Palos de la Frontera
Palos de la Frontera is a town and municipality located in the southwestern Spanish province of Huelva, in the autonomous community of Andalusia. It is situated some 13 km from Huelva. According to the 2015 census, the city had a population of 10,365, it is most famous for being the place from which Columbus set sail in 1492 reaching America. The official date of foundation for Palos is 1322, when the town was granted to Alonso Carro and Carro's wife Berenguela Gómez by Alfonso XI of Castile, although the town may have been occupied during earlier centuries by Paleolithic, Roman and Muslim inhabitants. Palos' name is derived from the Latin word palus, it acquired its “surname” as Palos de la Frontera in May 1642. At the time of its establishment as a town by Alfonso XI, Palos was part of the Almohad kingdom of Niebla, was a small nucleus whose population subsisted on fishing and took advantage of the area’s geographic protection against pirates and storms.Álvar Pérez de Guzmán is considered the city’s real founder.
He was only fourteen when Juan I of Castile granted him the towns of Palos and Villalba del Alcor in 1379 to make up for the fact that Pérez de Guzmán was forced to give up Huelva and Gibraleón, which had become part of the county of Medinaceli. Álvar Pérez de Guzmán received from Juan I the right to tax the first fifty families who settled at Palos, he began utilizing the lands around Palos for the cultivation of olive trees and production of olive oil. After the death of Álvar Pérez de Guzmán, his widow, Elvira de Ayala, daughter of the Chancellor of Castile, continued her husband’s work until her death in 1434. Palos' Golden Age is considered to have occurred in the 15th century, when it increased its population to 2,500 inhabitants and its economy, based on fishing and seafaring expeditions to Guinea, flourished. Palos took advantage of the War of the Castilian Succession, which became a war between Castile and Portugal, to challenge Portuguese domination of the Atlantic trade. Castilian naval forces always included natives of Palos, who were considered navigational experts:...because only the men of Palos know the ancient sea of Guinea, were used to fighting the Portuguese from the outset of the war, to snatch from them the slaves acquired in exchange for vile goods Nevertheless, the war ended in defeat for the Castilian forces, Ferdinand and Isabella, in the Treaty of Alcáçovas gave up all rights to Atlantic and African lands and seas, with the exception of the Canary Islands, which remained Castilian.
Many natives of Palos violated the agreement and encroached upon Portuguese sea routes in the Atlantic. On August 3, 1492, the Pinta, Niña, Santa María sailed from Palos. On board were Christopher Columbus and the Pinzón Brothers, who were natives of Palos. Palos is the site of the Rábida Monastery where Columbus consulted with the Franciscans about his plans for organizing an expedition of discovery; the three ships landed in America on October 12, 1492. The Santa María foundered in American waters, but the other two ships returned to Palos on March 15, 1493. Palos would play a pivotal role in the settlement and Christianization of the New World in succeeding centuries. La Rábida would play a central in the Christian evangelization of the Americas; as La Rábida was a Franciscan monastery, that order would play a dominant role in this Christianization, some of the first missionaries were natives of Palos, including Juan Izquierdo, Juan de Palos, Juan Cerrado, Pedro Salvador, Alonso Vélez de Guevara, Juan Quintero, Thomás de Narváez, Francisco Camacho.
With the establishment of the Casa de Contratación at Seville in 1503, Palos suffered a decline. Natives of Palos emigrated to America or to Seville, Palos soon had few sailing vessels of its own. By the 18th century, the town had only about 125 inhabitants. However, during the same century, Catalan investors established a viticultural industry centered at Palos, the population reached its pre-1492 levels. Palos transformed itself into a center of the shrimp industries, became a center for the cultivation of the “fresón de Palos”, which are now exported to the European Union. On June 22, 1926, the first hydroplane to cross the Atlantic, the Plus Ultra flying boat, took off from Palos; the journey, done in six stages, ended at Argentina. Alfonso XIII of Spain gave the Plus Ultra to the Argentine Navy, in which it served as a postal service airplane. Alfonso XIII granted to Palos the status as a city during this time. John Paul II visited Palos on June 1993, the only time a pope has visited the city.
