Uttar Pradesh, abbreviated as UP, is the most populous state in the Republic of India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world. The state, located in the region of the Indian subcontinent, has over 200 million inhabitants. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces during British rule, Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh. Ghaziabad, Bhadohi, Moradabad, Aligarh, Sonbhadra, on 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the Himalayan hill region of Uttar Pradesh. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7. 33% of the area of India. Hindi is the official and most widely spoken language in its 75 districts, Uttar Pradesh is the third largest Indian state by economy, with a GDP of ₹9,763 billion. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the states economy, the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of ancient and medieval India, the two major rivers of the state, the Ganges and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganges further east.
Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago, the kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira. The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture, most of the invaders of south India passed through the Gangetic plains of what is today Uttar Pradesh. Control over this region was of importance to the power and stability of all of Indias major empires, including the Maurya, Gupta. Following the Huns invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj, during the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith. It spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and it included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain.
Many communities in parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, in the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Babur and Humayun ruled from Delhi, in 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior, after the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and the western parts of Bengal
Sago /ˈseɪɡoʊ/ is a starch extracted from the spongy centre, or pith, of various tropical palm stems, especially that of Metroxylon sagu. It is a staple food for the lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas. The largest supply of sago comes from Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia and Malaysia, large quantities of sago are sent to Europe and North America for cooking purposes. It is traditionally cooked and eaten in various forms, such as rolled into balls, mixed with boiling water to form a glue-like paste, Sago is often produced commercially in the form of pearls. Sago pearls can be boiled with water or milk and sugar to make a sweet sago pudding, Sago pearls are similar in appearance as the pearled starches of other origin, e. g. cassava starch and potato starch, and they may be used interchangeably in some dishes. The name sago is used for starch extracted from other sources, especially the sago cycad. The sago cycad is known as the sago palm. Extracting edible starch from the sago cycad requires special care due to the nature of cycads.
Cycad sago is used for many of the same purposes as palm sago, the fruit of palm trees from which the sago is produced is not allowed to ripen fully. The full ripening completes the cycle of the tree and exhausts the starch reserves in the trunk to produce the seeds. It leaves a hollow shell and causes the tree to die, the palms are cut down when they are about 15 years old, just before or shortly after the inflorescence appears. The stems, which grow 10 to 15 metres high), are split out, the starch-containing pith is taken from the stems and ground to powder. The powder is kneaded in water over a cloth or sieve to release the starch, the water with the starch passes into a trough where the starch settles. After a few washings, the starch is ready to be used in cooking, a single palm yields about 800 pounds of dry starch. The sago palm, Metroxylon sagu, is found in lowland forest and freshwater swamps across Southeast Asia. It tolerates a variety of soils and may reach 30 meters in height. Several other species of the genus Metroxylon, particularly Metroxylon salomonense, Sago palms grow very quickly, in clumps of different ages similar to bananas, one sucker matures and dies.
It is replaced by another sucker, with up to 1.5 m of vertical stem growth per year, the stems are thick and are either self-supporting or have a moderate climbing habit, the leaves are pinnate
Assam (English pronunciation, /əˈsæm/ listen is a state in northeastern India. Located south of the eastern Himalayas, Assam comprises the Brahmaputra Valley, along with Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram and Meghalaya, is one of the Seven Sister States. Geographically and these states are connected to the rest of India via a 22 kilometres strip of land in West Bengal called the Siliguri Corridor or Chickens Neck. Assam shares a border with Bhutan and Bangladesh, and its culture, people. Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk, the first oil well in Asia was drilled here. The state has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger. It provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant, the Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism, centred around Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park which are World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, Assam receives more rainfall compared to most parts of India.
This rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic and aesthetic environment, the precise etymology of Assam came from Ahom Dynasty. In the classical period and up to the 12th century the region east of the Karatoya river, largely congruent to present-day Assam, was called Kamarupa, in medieval times the Mughals used Asham and Kamrup, and during British colonialism, the English used Assam. Though many authors have associated the name with the 13th century Shan invaders the precise origin of the name is not clear. It was suggested by some that the Sanskrit word Asama was the root, which has been rejected by Kakati, among possible origins are Tai and Bodo. Assam and adjoining regions have evidences of settlements from all the periods of the Stone ages. The hills at the height of 1, 500–2,000 feet were popular habitats probably due to availability of exposed dolerite basalt, useful for tool-making. According to a text, Kalika Purana, the earliest ruler of Assam was Mahiranga Danav of the Danava dynasty.
