Voronezh Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Voronezh, its population was 2,335,380 as of the 2010 Census. Voronezh Oblast is the birthplace of Pavel Cherenkov, co-recipient of the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics. Voronezh Oblast borders internally with Belgorod Oblast, Kursk Oblast, Lipetsk Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Saratov Oblast, Volgograd Oblast and Rostov Oblast and internationally with Ukraine. Voronezh Oblast is located in the central belt of the European part of Russia, in a advantageous strategic location, transport links to the site going to the industrial regions of Russia. Within the radius 960 kilometers around Voronezh more than 50% of the population Russia, 40% in Ukraine live; the area of the region - 52.4 thousand km2, about one third of the whole area of Central Black Earth Region. The length of the region from north to south - 277.5 km, from west to east - 352 km. Much of the area is steppe, among the predominant soil fertile soil black earth.
The oblast has 738 lakes and ponds in 1343 the river flows over 10 km long. The main river is the Don, 530 of its 1,870 km flows through the area, forming a drainage area of 422,000 square kilometers. Don Voronezh Bityug Khopyor The climate in the region is temperate continental, with an average January temperatures of −4.5 °C, with an average July temperatures of +25 to +30 °C. Average annual temperature varies from +5 °C in the north to +6.5 °C in the south. Precipitation varies from 600 millimeters in the northwest to 450 millimeters in the southeast; the oblast was established on June 13, 1934. The structure of Voronezh Oblast the industrial-agrarian; as part of the industry is dominated by mechanical engineering, power systems engineering, food industry, processing industry of agricultural raw materials. They account for 4/5 of the total volume of industrial output. Industry specialization of the region is the food industry, second place is occupied by engineering and metalworking, third place - power.
Industry of the region specializes in the production of machine tools and gas equipment, rocket engines, metal bridge structures, press-forging and mining equipment, electronic equipment, passenger aircraft Airbus. The largest companies in the region include Sozvezdie, Voronezhsintezkauchuk, the Russian branch of COFCO Group. Voronezh Oblast is a major supplier of agricultural products. For the first time in the history of farming region in 2011 produced record crops: sugar beet - 6 million. 992 thousand. Tons and sunflower - 1 million. 002 thousand tons 2014 Voronezh Oblast ranked first in Russia in terms of gross harvest of potatoes, in farms of all categories have been collected 1.757 million tons of potatoes. In general, the profile of agriculture - with crops of sunflowers and grain crops and beef cattle, pigs. Beet, sugar beet industry in Voronezh Oblast in terms of gross production of sugar beets and making sugar beet is one of the largest in the country. In 2014, sugar mills were produced 495.1 ths. tons of sugar.
Milk production in Voronezh Oblast in 2013 increased by 1.8% - up to 755,700. Tons. In 2014, it increased by 4.2% to ↗788 000 tons, according to this indicator Voronezh Oblast takes first place in the Central Federal District. Milk yield per cow dairy herd in 2014 amounted to 5545 kg. Kostyonki, located within the Voronezh Oblast, is known for high concentration of cultural remains of anatomically modern humans from the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic era; the first and oldest camp rights in Europe. A layer of Campanian volcanic ash from about 40,000 years ago has been found above some of the finds, showing that "unknown humans" inhabited the site before this; the earliest directly dated human remains from this site are dated to 32,600 ± 1,100 14C years and consist of tibia and fibula, with traits classifying the bones to European early modern humans. In 2009, DNA was extracted from the remains of a male hunter-gatherer who lived 40,000 years BP and died aged 20–25, his maternal lineage was found to be U2.
He was covered with red ochre. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Voronezh CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee. Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Voronezh Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Voronezh Oblast is the province's standing legislative body; the Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province; the Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Borisoglebsk is a town in Voronezh Oblast, located on the left bank of the Vorona River near its confluence with the Khopyor. Population: 65,585 . Borisoglebsk was founded in 1646 and was named for the Russian saints Boris and Gleb, the first saints canonized in Kievan Rus' after the Christianization of the country. In the late 19th century and the early 20th century Borisoglebsk developed into a busy inland port due to its geographic location within the fertile Central Black Earth Region. Barges transported good such as grain, kerosene, eggs, watermelon from the region to large cities in western and central Russia connected to Borisoglebsk by waterways such as St. Petersburg, Rostov and Tsaritsyn. In 1870, a brewer plant opened in the town, producing dark beer and light beer, as well as fruit soda; the brewery continues to produce beer. According to the 1885 census, the population of Borisoglebsk featured 13,007 inhabitants exclusively Russian Orthodox. In the early 20th century there was a mixed-sex gymnasium in the town, with 4 female classes and 6 male classes, a technical railway school.