John Paul symbolically crowned the Virgin of Miracles. There is a station in the Madrid Metro named after this town. In 1850 the small town of Trenton, located southwest of Chicago, changed its name to Palos; this recommendation was made by M. S. Powell, the local postmaster, whose ancestor Pedro Alonso Niño sailed with Christopher Columbus from Palos de la Frontera; when it incorporated as a Village in 1914, Palos became Palos Park. The neighboring communities of Palos Hills and Palos Heights incorporated at points. All three municipalities lie within Palos Township. Cali, Colombia Latina, Italy Lagos, Portugal Lugares colombinos Christopher Columbus Voyages of Christopher Columbus The Pinzon Brothers Bibliography: Articles Izquierdo Labrado, Julio. Relaciones de Palos de la frontera con el Algarve a finales del siglo XV, La Rábida, 1993. Books N
Ahmed Muhiddin Piri, better known as Piri Reis, was an Ottoman admiral, navigator and cartographer. He is known today for his maps and charts collected in his Kitab-ı Bahriye, a book that contains detailed information on navigation, as well as accurate charts describing the important ports and cities of the Mediterranean Sea, he gained fame as a cartographer when a small part of his first world map was discovered in 1929 at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. His world map is the oldest known Turkish atlas showing the New World, one of the oldest maps of America still in existence anywhere. Piri Reis' map is centered on the Sahara at the latitude of the Tropic of Cancer. In 1528, Piri Reis drew a second world map. According to his imprinting text, he had drawn his maps using about 20 foreign charts and mappae mundi including one by Christopher Columbus, he was executed in 1553. For many years, little was known about the identity of Piri Reis; the name Piri Reis means Captain Piri. Today, based on the Ottoman archives, it is known that his full name was "Hacı Ahmed Muhiddin Piri" and that he was born either in Gelibolu on the European part of the Ottoman Empire, or in Karaman in central Anatolia the capital of the Beylik of Karaman.
The exact date of his birth is unknown. His father's name was Hacı Mehmed Piri; the honorary and informal Islamic title Hadji in Piri's and his father's names indicate that they both had completed the Hajj by going to Mecca during the dedicated annual period. Piri began engaging in government-supported privateering when he was young, following his uncle Kemal Reis, a well-known corsair and seafarer of the time, who became a famous admiral of the Ottoman Navy. During this period, together with his uncle, he took part in many naval wars of the Ottoman Empire against Spain, the Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Venice, including the First Battle of Lepanto in 1499 and the Second Battle of Lepanto in 1500; when his uncle Kemal Reis died in 1511, Piri returned to Gelibolu, where he started working on his studies about navigation. By 1516, he was again at sea as a ship captain in the Ottoman fleet, he took part in the 1516–17 Ottoman conquest of Egypt. In 1522 he participated in the Siege of Rhodes against the Knights of St. John, which ended with the island's surrender to the Ottomans on 25 December 1522 and the permanent departure of the Knights from Rhodes on 1 January 1523.
In 1524 he captained the ship. In 1547, Piri had risen to the rank of Reis as the Commander of the Ottoman Fleet in the Indian Ocean and Admiral of the Fleet in Egypt, headquartered in Suez. On 26 February 1548 he recaptured Aden from the Portuguese, followed in 1552 by the sack of Muscat, which Portugal had occupied since 1507, the strategically important island of Kish. Turning further east, Piri Reis attempted to capture the island of Hormuz in the Strait of Hormuz, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, unsuccessfully; when the Portuguese turned their attention to the Persian Gulf, Piri Reis occupied the Qatar peninsula to deprive the Portuguese of suitable bases on the Arabian coast. He returned to Egypt, an old man approaching the age of 90; when he refused to support the Ottoman Vali of Basra, Kubad Pasha, in another campaign against the Portuguese in the northern Persian Gulf, Piri Reis was beheaded in 1553. Several warships and submarines of the Turkish Navy have been named after Piri Reis.
Piri Reis is the author of the Kitāb-ı Baḥrīye, or "Book of the Sea", one of the most famous cartographical works of the period. The work was first published in 1521, it was revised in 1524-1525 with additional information and better-crafted charts in order to be presented as a gift to Suleiman I; the revised edition had a total of 434 pages containing 290 maps. Although he was not an explorer and never sailed to the Atlantic, he compiled over twenty maps of Arab, Portuguese, Chinese and older Greek origins into a comprehensive representation of the known world of his era; this work included the explored shores of both the African and American continents. In his text, he wrote that he used the "maps drawn in the time of Alexander the Great" as a source, but most he had mistakenly confused the 2nd-century Greek geographer Ptolemy with Alexander's general of the same name, since his map is similar with the Jan of Stobnica famous reproduction map of Ptolemy, printed in 1512. Ptolemy's Geographia had been translated in Turkish after a personal order of Mehmed II some decades before.
