"Martuni" redirects here. For other uses see Martuni. Khojavend, or Martuni is a town and the provincial capital of Martuni Region of the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh. However, it is a de jure part of the Republic of Azerbaijan, with the status of an administrative center of the surrounding Khojavend District, it is located 41 kilometers east of the Republic's capital Stepanakert. It has a population of 5,700 as of 2015. Excavations in Khojavand have uncovered a number of tombs dating to the Bronze Ages. Martuni is home to several ruined medieval churches and remains of settlements, khachkars have been preserved. During Soviet times, Khojavand was the capital of the eponymous district located in the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast; the population of the town, grouped into kolkhozes occupied itself with raising livestock, grape growing, wheat cultivation, gardening. Martuni, the district itself, became a frontline city during the latter stages of the Nagorno-Karabakh War. In early February 1992, Vazgen Sargsyan, the Defence Minister of Armenia, appointed Monte Melkonian as Chief of Headquarters and assigned him to lead the defense of Martuni and the surrounding regions.
On October 2, 1992, Armenian armed forces occupied Khojavend region of the Republic of Azerbaijan. As a result, 1,723 houses were burnt down in 10 villages settled by Azerbaijanis, 47 industrial and 144 agricultural facilities were devastated. Melkonian remained as regional commander until he was killed in combat in June 1993. Martuni is twinned with: Les Pennes-Mirabeau, France: Les Pennes-Mirabeau and Martuni became sister cities on 11 June 2013
Arakül is a village in the Khojavend Rayon of Azerbaijan and Hadrut Province of the Republic of Artsakh. During the Nagorno-Karabakh War, the village was occupied by the Armenian Army in 1993. According to legend, Arakel is named so because Thaddeus, the patron saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church, stayed here whilst preaching to the Armenians. Arakül at GEOnet Names Server https://web.archive.org/web/20140407083233/http://www.hayinfo.ru/ru/analytics/75461.html
Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan is administratively divided into the following subdivisions: 59 districts, 11 cities, 1 autonomous republic, which itself contains: 7 districts 1 cityThe rayons are further divided into municipalities. Additionally, Azerbaijan is subdivided into 9 regions; this is not an administrative division. Each region contains a number of districts; the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic forms the 10th economic region. The territory of Nagorno-Karabakh presently forms part of Azerbaijani rayons Khojavend, Khojaly, the east portion of Kalbajar and the west portion of Tartar. In Soviet times the region was known as Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast. Since the territory of the autonomous oblast has been administratively split between the aforementioned rayons; as a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh War, most of its territory is now under the control of ethnic Armenian forces from Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia. The self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic controls a large part of southwestern Azerbaijan outside Nagorno-Karabakh.
The Azerbaijani rayons or in the NKR are noted in the list. The NKR has its own system of administrative division; the list below is for the main part of Azerbaijan, excluding the rayons of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. The seven districts and one municipality of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic are listed below. ISO 3166-2:AZ
Azerbaijan the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south; the exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, has an 11 km long border with Turkey in the northwest. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918 and became the first democratic Muslim state. In 1920 the country was incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic; the modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, shortly before the dissolution of the USSR in the same year. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Republic of Artsakh; the region and seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994.
These regions are internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE. Azerbaijan is a unitary semi-presidential republic, it is one of six independent Turkic states and an active member of the Turkic Council and the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 158 countries and holds membership in 38 international organizations, including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Non-Aligned Movement, the OSCE, the NATO Partnership for Peace program, it is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Azerbaijan holds observer status in the World Trade Organization. While more than 89% of the population is Shia Muslim, the Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion and all major political forces in the country are secularist. Azerbaijan has a high level of human development that ranks on par with most Eastern European countries.