In January 1906, revolutionary Maria Spiridonova assassinated G. N. Luzhenovsky at the Borisoglebsk railway station. After the Bolsheviks came to power in Borisoglebsk in 1918, one of the first concentration camps in Russia for "alien and petty-bourgeois elements" was organized in the town. In December 1922, Borisoglebsk was created 2nd Military School Red Air Force pilots which became the renowned Borisoglebsk Higher Military Order of the Red Banner of Lenin School for Pilots Chkalov. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with twenty-four rural localities, incorporated as Borisoglebsky Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status. The town is host to Borisoglebsk air base. Ivan Fioletov, Bolshevik revolutionary and one of the 26 Baku Commissars. Mitrofan Nedelin, military commander and Chief Marshal of the Artillery, namesake of the Nedelin catastrophe. Delmenhorst, Germany Blansko, Czech Republic Воронежская областная Дума.
Закон №87-ОЗ от 27 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №41-ОЗ от 13 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Воронежской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Молодой коммунар", №123, 3 ноября 2006 г.. Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №63-ОЗ от 15 октября 2004 г. «Об определении границ, наделении соответствующим статусом, определении административных центров отдельных муниципальных образований Воронежской области», в ред. Закона №77-ОЗ от 4 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Воронежской области в связи с изменением границ некоторых муниципальных образований Воронежской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Коммуна", №166, 26 октября 2004 г
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Penza Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Penza; as of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,386,186. Penza Oblast has over 3000 rivers; the biggest rivers are: Sura. Penza River gave its name to the city of Penza. There are 316 species of vertebrates within the region, including: about 10 species of amphibians. Seven existing species of mammals were acclimatized on land: the American mink, raccoon dog, wild boar, Siberian roe deer, red deer and Sika deer. In parallel, work has been carried out to reintroduce the Forest-steppe marmot, the Eurasian beaver and the Russian desman. In the waters of Penza Oblast, there are about 50 species of fish; the largest body of water – the Sursko reservoir – is home to around 30 species. Commercial species include bream, silver bream, pikeperch and catfish. In the rivers and smalls pond dwell roach, perch and pike; the most valuable fish to be found in the natural waters is the sterlet. The regional center of Penza was built in 1663 as a Russian fortress on the border of the Wild Fields, although evidence of the presence of more ancient settlements has been found in the modern city.
Penza Province was established within Kazan Governorate in 1718. It became a separate Penza Governorate on September 15, 1780, which existed until March 5, 1797, when it was dissolved and merged into Saratov Governorate. Penza Governorate was re-established on September 9, 1801 and existed until 1928. Between 1928 and 1937, the territory of the former governorate underwent a number of administrative transformations, ending up as a part of Tambov Oblast in 1937. On February 4, 1939, modern Penza Oblast was established by splitting it out of Tambov Oblast. In March 1939, the Penza Oblast Committee of the CPSU was formed, the first secretary of the committee being Alexander Kabanov. Penza Oblast is part of the Volga economic region; the oblast is one of Russia's leading producers of wheat, oats, buckwheat and forage crops, potatoes and meat. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared among three persons: The first secretary of the Penza CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee.
Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament. The Charter of Penza Oblast is the fundamental law of the region; the Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast is the province's standing legislative body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it; the highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Population: 1,386,186 . Vital statistics for 2012Births: 14 777 Deaths: 20 419 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.38 | 2010 - 1.37 | 2011 - 1.36 | 2012 - 1.48 | 2013 - 1.49 | 2014 - 1.53 | 2015 - 1.55 | 2016 - 1.50 Ethnic composition: Russians: 86.8% Tatars: 6.4% Mordvins: 4.1% Ukrainians: 0.7% Chuvash people: 0.4% Armenians: 0.3% Others ethnicities: 1.3% Additionally, 43,283 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity.
It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. Births: 7,962 Deaths: 13,608 According to a 2012 survey, 62.9% of the population of Penza Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to churches or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 7% are Muslims. In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 9% is atheist, 3.1% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Troitse-Scanov Convent State Lermontov Museum and Reserve of Tarkhany Aristarkh Lentulov – Russian avant-garde artist of Cubist orientation who worked on set designs for the theatre. Yevgeny Rodionov – a Russian soldier, murdered in Chechen captivity for his refusal to convert to Islam and defect to the enemy side. Victor Skumin – Russian scientist first describes "cardioprosthetic psychopathological syndrome" known as Skumin syndrome, a form of anxiety suffered by recipients of artificial heart valves.