The last of these rulers, was slain by Krishna, narakas son Bhagadatta became the king, who fought for the Kauravas in the battle of Kurukshetra with an army of kiratas and dwellers of the eastern coast. Samudraguptas 4th century Allahabad pillar inscription mentions Kamarupa and Davaka as frontier kingdoms of the Gupta Empire, ruled by three dynasties Varmanas, Mlechchha dynasty and Kamarupa-Palas, from their capitals in present-day Guwahati and North Gauhati respectively. All three dynasties claimed their descent from Narakasura, an immigrant from Aryavarta, in the reign of the Varman king, Bhaskar Varman, the Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited the region and recorded his travels
Dal is a term in the Indian subcontinent for dried, split pulses. The term is used for various soups prepared from these pulses. These pulses are among the most important staple foods in SAARC countries, dals are frequently eaten with flatbreads such as rotis or chapatis or with rice, a combination referred to as dal bhat. Dals are high in relative to other plants. The outer hull is usually stripped off, dal that has not been hulled is described as chilka, e. g. chilka urad dal, the term dal is often contrasted with the term gram, used in South Asia for pulses that are whole rather than split. The word dāl derives the Sanskrit verbal root dal- to split, Dal preparations are eaten with rice, as well as rotis and naan on the Indian subcontinent. In India, it is eaten with rice and with a wheat flatbread called rotta, the manner in which it is cooked and presented varies by region. In South India, dal is used to make the dish called sambar. It is used to make pappu that is mixed with charu and its protein contents are 3.5 times that of rice and 2.5 times that of wheat.
It provides an excellent source of protein, particularly for those adopting vegetarian diets or diets which do not contain much meat and it is typically around 25% protein by dry weight, giving it a comparable protein content to meats. However, by weight, cooked dal contains 9% protein, 70% water, 20% carbohydrates, Note that as extra water is added to cooked lentil, as in the case of sambar, proportion of proteins and other nutrients will reduce further. Protein contents of cooked lentil are one third that of cooked chicken, most dals have a similar amount of protein. On its own, soybean is the only vegetarian complete protein, all other dals including pigeon pea do not have individual amino acids within protein in ideal proportion. However, if the proteins in dals are combined with rice or wheat, it provides amino acids in the right proportions, bioavailability of proteins from dals is less than those from eggs and meats. Note, Carbohydrates do not include fiber, https, //ndb. nal. usda. gov/ Note, Average daily protein requirements are 55 grams per person.
Significant values are highlighted in light Gray color and bold letters, Note that absorption of this iron is reduced by about 65% if tea is consumed immediately after meal. This is important for vegetarians since tea reduces iron absorption from all plant sources including dal significantly, iron absorption can be increased by about up to 85% by having vitamin C rich foods such as Guava or Orange juice along with meal. Vitamin C contents of lentils can be increased up to 10.5 times by sprouting, significant values are highlighted in light Gray color and bold letters
Haryana is one of the 29 states in India, situated in North India. It was carved out of the state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis. It stands 21st in terms of its area, which is spread about 44,212 km2, as of 2011 census of India, the state is eighteenth largest by population with 25,353,081 inhabitants. The city of Chandigarh is its capital while the NCR city of Faridabad is the most populous city of the state, Haryana is one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia, and its agricultural and manufacturing industries have experienced sustained growth since the 1970s. Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India and it is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its border with Uttar Pradesh. Haryana surrounds the countrys capital Delhi on three sides, forming the northern and southern borders of Delhi, consequently, a large area of south Haryana is included in the National Capital Region for purposes of planning for development.
