In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of municipalities, school district, or political district. A municipal utility district is a special-purpose district or other jurisdiction that provides services to district residents. Local residents may vote to establish a municipal utility district, represented by a board of directors elected by constituents; as governmental bodies, they are nonprofit. In the US, public utility districts have similar functions to Municipal utility districts, but are created by a local government body such as a city or county, have no authority to levy taxes, they provide public utilities to the residents of that district. PUDs are created by a local government body, such as county, or metropolitan service area; the districts are non-profit. PUDs are governed by a commission, which may be appointed or elected.
In Afghanistan, a district is a subdivision of a province. There are 400 districts in the country. Electoral districts are used in state elections. Districts were used in several states as cadastral units for land titles; some were used as squatting districts. New South Wales had several different types of districts used in the 21st century. In Austria, the word Bezirk is used with different meanings in three different contexts: Some of the tasks of the administrative branch of the national and regional governments are fulfilled by the 95 district administrative offices; the area a district administrative office is responsible for is although informally, called a district. A number of statutory cities 15, are not served by any district administrative office, their respective municipal bureaucracies handle the tasks performed by the district administrative office. The cities of Vienna and Graz are divided into municipal districts, assisting the respective municipal governments. In Vienna, the constituents of each district elect a district council.
Although the city vests its districts with a limited amount of budgetary autonomy, district councils and chairpersons have little real responsibility. In particular, they do not legislate. Most of the districts of Vienna were independent municipalities at some point. From the point of view of the judiciary of Austria, the country is subdivided into 115 judicial districts, each corresponding to one of the country's 115 lowest-level trial courts. Bangladeshi districts are local administrative units. In all, there are 64 districts in Bangladesh. There were 21 greater districts with several subdivisions in each district. In 1984, the government made all these subdivisions into districts; each district has several sub districts called Upazila in Bengali. In Belgian municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, on initiative of the local council, sub-municipal administrative entities with elected councils may be created; as such, only Antwerp, having over 460,000 inhabitants, became subdivided into nine districts.
The Belgian arrondissements, an administrative level between province and municipality, or the lowest judicial level, are in English sometimes called districts as well. Bhutanese districts are local administrative units consisting of village blocks called gewog; some have subdistricts called dungkhag. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, a district is a self-governing administrative unit. Brčko District in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina is formally part of both the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the Assembly of the Brčko District has 29 seats. Brazilian municipalities are subdivided into districts. Small municipalities have only one urban district, which contains the city itself, consisting of the seat of the local government, where the municipality's prefeitura and câmara de vereadores are located; the rural districts and groups of urban districts may present a sub local Executive body, named subprefeitura. A district is known locally as daerah and it is the first-level administrative division of Brunei.
There are four districts in the country, namely Brunei-Muara, Tutong and Temburong. Each district is administered by a Jabatan Daerah, headed by a Pegawai Daerah. All district offices are government departments under the Ministry of Home Affairs. In Alberta, the municipal districts and improvement districts are types of rural municipalities, they are recognized as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada, which form parts of census divisions. In the province of British Columbia, there are several kinds of administrative districts by that name; the usual usage is a reference to district municipalities, which are a class of municipality in the same hierarchy as city, town, or village. Most are styled, e.g. "District of Mission" or "District of Wells", though some are styled, e.g. "Corporation of Delta" or "Township of Langley". Within the area of municipal powers, regional districts – which
Muban is the lowest administrative sub-division of Thailand. Translated as village and sometimes as hamlet, they are a subdivision of a tambon; as of 2008, there were 74,944 administrative muban in Thailand. As of the 1990 census, the average village consisted of 746 persons. Muban may function as one word, in the sense of a hamlet or village, as such may be shortened to Ban. Mu ban may function as two words, i.e. หมู่ group บ้าน homes. Mu, in the sense of group, are assigned numbers in the sequence in which each is entered in a register maintained in the district or branch-district office. Ban, in the sense of home or household for members of each group, are assigned a number in the sequence in which each is added to the household register maintained in the district or branch-district office; each ban is registered in the name of a householder. Assigned Ban and Mu numbers, together with the names of tambon and province, are used as geographic addresses by government agencies. Village or Ban names do not form part of such official addresses, as explained below.