List of Chairmen of the Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast Законодательное Собрание Пензенской области. Закон №828-ЗПО от 28 июня 2005 г. «О гимне Пензенской области», в ред. Закона №1507-ЗПО от 2 апреля 2008 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Пензенской области в связи с принятием Закона Пензенской области "Кодекс Пензенской области об административных правонарушениях"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Пензенские губернские ведомости", №16, с. 108, 15 июля 2005 г. (Legislative As
Catfish are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the three largest species alive, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia, the wels catfish of Eurasia and the piraíba of South America, to detritivores, to a tiny parasitic species called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and there are naked types, neither having scales. Despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbels. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the swimbladder. Catfish are of considerable commercial importance. Many of the smaller species the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal. Extant catfish species live in coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at another. Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America and Africa with one family native to North America and one family in Europe.
More than half of all catfish species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar and New Guinea, they are found in freshwater environments. Representatives of at least eight families are hypogean with three families that are troglobitic. One such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats. Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are found in salt water. In the Southern United States, catfish species may be known by a variety of slang names, such as "mud cat", "polliwogs", or "chuckleheads"; these nicknames are not standardized, so one area may call a bullhead catfish by the nickname "chucklehead", while in another state or region, that nickname refers to the blue catfish. Representatives of the genus Ictalurus have been introduced into European waters in the hope of obtaining a sporting and food resource. However, the European stock of American catfishes has not achieved the dimensions of these fish in their native waters, have only increased the ecological pressure on native European fauna.
Walking catfish have been introduced in the freshwaters of Florida, with the voracious catfish becoming a major alien pest there. Flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, is a North American pest on Atlantic slope drainages. Pterygoplichthys species, released by aquarium fishkeepers, have established feral populations in many warm waters around the world. Most catfish are bottom feeders. In general, they are negatively buoyant, which means that they will sink rather than float due to a reduced gas bladder and a heavy, bony head. Catfish have a variety of body shapes, though most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum to allow for benthic feeding. A flattened head allows for digging through the substrate as well as serving as a hydrofoil; some contains no incisiform teeth. However, some families, notably Loricariidae and Astroblepidae, have a suckermouth that allows them to fasten themselves to objects in fast-moving water. Catfish have a maxilla reduced to a support for barbels. Catfish may have up to four pairs of barbels: nasal and two pairs of chin barbels though pairs of barbels may be absent depending on the species.
Catfish barbels always come as pairs. Many larger catfish have chemoreceptors across their entire bodies, which means they "taste" anything they touch and "smell" any chemicals in the water. "In catfish, gustation plays a primary role in the orientation and location of food". Because their barbels and chemoreception are more important in detecting food, the eyes on catfish are small. Like other ostariophysans, they are characterized by the presence of a Weberian apparatus, their well-developed Weberian apparatus and reduced gas bladder allow for improved hearing as well as sound production. Catfish do not have scales. In some species, the mucus-covered skin is used in cutaneous respiration, where the fish breathes through its skin. In some catfish, the skin is covered in bony plates called scutes. In loricarioids and in the Asian genus Sisor, the armor is made up of one or more rows of free dermal plates. Similar plates are found in large specimens of Lithodoras; these plates may be supported by vertebral processes, as in scoloplacids and in Sisor, but the processes never fuse to the plates or form any external armor.
By contrast, in the subfamily Doumeinae and in hoplomyzontines, the armor is formed by expanded vertebral processes that form plates. The lateral armor of doradids and hoplomyzontines consists of hypertrophied lateral line ossicles with dorsal and ventral lamina. All catfish, except members of Malapteruridae, possess a strong, bony leading spine-like ray on their dorsal and pectoral fins; as a defense, these spines may be locked into place so that they stick outwards, which can inflict severe wounds. In several species catfish can use these f
Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae. The perch, of which three species occur in different geographical areas, lend their name to a large order of vertebrates: the Perciformes, from the Greek perke meaning perch, the Latin forma meaning shape. Many species of freshwater gamefish less resemble perch, but belong to different genera. In fact, the saltwater-dwelling red drum is referred to as a red perch, though by definition perch are freshwater fish. Though many fish are referred to as perch as a common name, to be considered a true perch, the fish must be of the family Percidae; the type species for this genus is the European perch, P. fluviatilis. Most authorities recognize three species within the perch genus: The European perch is found in Europe and Asia; this species is greenish in color with dark vertical bars on its sides with a red or orange coloring in the tips of its fins. The European perch has been introduced in New Zealand and Australia, where it is known as the redfin perch or English perch.