The name Haryana is found in the works of the 12th-century AD Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar, the name Haryana has been derived from the Sanskrit words Hari and ayana, meaning the Abode of God. However, scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name comes from a compound of the words Hari and Aranya. Vedic state of Brahmavarta is claimed to be located in a new research in south Haryana, manusmriti, a flood time document composed by Manu and Bhrigu is now dated 10,000 years old. Rakhigarhi village in the Hisar district is home to the largest and one of the oldest ancient Indus Valley Civilization sites, evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, and skilled metal working have been uncovered. According to archeologists, Rakhigarhi may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, the area that is now Haryana has been ruled by major empires of India.
Panipat is known for three seminal battles in the history of India, in the First Battle of Panipat, Babur defeated the Lodis. In the Second Battle of Panipat, Akbar defeated the local Haryanvi Hindu Emperor of Delhi, had earlier won 22 battles across India from Punjab to Bengal defeating Mughals and Afghans. Hemu had defeated Akbars forces twice at Agra and Battle of Delhi in 1556 to become last Hindu Emperor of India with formal Coronation at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7th Oct.1556, in the Third Battle of Panipat, the Afghan king Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas. Haryana state was formed on 1 November 1966, the commission delivered its report on 31 May 1966 whereby the then-districts of Hisar, Gurgaon and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind and Narwana in the Sangrur district—along with Naraingarh, the commission recommended that the tehsil of Kharad, which includes Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab, should be a part of Haryana. However, only a portion of Kharad was given to Haryana
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and it has an area of 79,710 km2. The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital, Jamshedpur is the largest industrial city in the state, while Dhanbad and Bokaro Steel City are the second and fourth most populous cities respectively. The State is primarily a state as only 24 percent of the population resides in Cities. According to writers including Gautam Kumar Bera, there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the Magadha Empire, beras book refers to the Hindu epic Bhavishya Purana. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas, for a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained unnoticed. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent, in those days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary state of Magadha Empire and southern part was a tributary of Kalinga Empire.
According to legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Odisha declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century, the Singh Deos of Orissa were influential in the early history of Jharkhand. The local tribal heads had developed into barbaric dictators who could govern the province neither fairly nor justly, the people of this state approached the more powerful rulers of Jharkhands neighboring states who were perceived to have a more fair and just governance. The good tribal rulers continued to thrive and were known as the Munda Rajas, during the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara. In the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became known under its present title, Jharkhand — the Land of jungles. In 1765, the region came under the control of the British East India Company, the subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. The first ever revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi and he wanted to liberate his people from the clutches of the unscrupulous landlords and restore the lands of their ancestors.
The British government sent its troops and crushed the uprisings of Tilka Manjhi, soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, now in West Bengal. This was followed by the Chero tribes unrest in Palamau and they revolted against the British rule in 1800 AD. Hardly seven years in 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord of Srinagar west of Gumla, soon the uprisings spread around Gumla. The tribal uprisings spread eastward to neighbouring Tamar areas of the Munda tribes and they too rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. The Hos in Singhbhum were growing restless and came out in revolt in 1820 and fought against the landlords
Nepalese cuisine refers to the food eaten in Nepal. Nepals cultural and geographic diversity has resulted in a variety of cuisines based upon ethnicity and on soil, dal is a soup made of lentils and spices. This is served over boiled grain, bhat—usually rice but sometimes another vegetable curry, condiments are usually small amounts of extremely spicy [achaar or pickle which can be fresh or fermented. The variety of these is staggering, said to number in the thousands, other accompaniments may be sliced lemon or lime with fresh green chili. Dhindo is a food of Nepal. Much of the cuisine is variation on Asian themes, other foods have hybrid Tibetan and Thai origins. Momo—Tibetan style dumplings with Nepalese spices—are one of the most popular foods in Nepal and they were originally filled with buffalo meat but now with goat or chicken, as well as vegetarian preparations. Special foods such as sel roti and patre are eaten during festivals such as Tihar and it is a Chinese-style stir fried noodles but Nepalis have given it their own twist.