Ban in the sense of Village occurs in geopolitical toponyms on maps and Thai highway network signage, but these are not administrative subdivisions. Such village names may apply to an isolated muban, but apply to a group of adjoining ones, which have been subdivided from the original settlement; each new mu is assigned a new number, in the sequence. The village name of the original settlement is retained for the larger grouping; such village names are not part of a household address, unless Ban is retained as part of the toponym when such a settlement is upgraded—e.g. A household in Ban Dan would be addressed as Ban No.__ Mu No.__, Ban Dan Sub-district, Ban Dan District, Buriram. Ban Dan A. Ban Dan, Buriram 31000. Note: Usage of the short form number/number for ban/mu is both unofficial and unambiguous in a tambon, but in city districts is restricted to subdivision of an original household registration into additional household registrations; each such mu or group is led by a headman called village headman or village chief, elected by the population of the village and appointed by the Ministry of the Interior.
The headman has one for governmental affairs and one for security affairs. There may be a village committee with elected members from the village, serving as an advisory body of a village; the village headman, once elected, was in office until reaching retirement age. They now only serve for a five-year term but can apply for reelection; the same is true for "sub-district headman" at the next higher tambon level. Communities or neighborhoods that are part of a town or city have no equivalent to village headman, but may be organized into community associations having advisory committees. Muban, is the Thai term for housing estate or gated community
Chaiya is a district and town in Surat Thani Province in southern Thailand. The town itself has a population of 13,133, while the whole district has a population of 47,750. Neighboring districts are Tha Chang, Kapoe and Tha Chana. To the east is the Gulf of Thailand, with Cape Sui marking the northern end of the Bandon Bay; the eastern part of the district consists of flat low coastal areas, while to the west are the mountains of the Phuket mountain range, including Kaeng Krung National Park. Chaiya is one of the oldest cities of Thailand; the name might be derived from its original Malay name "cahaya". Some scholars identify Chai-ya as coming from Sri-vi- "ja-ya", it was a regional capital in the Srivijaya kingdom in the 5th to 13th centuries. Some historians claim that it was the capital for the kingdom for some time, but this is disputed. Wat Phra Borom That is centered on a reconstructed stupa in Srivijaya style; the nearby branch of the National Museum has several relics of that time on display.
Two more former stupas nearby are now only brick mounds. Inscription 23, as it was labeled by Prince Damrong in his Collected Inscriptions of Siam, is now attributed to Wat Hua Wiang in Chaiya. Dated to the year 697 of the Mahasakkarat era, the inscription on a Bai Sema shaped stone tells about the King of Srivijaya having erected three stupas at that site and the one at Wat Phra Borom That. Another important temple near Chaiya is a forest temple; the temple was founded in 1932 by a revered Buddhist teacher. In 1959 the temple was relocated to the present 380 rai site; these temples are believed to have been used to store rice in large quantities, due to the invading Japanese. These large Buddhist rice temples are rare in the region and only one has been labeled as a rice storage temple. Chaiya is on the southern railway line, Chaiya Railway Station is the main railway station of the district; the Asian highway AH2 passes the city. Chaiya District is divided into nine sub-districts; these are further divided into 54 villages.
There are three sub-district municipalities: Talat Chaiya includes most of tambon Talat Chaiya and parts of Lamet. The other six sub-districts each have a tambon administrative organization as their local government. Chaiya National Museum Suan Mokkh - The garden of liberation Chaiya City Website Chaiya Witthaya School
Krabi is the main town in the province of Krabi on the west coast of southern Thailand at the mouth of the Krabi River where it empties in Phang Nga Bay. As of 2010 the town had a population of 52,867; the town is the capital of Krabi District. Tourism is an important industry. Krabi is 783 km south of Bangkok by road; the town covers the tambon Paknam and Krabi Yai of Krabi District, is divided into 10 communities. Facing the Andaman Sea, like Phuket, Krabi is subject to a six-month rainy season between May and November with sustained heavy rains for days at a time during the monsoons. Krabi's highest recorded temperature was 39.1° C on 26 March 1998. Its lowest temperature was recorded on 11 January 2009: 15.3° C. At the start of the Rattanakosin or Bangkok period in the late eighteenth century, when the capital was settled at Bangkok, an elephant kraal was established in Krabi by order of Chao Phraya Nakorn, the governor of Nakhon Si Thammarat, by a part of the Thai Kingdom, he sent his vizier, the Phra Palad, to oversee this task, to ensure a regular supply of elephants for the larger town.