It can be seen that the Atlantic part of the map originates with Columbus because of the errors it contains
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or al-Idrisi, was an Arab Muslim geographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II. Muhammed al-Idrisi was born in Ceuta belonging to the Moroccan Almoravids. Al-Idrisi was born into the large Hammudid family of North Africa and Al-Andalus, which claimed descent from the Idrisids of Morocco and the prophet Muhammad. Al-Idrisi was born in the city of Ceuta, where his great-grandfather had been forced to settle after the fall of Hammudid Málaga to the Zirids of Granada, he spent much of his early life travelling through North Africa and Al-Andalus and seems to have acquired detailed information on both regions. He visited Anatolia when he was 16, he studied in Córdoba. His travels took him to many parts of Europe including Portugal, the Pyrenees, the French Atlantic coast, Jórvík; because of conflict and instability in Al-Andalus al-Idrisi joined contemporaries such as Abu al-Salt in Sicily, where the Normans had overthrown Arabs loyal to the Fatimids.
Al-Idrisi incorporated the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Far East gathered by Islamic merchants and explorers and recorded on Islamic maps with the information brought by the Norman voyagers to create the most accurate map of the world in pre-modern times, which served as a concrete illustration of his Kitab nuzhat al-mushtaq, which may be translated A Diversion for the Man Longing to Travel to Far-Off Places. The Tabula Rogeriana was drawn by al-Idrisi in 1154 for the Norman King Roger II of Sicily, after a stay of eighteen years at his court, where he worked on the commentaries and illustrations of the map; the map, with legends written in Arabic, while showing the Eurasian continent in its entirety, only shows the northern part of the African continent and lacks details of the Horn of Africa and Southeast Asia. For Roger it was inscribed on a massive disc of two metres in diameter. On the geographical work of al-Idrisi, S. P. Scott wrote in 1904: The compilation of Edrisi marks an era in the history of science.
Not only is its historical information most interesting and valuable, but its descriptions of many parts of the earth are still authoritative. For three centuries geographers copied his maps without alteration; the relative position of the lakes which form the Nile, as delineated in his work, does not differ from that established by Baker and Stanley more than seven hundred years afterwards, their number is the same. The mechanical genius of the author was not inferior to his erudition; the celestial and terrestrial planisphere of silver which he constructed for his royal patron was nearly six feet in diameter, weighed four hundred and fifty pounds. Al-Idrisi inspired Islamic geographers such as Ibn Khaldun and Piri Reis, his map inspired Christopher Columbus and Vasco Da Gama. Al-Idrisi in his famous Tabula Rogeriana mentioned Irlandah-al-Kabirah. According to him, "from the extremity of Iceland to that of Great Ireland," the sailing time was "one day." Although historians note that both al-Idrisi and the Norse tend to understate distances, the only location this reference is thought to have pointed to, must have been in Greenland.
Al-Idrisi mentioned that Chinese junks carried leather, swords and silk. He labels Quanzhou's silk as the best. In his records of Chinese trade, al-Idrisi wrote about the Silla Dynasty, was one of the first Arabs to do so. Al-Idrisi's references to Silla led other Arab merchants to seek Silla and its trade, contributed to many Arabs' perception of Silla as the ideal East-Asian country; as well as the maps, al-Idrisi produced a compendium of geographical information with the title Kitab nuzhat al-mushtaq fi'khtiraq al-'afaq. The title has been translated as The book of pleasant journeys into faraway lands or The pleasure of him who longs to cross the horizons, it has been preserved in nine manuscripts. The translated title of this work attracted favourable comment from the team selecting lists of names for features expected to be discovered by the New Horizons probe reconnoitring the Pluto system; the Al-Idrisi Montes is a geographical feature in that system named after him. In the introduction, al-Idrisi mentions two sources for geographical coordinates: Claudius Ptolemy and "an astronomer" that must be Ishaq ibn al-Hasan al-Zayyat.