It has a high rate of economic literacy, as well as a low rate of unemployment. However, the ruling party, the New Azerbaijan Party, has been accused of authoritarianism and human rights abuses. According to a modern etymology, the term Azerbaijan derives from that of Atropates, a Persian satrap under the Achaemenid Empire, reinstated as the satrap of Media under Alexander the Great; the original etymology of this name is thought to have its roots in the once-dominant Zoroastrianism. In the Avesta's Frawardin Yasht, there is a mention of âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which translates from Avestan as "we worship the fravashi of the holy Atropatene." The name "Atropates" itself is the Greek transliteration of an Old Iranian Median, compounded name with the meaning "Protected by the Fire" or "The Land of the Fire". The Greek name was mentioned by Diodorus Strabo. Over the span of millennia, the name evolved to Āturpātākān to Ādharbādhagān, Ādharbāyagān, Āzarbāydjān and present-day Azerbaijan.
The name Azerbaijan was first adopted for the area of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan by the government of Musavat in 1918, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, when the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established. Until the designation had been used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran, while the area of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was referred to as Arran and Shirvan. On that basis Iran protested the newly adopted country name. During the Soviet rule, the country was spelled in English from the Russian transliteration as Azerbaydzhan; the earliest evidence of human settlement in the territory of Azerbaijan dates back to the late Stone Age and is related to the Guruchay culture of Azokh Cave. The Upper Paleolithic and late Bronze Age cultures are attested in the caves of Tağılar, Damcılı, Yataq-yeri and in the necropolises of Leylatepe and Saraytepe. Early settlements included the Scythians in the 9th century BC. Following the Scythians, Iranian Medes came to dominate the area to the south of the Aras.
The Medes forged a vast empire between 900–700 BC, integrated into the Achaemenid Empire around 550 BC. The area was conquered by the Achaemenids leading to the spread of Zoroastrianism, it became part of Alexander the Great's Empire and its successor, the Seleucid Empire. During this period, Zoroastrianism spread in the Atropatene. Caucasian Albanians, the original inhabitants of northeastern Azerbaijan, ruled that area from around the 4th century BC, established an independent kingdom; the Sasanian Empire turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state in 252, while King Urnayr adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century. Despite Sassanid rule, Albania remained an entity in the region until the 9th century, while subordinate to Sassanid Iran, retained its monarchy. Despite being one of the chief vassals of the Sasanian emperor, the Albanian king had only a semblance of authority, the Sasanian marzban held most civil and military authority. In the first half of the 7th century, Caucasian Albania, as a vassal of the Sasanians, came under nominal Muslim rule due to the Muslim conquest of Persia.
The Umayyad Caliphate repulsed both the Sasanians and Byzantines from Transcaucasia and turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state after Christian resistance led by Kin
Hadrut is de facto the administrative center of Hadrut Province, Artsakh and de jure a town in the Khojavend Rayon of Azerbaijan. The town has been de facto part of the Republic of Artsakh since the end of the 1991-94 Nagorno-Karabakh War. According to NKR statistics, the town has a population of 4,100 as of 2015. From 10 September 1939, Hadrut was the capital of the Hadrut rayon within the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic until the abolishment of the Autonomous Oblast on 26 November 1991. During the Nagorno-Karabakh War, the town was occupied by the Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army on 2 October 1992; the town is home to the "Mika-Hadrut Winery" for brandy and wine. Hadrut is twinned with: Vagarshapat, Armenia Burbank, United States
Hadrut Province is a province of the de facto Republic of Artsakh. The Republic has limited international recognition, it is de jure part of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It forms the southern border of Nagorno-Karabakh, one of the most mountainous parts. Villages are found along two river valleys and scattered in lower elevations on the southern fringe. Excavations of the Azokh Cave show that humans have inhabited this area for tens of thousands of years, the region has a rich history. Hadrut province has 30 communities of which 1 is considered urban and 29 are rural; the most important problems are drinking and irrigation water, internal communication roads. Some villages are lacking a telephone network and some have difficulties with watching Armenian TV channels. More than 340 people of Hadrut Region fell victim during the Nagorno-Karabakh war. Nearly 30 % of its area has been burnt several times. Town of Hadrut Monastery of Spitak Khatch, 14th century Gtichavank monastery, 1241–1248 Anapat Church, 13th century, near the village of Togh Khodaafarin Bridges Dizak Arajamugh Armeniapedia - Rediscovering Armenia - Hadrut Region
The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an ethnic and territorial conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Azerbaijan. As the war progressed and Azerbaijan, both former Soviet Republics, entangled themselves in a protracted, undeclared war in the mountainous heights of Karabakh as Azerbaijan attempted to curb the secessionist movement in Nagorno-Karabakh; the enclave's parliament had voted in favor of uniting itself with Armenia and a referendum, boycotted by the Azerbaijani population of Nagorno-Karabakh, was held, whereby most of the voters voted in favor of independence. The demand to unify with Armenia began in a peaceful manner in 1988. Inter-ethnic clashes between the two broke out shortly after the parliament of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast in Azerbaijan voted to unify the region with Armenia on 20 February 1988.