Dal-bhat-tarkari is the meal eaten twice daily. However, with land suitable for irrigated rice paddies in short supply, buckwheat, barley, or millet become porridge-like. Tarkari can be spinach and fresh greens and dried greens, white radish, green beans, cauliflower, pumpkin, fruit traditionally grown in the hills include mandarin orange, kaffir lime, Asian pear, and bayberry. Mangoes grow up to about 800 meters elevation and curried meat or fish are served as side dishes when available. Chicken and fish are usually acceptable to all but the Khas Brahmin caste and they eschew buffalo and yak meat as being too cow-like. Domestic pork was traditionally eaten by aadibasi, however wild boar was traditionally hunted. A strain derived from wild boar is now raised in captivity, Himalayan cuisine is influenced culturally by Tibetan and closely related ethnic groups in the Himalaya and Trans-Himalaya. Buckwheat and millet are important cold-tolerant grains often processed into noodles or tsampa which is ground from toasted grain.
Butter tea is made by mixing butter or ghee and salt into strong tea and this tea preparation is commonly mixed with tsampa flour to make a kind of fast food especially eaten while traveling. Grain is made into alcoholic beverages, potatoes are another important staple crop and food
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak
He was one of the Nine Jewels of Akbars royal court and the brother of Faizi, the poet laureate of emperor Akbar. Abul Fazl ibn Mubarak ancestors hailed from Yemen, however, it was common during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire for individuals to embellish their ancestral heritage to raise their stature. He was a descendant of Shaikh Musa who lived in Rel near Siwistan and his grandfather, Shaikh Khizr, moved to Nagaur which had attained importance as a sufi mystic centre under Shaikh Hamid-ud-din Sufi Sawali, a khalifa of Shaikh Muin-ud-din Chisti of Ajmer. At Nagaur Shaikh Khizr settled near the tomb of Shaikh Hamid-ud-din, Abul Fazls father, Shaikh Mubarak Nagori, was born in 1506 at Nagaur. Soon after Fazls birth, Khizr travelled to Sindh to bring members of his family to Nagaur. Khizrs death and a famine and plague that ravaged Nagaur caused great hardship to the destitute Mubarak, despite these hardships Mubaraks mother arranged a good education for him. One of Mubaraks earliest teacher was Shaikh Attanwho was known for his piety, another important teacher who influenced Shaikh Mubarak was Shaikh Fayyazi, a disciple of Khwaja Ubaidullah Ahrar.
Later he went to Ahmedabad and studied under Shaikh Abul Fazl Gazruni, Shaikh Umar, Yusuf advised Mubarak to go to Agra and set up a madrasah there. Mubarak reached Agra in April 1543 and on the suggestion of Shaikh Alawal Balawal set up his residence at Charbagh, mir Rafiud-din Safavi of Inju lived close by and Mubarak married a near relative of his. Mubarak established his madrash in Agra where his field of instruction was philosophy. He spent some time in Badaun, holy land of Sufism, the orthodox group of ulama criticised Mubarak and accused him of changing his views. Shaikh Mubaraks first son, the poet Abul Faizi and his second son Abul Fazl were born in Agra, Abul Fazls education began with Arabic and by the age of five he could read and write. His father started teaching him all the branches of Islamic sciences but Fazl could not adhere to conventional learning. A friend rescued him from state and he resumed his studies. Some incidents from his life reflect on his brilliance. A dictionary of Ishafani, which had been eaten by white ants came under his observation and he removed the parts that had been eaten and joined blank paper to the rest.
He discovered the beginning and end of fragment and eventually penned a draft text. Subsequently the entire work was discovered and on comparison to Fazls draft the original differed in two or three places
The mung bean, alternatively known as the moong bean, green gram, or mung Sanskrit मुद्ग / mudga, is a plant species in the legume family. The mung bean is mainly cultivated in India, and it is used as an ingredient in both savory and sweet dishes. The English word mung is derived from the Hindi word मूंग moong derived from the Sanskrit word मुद्ग and they are one of many species recently moved from the genus Phaseolus to Vigna, and is still often seen incorrectly cited as Phaseolus aureus or Phaseolus radiatus. Mung beans are used in various cuisines across Asia. Whole cooked mung beans are prepared from dried beans by boiling until they are soft. Mung beans are light yellow in colour when their skins are removed, Mung bean paste can be made by dehulling and pulverizing the beans to a dry paste. Dehulled mung beans can be used in a fashion as whole beans for the purpose of making sweet soups. Mung beans in some cuisines of India are stripped of their outer coats to make mung dal. In Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, steamed whole beans are seasoned with spices, in south and north Indian states, mung beans are eaten as pancakes.
