his minor son Murtaza ascended the throne. During his minority, his mother Khanzada Humayun Sultana better known in history as Chand Sultana or Chand Bibi ruled as a regent for several years. Murtaza Shah annexed Berar in 1572. On his death in 1588, his son Miran Hussain ascended the throne, but his reign could last only a little. Ismail, a cousin of Miran Hussain was raised to the throne, but the actual power was in the hands of Jamal Khan, the leader of the Deccani/Habshi group in the court. Jamal Khan was killed in the battle of Rohankhed in 1591 and soon Ismail Shah was captured and confined by his father Burhan, who ascended the throne as Burhan Shah, but Chand Bibi fought him. Winning the kingdom, Chand Bibi ascended the throne. After the death of Chand Bibi in July, 1600 Ahmadnagar was conquered by the Mughals and Bahadur Shah was imprisoned.
Although, Ahmadnagar city and its adjoining areas were occupied by the Mughals, an extensive part of the kingdom still remained in possession of the influential officials of the Nizam Shahi dynasty. Malik Ambar and other Ahmadnagar officials defied the Mughals and declared Murtaza Shah II as sultan in 1600 at a new capital Paranda. Malik Ambar became prime Vakil-us-Saltanat of Ahmadnagar; the capital was shifted first to Junnar and to a new city Khadki. Malik Amber died in 1626. In the meantime, Jahan Khan, the wazir of Nizam killed Nizam on the reasoning that the Nizam was an incapable and unwise ruler, who couldn’t take appropriate decisions and was deceived by some people. Jahan Khan asked Shahaji to join him. Shahaji started leading Nizam’s forces. However, at that time, the Mughal forces on the order of Shah Jahan had slain all the men in relation to Nizam and killed two pregnant women; this was done to finish off the Nizamshahi, as there wouldn’t be any Male heir to the throne of the Nizam.
However, Shahaji, in order to establish swarajy he decided to crown a child named Murtuza, in relation with Nizam as the next Nizam. Shahaji assured Murtuza’s mother that he would not be harmed and vouched for his safety.shahaji crowned murtuza on shahagad at pemgiri in ahmednagar district Soon, Shah Jahan ordered the Subhedar of Deccan, Mahabat Khan to finish off the Nizamshahi when the commander-in-chief, Shahaji Bhosale was away. Mahabat Khan and Sardar Ranoji Wable attacked Ahmadnagar and killed Fateh Khan along with the boy prince Hussain Nizamshah III, his relatives as well as two pregnant women so that there would not be any male heir to the throne, but soon, Shahaji with the assistance of Bijapur, placed an infant scion of the Nizam Shahi dynasty, Murtaza on the throne and he became the regent. The scion Nizam and Shahaji's family was stationed in the Mahuli Fort. Shah Jahan made an alliance with Mohammed Adilshah of Bijapur and the respective Mughal and Adilshahi generals, Khan Zaman and Ranadulla Khan besieged Mahuli.
Shah Jahan dispatched a force of 48,000 to reduce Shahaji and his ally Adilshah. Under such mounting attack Adilshah sued for peace. With the withdrawal of Adilshah's support, Shahaji could not hold much against the Mughals, his possessions were reduced quickly. Portuguese did not offer any help from naval side to Shajaji due to fear of the Mughals. In this war, Shahaji fought till the last, but Murtaza, the infant Nizam, was kidnapped by Mughals and for the purpose of saving the life of Nizam, it became necessary for Shahaji to make compromise. This compromise finished Nizamshahi. Shahaji, on the condition of protecting the life of little Mourtaza Nizam at any condition, handed him over to Shahajahan. Nizam was taken away by Sardar Ranoji Wable to Delhi, he was inducted into Adilshahi. As a precaution Shahajahan, ensured that Shahaji was posted in deep south so as not to pose any challenge to Mughals, he became one of the top generals in the Adilshah's army, accepting a Jagir in his court, being based in Bengaluru.
Shahaji failed. So Jijabai along with young Shivaji escaped from Mahuli in disguise. However, the mother of scion Nizam, Sajeeda was caught while fleeing along with the Nizam. Nizam was brought before Shah Jahan