In Australia, larger specimens have been bred, but the species grows larger than about 6 lb. The Balkhash perch is found in Kazakhstan and China, it is similar to the European perch, grows to a comparable size. The yellow perch and paler than the European perch, is found in the United States and Canada. In northern areas, it is sometimes referred to as the lake perch; this species is prized for its food quality and has been raised in hatcheries and introduced into areas in which it is not native. Yellow perch are identical in appearance to European perch, but have a more yellow coloring; these fish only reach a size of about 15 in and 2.2 lb. The general body type of a perch is somewhat rounded. True perch have "rough" or ctenoid scales. On the anterior side of the head are the maxilla and lower mandible for the mouth, a pair of nostrils, two lidless eyes. On the posterior sides are the opercular series, which protect the gills, the lateral line system, sensitive to vibrations in the water; the kidney of the perch forms a head, caudal to the gills.
Perch have paired pectoral and pelvic fins, two dorsal fins, the first one spiny and the second soft. These two fins joined. Perch are carnivorous fish most found in small ponds, streams, or rivers; these fish feed on smaller fish, shellfish, or insect larvae, but can be caught with nearly any bait. They spawn during the spring, when the females lay strings of eggs in covered areas such as near branches or underwater plants. Perch have a wide distribution throughout the world, are plentiful in the Great Lakes Lake Erie. Perch are popular sport fish species, they are known to put up a fight, to be good eating. They can be caught with a variety of methods, including float fishing, lure fishing, legering. Perch grow to around 50 cm and 5 lb or more, but the most common size caught are around 30 cm and 1 lb or less, anything over 40 cm and 2 lb is considered a prize catch. Perch have formed a critical part of the total weight caught by an angler during a competition. In 2016, angler Ross Winfield failed to weigh a perch during a competition that cost him a top-five place.
He found the perch in his keep net. For other perch not in the genus Perca, see Perch
Khopyor Nature Reserve
Khopyor Nature Reserve is a Russian'zapovednik' that protects a stretch of 50 km along the Khopyor River in the Voronezh Oblast. About 80% of the area is covered by forests, dominated floodplain and upland oak woods, small areas of steppes and meadows. There are about 400 oxbows; the reserve is situated in the Novokhopyorsky District of Voronezh Oblast. The Khopyor Reserve has a terrain, forested floodplains and upland oak woods, along both banks of the Khopyer; the Khopyer river is the largest tributary of the Don River. During high water, a significant portion of the area in the reserve boundaries may be inundated. About 80 % of the area is covered with steppes and meadows; the Khopyor River and tributary streams meander through the floodplains to leave 400 lakes and oxbows. The floodplains create grassy bogs and black alder forests; the area in on an post-glacial plain of Quaternary sediments. The width of the reserve ranges from 1.5 km to 9 km. Khopyor is located in the East European forest steppe ecoregion, a transition zone between the broadleaf forests of the north and the grasslands to the south.
This ecoregion is characterized by a mosaic of forests and riverine wetlands. The climate of Khopyor is Humid cool summer; this climate is characterized by high variation in temperature, both daily and seasonally. The coldest month, has an average temperature of -6 C degrees. On average, the precipitation in the reserves averages 553 mm, spread evenly through the year. Annual frost-free period averages 199 days; the winds are predominantly north-westerly. The plant life of the reserve represents a meeting of steppe feather grass and forb steppe/broadleaf grasses. Typical trees are oak coppices, with mixtures of ash, linden and other tree species. Understory contains blackberry, wild rose, viburnum. Scientists on the reserve have recorded over 1,060 species of vascular plants. A major focus of the reserve is the preservation of the vulnerable Russian muskrat. Along with the muskrat, the reserve has abundant small mammals - shrews, voles and hares - along with larger red deer, roe deer and wild boar.
Scientists on the reserve have recorded 45 species of mammals 236 species of bird have been recorded, along with 48 species of fish. 9 species of amphibian are found -the European fire-bellied toad, common frog, common toad, green frog, lake frog, pond frog, common frog, grass frog, moor frogs. As a strict nature reserve, the Khopyor Reserve is closed to the general public, although scientists and those with'environmental education' purposes can make arrangements with park management for visits. There are six'ecotourist' routes in the reserve, that are open to the public, but require permits to be obtained in advance; these ecotourist routes are guided hikes of 5-15 km, or motorboat tours. There is one 50 km kayak route. There is a nature museum, opened in 1936; the main office is in the village of Varvara Novokhopersk. List of Russian Nature Reserves Map of Khopyor Reserve, OpenStreetMap Map of Khopyor Reserve, ProtectedPlanet