An abridged version of the Arabic text was published in Rome in 1592 with title: De geographia universali or Kitāb Nuzhat al-mushtāq fī dhikr al-amṣār wa-al-aqṭār wa-al-buldān wa-al-juzur wa-al-madā’ in wa-al-āfāq which in English would be Recreation of the desirer in the account of cities, countries, islands and distant lands. This was one of the first Arabic books printed; the first translation from the original Arabic was into Latin. The Maronite's Gabriel Sionita and Joannes Hesronita translated an abridged version of the text, published in Paris in 1619 with the title of Geographia nubiensis. Not until the middle of the 19th century was a complete translation of the Arabic text pu
Ḥamdallāh Mustawfī Qazvīnī was a Persian historian and epic poet, descended from a family of Arab origin. Mustawfi is the author of Nozhat ol-Gholub, Zafar-Nameh, the Tarikh e Gozideh, his tomb is a structure with a blue turquoise conical dome, at Qazvin. In his works regarding the history of Tabriz, Mustawfi mentions that before the arrival of the Mongols the people of Tabriz spoke Pahalavi Persian and began to speak Adhari Turkish during Illkhanate rule, he mentions that the people of Maragha and Ardabil had their own Persian dialects. Verily God hath preferred amongst His creatures of the Arabs the Quraysh, among the Persians the men of Fars: for which reason the people of this province... were known as' the Best of the Persians.' List of Iranian scientists Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi at Encyclopædia Iranica
Al-Andalus known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain that in its early period occupied most of Iberia, today's Portugal and Spain. At its greatest geographical extent, it occupied the northwest of the Iberian peninsula and a part of present day southern France Septimania and for nearly a century extended its control from Fraxinet over the Alpine passes which connect Italy with the remainder of Western Europe; the name more describes the parts of the peninsula governed by Muslims at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed as the Christian Reconquista progressed shrinking to the south around modern-day Andalusia and to the Emirate of Granada. Following the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, al-Andalus at its greatest extent, was divided into five administrative units, corresponding to modern Andalusia and Galicia, Castile and León, Aragon, the County of Barcelona, Septimania; as a political domain, it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph Al-Walid I.
Rule under these kingdoms led to a rise in cultural exchange and cooperation between Muslims and Christians. Christians and Jews were subject to a special tax called Jizya, to the state, which in return provided internal autonomy in practicing their religion and offered the same level of protections by the Muslim rulers. Under the Caliphate of Córdoba, al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, the city of Córdoba, the largest in Europe, became one of the leading cultural and economic centres throughout the Mediterranean Basin and the Islamic world. Achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from al-Andalus, including major advances in trigonometry, surgery, pharmacology and other fields. Al-Andalus became a major educational center for Europe and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea as well as a conduit for cultural and scientific exchange between the Islamic and Christian worlds. For much of its history, al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north. After the fall of the Umayyad caliphate, al-Andalus was fragmented into minor states and principalities.
Attacks from the Christians intensified, led by the Castilians under Alfonso VI. The Almoravid empire intervened and repelled the Christian attacks on the region, deposing the weak Andalusi Muslim princes and included al-Andalus under direct Berber rule. In the next century and a half, al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim empires of the Almoravids and Almohads, both based in Marrakesh; the Christian kingdoms in the north of the Iberian Peninsula overpowered the Muslim states to the south. In 1085, Alfonso VI captured Toledo. With the fall of Córdoba in 1236, most of the south fell under Christian rule and the Emirate of Granada became a tributary state of the Kingdom of Castile two years later. In 1249, the Portuguese Reconquista culminated with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III, leaving Granada as the last Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula. On January 2, 1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen Isabella I of Castile, completing the Christian Reconquista of the peninsula.
Although al-Andalus ended as a political entity, the nearly eight centuries of Islamic rule which preceded and accompanied the early formation of the Spanish nation-state and identity has left a profound effect on the country's culture and language in Andalusia. The toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia; these coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic. The etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. In 1986, Joaquín Vallvé proposed that "al-Andalus" was a corruption of the name Atlantis, Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Georg Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate. During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, the commander Tariq ibn-Ziyad led a small force that landed at Gibraltar on April 30, 711, ostensibly to intervene in a Visigothic civil war. After a decisive victory over King Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete on July 19, 711, Tariq ibn-Ziyad, joined by Arab governor Musa ibn Nusayr of Ifriqiya, brought most of the Visigothic Kingdom under Muslim occupation in a seven-year campaign.