So many followers immigrated in the steps of the Phra Palad that soon Krabi had a large community in three different boroughs: Pakasai, Khlong Pon, Pak Lao. In 1872, King Chulalongkorn elevated these to town status, called Krabi, a word that preserves in its meaning the monkey symbolism of the old standard; the town's first governor was Luang Thep Sena, though it continued for a while as a dependency of Nakhon Si Thammarat. This was changed in 1875, when Krabi was raised to a fourth-level town in the old system of Thai government. Administrators reported directly to the central government in Bangkok, Krabi's history as an entity separate from other provinces had begun. Much of the province has been given over to several national parks. Top destinations are Hat Noppharat Thara - Mu Ko Phi Phi National Park, Ao Nang, Ko Phi Phi; the province includes over 80 smaller islands such as Ko Lanta and Phi Phi, well-known to adventurers, scuba-divers and day-trippers from Phuket. Krabi's beaches attract both native Thai foreigners alike.
Ko Lanta National Park in Krabi Province, includes several coral-fringed islands with well-known diving sites. The largest island, Ko Lanta Yai, is the site of park headquarters, is home to "Chao Le", or sea gypsies, who sustain themselves through fishing; the islands are best visited during the drier months of October through April. Kayaking, bird watching, snorkeling are among top activities. In the interior, two predominantly mainland national parks, Khao Phanom Bencha National Park and Than Bokkhorani, offer inland scenic attractions including waterfalls and caves, opportunities for trekking, bird watching, eco-tours; the rock faces at Railay Beach near Ao Nang have attracted climbers from all over the world and each year are the venue for the Rock and Fire Festival in mid April. There are several rock climbing schools at Railay Beach; the rock is limestone and has characteristic pockets and faces. Railay has numerous multi-pitch areas. A famous example is "Humanality". In addition, deep water soloing is popular on the numerous nearby rocky islands accessible by long-tail boat.
Another popular destination is the Fossil Shell Beach located at Ban Laem Pho. The beach is famous for its fossilized snail shells, dwellers of the freshwater swamp that covered this area some 40 million years ago. Since 1999 the town has been served by the international Krabi Airport. Passing through the town is Phetkasem Road. Krabi at Curlie Krabi Town travel guide from Wikivoyage
Phanom is a district in the southwest of Surat Thani Province of southern Thailand. The district is in the hills of the Phuket mountain range, with around 60 percent of its area consisting of mountains and forests; the northwestern part of the district is protected in the Khao Sok National Park, in the southwest by the Khlong Phanom National Park. The district marks the eastern end of the pass through the mountains, connecting Takua Pa with Surat Thani; this historic pass along the Sok River valley is now the route of Thailand Route 401. Neighboring districts are Ban Ta Khun, Khiri Rat Nikhom, Khian Sa and Phrasaeng of Surat Thani, Plai Phraya of Krabi Province, Thap Put, Mueang Phang Nga, Takua Pa and Khura Buri of Phang Nga Province; the district was created at that time named Khlong Cha Un. It was renamed to Pak Phanom, as the district office was moved to a new site in Phak Phanom, shortened to Phanom; the first district officer was Khun Phanom Thana Rak. In 1910 the district was reduced to a minor district and made a subordinate of Khirirat Nikhom District.
On 14 November 1971 it regained full district status. The slogan of the district is "Beautiful Rafflesia, rich in hills covered by mist"; the district is divided into six sub-districts. Phanom itself covers tambon Phang Kan and parts of tambon Phanom; each of the six tambon is administered by a tambon administrative organization. Amphoe.com