The declaration of secession from Azerbaijan was the final result of a territorial conflict regarding the land. As Azerbaijan declared its independence from the Soviet Union and removed the powers held by the enclave's government, the Armenian majority voted to secede from Azerbaijan and in the process proclaimed the unrecognized Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh. Full-scale fighting erupted in early 1992. International mediation by several groups including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe failed to bring an end resolution that both sides could work with. In early 1993, Armenian forces captured regions outside the enclave itself, threatening the involvement of other countries in the region. By the end of the war in 1994, the Armenians were in full control of the enclave in addition to surrounding areas of Azerbaijan proper, most notably the Lachin Corridor, a mountain pass that links Nagorno-Karabakh with mainland Armenia. A Russian-brokered ceasefire was signed in May 1994, but regular peace talks between Armenia and Azerbaijan mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group have failed to result in a peace treaty.
This has left the Nagorno-Karabakh area in a state of legal limbo, with the Republic of Artsakh remaining de facto independent but internationally unrecognized while Armenian forces control 9% of Azerbaijan's territory outside the enclave. As many as 230,000 Armenians from Azerbaijan and 800,000 Azerbaijanis from Armenia and Karabakh have been displaced as a result of the conflict; the territorial ownership of Nagorno-Karabakh today is contested between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. The current conflict has its roots in events following World War I. Shortly before the Ottoman Empire's capitulation in the war, the Russian Empire collapsed in November 1917 and fell under the control of the Bolsheviks; the three nations of the Caucasus, Armenians and Georgians under the rule of the Russian Empire, declared the formation of the Transcaucasian Federation which dissolved after only three months of existence. Fighting soon broke out between the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in three specific regions: Nakhchevan and Karabakh itself.
Armenia and Azerbaijan quarreled about the putative boundaries of the three provinces. The Karabakh Armenians attempted to declare their independence but failed to make contact with the Republic of Armenia. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, Armenian General Andranik Ozanian entered Karabakh with military success and was headed towards the region capital of Shusha in December 1918. British troops occupied the South Caucasus in 1919, the British command suggested Andranik cease his offense and allow the conflict to be solved at the Paris Peace Conference. Afterward, the British provisionally affirmed Azerbaijani statesman Khosrov bey Sultanov as the governor-general of Karabakh and ordered him to "squash any unrest in the region". Afterward followed the Shusha massacre of an estimated 20,000 Armenians. In April 1920, the Soviet 11th Army invaded the Caucasus and within two years, the Caucasian republics were formed into the Transcaucasian SFSR of the Soviet Union; the Bolsheviks thereafter created the Caucasus Bureau.
Under the supervision of the People's Commissar for Nationalities, the future Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin, the Kavburo was tasked to head up matters in the Caucasus. On 4 July 1921 the committee voted 4–3 in favor of allocating Karabakh to the newly created Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia but a day the Kavburo reversed its decision and voted to leave the region within the Azerbaijan SSR; the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast was created in 1923, leaving it with a population, 94% Armenian. The policy of the USSR aimed at provoking dissent between Armenia and Azerbaijan, making sure that they fight against each other, not against the Soviets. Thus, the Soviets strategically drew borders in a way that the population was 94% ethnically Armenian; the reversal was substantiated with the economic connections. The capital was moved from Shusha to Khankendi, renamed as Stepanakert. Armenian and Azerbaijani scholars have speculated that the decision was an application of the principle of "divide and rule" by the Soviet Union.
This can be seen, for example, by the odd placement of the Nakhichevan exclave, separated by Armenia but is a part of Azerbaijan. Ot