They occupied Visigothic Septimania in southern France. Most of the Iberian peninsula became part of the expanding Umayyad Empire, under the name of al-Andalus, it was organized as a province subordinate to Ifriqiya, so, for the first few decades, the governors of al-Andalus were appointed by the emir of Kairouan, rather than the Caliph in Damascus. The regional capital was set at Córdoba, the first influx of Muslim settlers was distributed; the small army Tariq led in the initial conquest consisted of Berbers, while Musa's Arab force of over 12,000 soldiers was accompanied by a group of mawālī, that is, non-Arab Muslims, who were clients of the
Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, better known by his pen-name Saadi known as Saadi of Shiraz, was a major Persian poet and prose writer of the medieval period. He is recognized for the depth of his social and moral thoughts. Saadi is recognized as one of the greatest poets of the classical literary tradition, earning him the nickname "Master of Speech" or "The Master" among Persian scholars, he has been quoted in the Western traditions as well. Bustan is considered one of the 100 greatest books of all time according to The Guardian. Saadi was born in Shiraz, according to some, shortly after 1200, according to others sometime between 1213 and 1219. In the Golestan, composed in 1258, he says in lines evidently addressed to himself, "O you who have lived fifty years and are still asleep", it seems. He narrates memories of going out with his father as a child during festivities. After leaving Shiraz he enrolled at the Nizamiyya University in Baghdad, where he studied Islamic sciences, governance, Arabic literature, Islamic theology.
In the Golestan, he tells us. In the Bustan and Golestan Saadi tells many colourful anecdotes of his travels, although some of these, such as his supposed visit to the remote eastern city of Kashgar in 1213, may be fictional; the unsettled conditions following the Mongol invasion of Khwarezm and Iran led him to wander for thirty years abroad through Anatolia, Syria and Iraq. In his writings he mentions the qadis, muftis of Al-Azhar, the grand bazaar and art. At Halab, Saadi joins a group of Sufis. Saadi was captured by Crusaders at Acre where he spent seven years as a slave digging trenches outside its fortress, he was released after the Mamluks paid ransom for Muslim prisoners being held in Crusader dungeons. Saadi visited Jerusalem and set out on a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, it is believed that he may have visited Oman and other lands in the south of the Arabian Peninsula. Because of the Mongol invasions he was forced to live in desolate areas and met caravans fearing for their lives on once-lively silk trade routes.
Saadi lived in isolated refugee camps where he met bandits, men who owned great wealth or commanded armies and ordinary people. While Mongol and European sources gravitated to the potentates and courtly life of Ilkhanate rule, Saadi mingled with the ordinary survivors of the war-torn region, he sat in remote tea houses late into the night and exchanged views with merchants, preachers, wayfarers and Sufi mendicants. For twenty years or more, he continued the same schedule of preaching and learning, honing his sermons to reflect the wisdom and foibles of his people. Saadi's works reflect upon the lives of ordinary Iranians suffering displacement and conflict during the turbulent times of the Mongol invasion. Saadi mentions honey-gatherers in Azarbaijan, fearful of Mongol plunder, he returns to Persia where he meets his childhood companions in Isfahan and other cities. At Khorasan Saadi befriends a Turkic Emir named Tughral. Saadi joins him and his men on their journey to Sindh where he meets Pir Puttur, a follower of the Persian Sufi grand master Shaikh Usman Marvandvi.
He refers in his writings about his travels with a Turkic Amir named Tughral in Sindh and Central Asia. Tughral hires Hindu sentinels. Tughral enters service of the wealthy Delhi Sultanate, Saadi is invited to Delhi and visits the Vizier of Gujarat. During his stay in Gujarat, Saadi learns more about the Hindus and visits the large temple of Somnath, from which he flees due to an unpleasant encounter with the Brahmans. Katouzian calls this story "almost fictitious". Saadi came back to Shiraz before 1257 CE / 655 AH. Saadi mourned in his poetry the fall of Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdad's destruction by Mongol invaders led by Hulagu in February 1258; when he reappeared in his native Shiraz, he might have been in his late forties. Shiraz, under Atabak Abubakr ibn Sa'd ibn Zangi, the Salghurid ruler of Fars, was enjoying an era of relative tranquility. Saadi was not only welcomed to the city but was shown great respect by the ruler and held to be among the greats of the province; some scholars believe that Saadi took his nom de plume from the name of Abubakr's son, Sa'd, to whom he dedicated the Golestan.