They are soaked in water for six to 12 hours, they are ground into fine paste along with ginger and salt. Then pancakes are made on a hot griddle. These are usually eaten for breakfast and this provides high quality protein that is rare in most Indian regional cuisines. Pongal or kichdi is another recipe that is made with rice, in Kerala, it is commonly used to make the parippu preparation in the Travancore region. It is used, with milk and jaggery, to make a type of payasam. Soaked Moong called Hesaru in Kannada is one of ingredient in Kosambari a salad, in Chinese cuisine, whole mung beans are used to make a tángshuǐ, or dessert, otherwise literally translated, sugar water, called lǜdòu tángshuǐ, which is served either warm or chilled. In Indonesia, they are made into a popular snack called es kacang hijau. The beans are cooked with sugar, coconut milk, and a little ginger, in Hong Kong, dehulled mung beans and mung bean paste are made into ice cream or frozen ice pops. Mung bean paste is used as a filling for Chinese mooncakes in East China
Hinduism is a religion, or a way of life, found most notably in India and Nepal. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This Hindu synthesis started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period, although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, and pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Shruti and Smriti and these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, and temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha, karma and the various Yogas. Hindu practices include such as puja and recitations, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals.
Some Hindus leave their world and material possessions, engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, Hinduism is the worlds third largest religion, with over one billion followers or 15% of the global population, known as Hindus. The majority of Hindus reside in India, Mauritius, the Caribbean, the word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit word Sindhu, the Indo-Aryan name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. The term Hindu in these ancient records is a geographical term, the Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people who live across the River Indus. This Arabic term was taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as an alternative name of India. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus.
The term Hinduism, spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th-century to denote the religious, because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion defies our desire to define and categorize it, Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, and a way of life. From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion, in India the term dharma is preferred, which is broader than the western term religion. Hindu traditionalists prefer to call it Sanatana Dharma, the study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of Hinduism, has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion. Since the 1990s, those influences and its outcomes have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism, Hinduism as it is commonly known can be subdivided into a number of major currents
Rajasthan is Indias largest state by area. Elsewhere it is bordered by the other Indian states, Punjab to the north and Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Madhya Pradesh to the southeast, and Gujarat to the southwest. Rajasthan is home to two national reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur and Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar. The state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana – the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region – was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur, known as Pink City, other important cities are Jodhpur, Bikaner and Ajmer. Parts of what is now Rajasthan were partly part of the Vedic Civilisation, kalibangan, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India, is said to roughly corresponded to the state of Jaipur in Rajasthan. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagar, which is said to have named after its founder king Virata.
Bhargava identifies the two districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar and parts of Jaipur district along with Haryana districts of Mahendragarh, bhargava locates the present day Sahibi River as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with Saraswati River formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and Bhrigu narrated the Manusmriti to a congregation of seers in this area only, the Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era, marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps state. Gurjars ruled for many dynasties in this part of the country, up to the tenth century almost the whole of North India, acknowledged the supremacy of the Gurjars with their seat of power at Kannauj. The Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century, the chief accomplishment of the Gurjara Pratihara empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Majumdar says that this was acknowledged by the Arab writers.
He further notes that historians of India have wondered at the progress of Muslim invaders in India. Traditionally the Rajputs, Meenas, REBARI, Bhils, Charans, Bishnois, PhulMali, all these tribes suffered great difficulties in protecting their culture and the land. Millions of them were killed trying to protect their land, a number of Gurjars had been exterminated in Bhinmal and Ajmer areas fighting with the invaders. Meenas were rulers of Bundi and the Dhundhar region, hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Machheri in Alwar District in 1501. Hem Chandra was killed in the battlefield at Second Battle of Panipat fighting against Mughals on 5 November 1556, maharana Pratap of Mewar resisted Akbar in the famous Battle of Haldighati and operated from hilly areas of his kingdom