Some of Saadi's most famous panegyrics were composed as a gesture of gratitude in praise of the ruling house and placed at the beginning of his Bustan. The remainder of Saadi's life seems to have been spent in Shiraz; the traditional date for Saadi's death is between 1291 an
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī Latinized as Algorithmi, was a Persian scholar who produced works in mathematics and geography under the patronage of the Caliph Al-Ma'mun of the Abbasid Caliphate. Around 820 AD he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. Al-Khwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations. One of his principal achievements in algebra was his demonstration of how to solve quadratic equations by completing the square, for which he provided geometric justifications; because he was the first to treat algebra as an independent discipline and introduced the methods of "reduction" and "balancing", he has been described as the father or founder of algebra. The term algebra itself comes from the title of his book, his name gave rise to the terms algorithm. His name is the origin of guarismo and of algarismo, both meaning digit. In the 12th century, Latin translations of his textbook on arithmetic which codified the various Indian numerals, introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world.
The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, translated into Latin by Robert of Chester in 1145, was used until the sixteenth century as the principal mathematical text-book of European universities. In addition to his best-known works, he revised Ptolemy's Geography, listing the longitudes and latitudes of various cities and localities, he further produced a set of astronomical tables and wrote about calendaric works, as well as the astrolabe and the sundial. Few details of al-Khwārizmī's life are known with certainty, he was born into a Persian family and Ibn al-Nadim gives his birthplace as Khwarezm in Greater Khorasan. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari gives his name as Muḥammad ibn Musá al-Khwārizmiyy al-Majūsiyy al-Quṭrubbaliyy; the epithet al-Qutrubbulli could indicate he might instead have come from Qutrubbul, a viticulture district near Baghdad. However, Rashed suggests: There is no need to be an expert on the period or a philologist to see that al-Tabari's second citation should read "Muhammad ibn Mūsa al-Khwārizmī and al-Majūsi al-Qutrubbulli," and that there are two people between whom the letter wa has been omitted in an early copy.
This would not be worth mentioning if a series of errors concerning the personality of al-Khwārizmī even the origins of his knowledge, had not been made. G. J. Toomer... with naive confidence constructed an entire fantasy on the error which cannot be denied the merit of amusing the reader. Regarding al-Khwārizmī's religion, Toomer writes: Another epithet given to him by al-Ṭabarī, "al-Majūsī," would seem to indicate that he was an adherent of the old Zoroastrian religion; this would still have been possible at that time for a man of Iranian origin, but the pious preface to al-Khwārizmī's Algebra shows that he was an orthodox Muslim, so al-Ṭabarī's epithet could mean no more than that his forebears, he in his youth, had been Zoroastrians. Ibn al-Nadīm's Kitāb al-Fihrist includes a short biography on al-Khwārizmī together with a list of the books he wrote. Al-Khwārizmī accomplished most of his work in the period between 813 and 833. After the Muslim conquest of Persia, Baghdad became the centre of scientific studies and trade, many merchants and scientists from as far as China and India traveled to this city, as did al-Khwārizmī.
He worked in Baghdad as a scholar at the House of Wisdom established by Caliph al-Ma’mūn, where he studied the sciences and mathematics, which included the translation of Greek and Sanskrit scientific manuscripts. Douglas Morton Dunlop suggests that it may have been possible that Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī was in fact the same person as Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir, the eldest of the three Banū Mūsā. Al-Khwārizmī's contributions to mathematics, geography and cartography established the basis for innovation in algebra and trigonometry, his systematic approach to solving linear and quadratic equations led to algebra, a word derived from the title of his book on the subject, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing". On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals written about 820, was principally responsible for spreading the Hindu–Arabic numeral system throughout the Middle East and Europe, it was translated into Latin as Algoritmi de numero Indorum. Al-Khwārizmī, rendered as Algoritmi, led to the term "algorithm".
Some of his work was based on Persian and Babylonian astronomy, Indian numbers, Greek mathematics. Al-Khwārizmī corrected Ptolemy's data for Africa and the Middle East. Another major book was Kitab surat al-ard, presenting the coordinates of places based on those in the Geography of Ptolemy but with improved values for the Mediterranean Sea and Africa, he wrote on mechanical devices like the astrolabe and sundial. He assisted a project to determine the circumference of the Earth and in making a world map for al-Ma'mun, the caliph, overseeing 70 geographers. When, in the 12th century, his works spread to Europe through Latin translations, it had a profound impact on the advance of mathematics in