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1. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation

2. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably

3. Provinces of Iran – Iran is subdivided into thirty one provinces, each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital of that province. The provincial authority is headed by a Governor-General, who is appointed by the Minister of the Interior subject to approval of the cabinet, from 1960 to 1981 the governorates were raised to provincial status one by one

4. Fars Province – Fars Province also known as Pars or Persia in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of Iran. It is in the south of the country, in Irans Region 2 and it has an area of 122,400 km². In 2011, this province had a population of 4.6 million people, of which 67. 6% were registered as urban dwellers,32. 1% villagers, and 0. 3% nomad tribes. The etymology of the word Persian, found in many ancient names associated with Iran, is derived from the importance of this region. Fars Province is the homeland of the Persian people. The word Fârs is derived from

5. Counties of Iran – The counties of Iran, also called shahrestan, are administrative divisions of larger provinces. The word shahrestan comes from the Persian words shahr and stān, county, therefore, is a near equivalent of shahrestan. Iranian counties are divided into one or more bakhsh, or districts, a typical county includes both cities and rural agglomerations, which are groupings of adjacent villages. One city within the county serves as the capital of that county, in 2005, Iran had 324 shahrestans. To better understand these subdivisions, the table is useful. Assume that province P is divided into two counties, A and B, county A has 3 districts, Central, X, and Y. The Central district is the district that contains City M, the capital of the county, each district contains one or more cities and/or one or more RAs. The minimal county consists of one city as the only district, named Central. The county B in the table is of such type

6. Mamasani County – Mamasani County is a county in Fars Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Nurabad, which is located 180 kilometres from Shiraz, the people of Mamasani speak Lurish language from southern Lurish dialect. At the 2006 census, the population was 162,694, in 45,145 families, excluding such portions. The county is subdivided into three districts, the Central District, Mahvarmilani District, and Doshman Ziari District, the county has two cities, Nurabad and Khumeh Zar. Mamasani an ancient tribe with numerous sub-tribes live in Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, the main tribe resides in Mamasani county in Fars province in Iran and speak Luri language. The Sistani Mamasanis live in Sistan and Baluchistan, the Brahui and Baluchi Mamasanis are called Muhammad Hassani live in Baluchistan provinces of Iran and Pakistan and Nimrus and Helmand of Afghanistan. A Mamasani folk-song sung by Shusha Guppy in the 1970s, You Must Come to Me

7. Iran Standard Time – Iran Standard Time or Iran Time is the time zone used in Iran. Iran uses a UTC offset UTC+03,30, IRST is defined by the 52.5 degrees east meridian, the same meridian which defines the Iranian calendar and is the official meridian of Iran. Between 2005 and 2008, by decree of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and it was reintroduced from 21 March 2008. Iran is unusual in that the dates of DST transitions arent based on a such as the third Monday in September. So in most countries, DST transitions occur on the same every year

Iran [videos]
Iran (Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] (listen)), also known as Persia , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran
A cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, from the 8th millennium BC.
A bas-relief at Persepolis, depicting the united Medes and Persians.
Sasanian rock reliefs at Taq Bostan, in the heart of the Zagros Mountains.
Fars Province [videos]
Fars Province (Persian: Ostāne Fārs‎, Ostān-e Fārs, pronounced [ˈfɒː(ɾ)s]) also known as Pars (Persian: پارس) or
Image: Parseh
The ruins of Persepolis
A Sassanid relief showing the investiture of Ardashir I
Shiraz [videos]
Shiraz ((listen); Persian: شیراز‎, Šīrāz, Persian pronunciation: [ʃiːˈrɒːz], pronunciation ) is the
Shiraz, Iran is pictured in this photo taken by Col. Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency from the International Space Station. Taken on March 20, 2013 (1392 Nowrooz).
Arg of Karim Khan, Capital of Iran during the Zand dynasty
Shiraz Garden Drives, north part of the city is full of gardens. they formed before the expansion of shiraz
Gerash [videos]
Gerash (Persian: گراش‎, also Romanized as Gerāsh and Girāsh) is a city in and the capital of Gerash County, Fars
Historical Urban rural of Gerash (1963)
"Berke Kaal" the largest one in “Iran” and goes back to “Safavian” age (1501-1736 A.C).
“Tag-e-Av” The Dam antiquity goes back to “Sasanian” age (224-651 A.C)
Abadeh County (Persian: شهرستان آباده‎) is a county in Fars Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Abadeh. At
Image: Bahram Palace Surmagh
Abadeh (Persian: آباده‎, also Romanized as Ābādeh) is a city in and the capital of Abadeh County, in Fars Province,
Mamasani County [videos]
Mamasani County (Lurish and Persian: شهرستان ممسنی‎) is a county in Fars Province in Iran. The capital of the county is
Mamasanis tower by Eugène Flandin
Image: Fars
Image: Iran Fars SVG
Darab County [videos]
Darab County (Persian: شهرستان داراب‎) is a county in Fars Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Darab. At the
Estahban County [videos]
Estahban County (Persian: شهرستان استهبان‎) is a county in Fars Province in Iran. The capital of the county is
Image: Estaahban
Fasa County [videos]
Fasa County (Persian: شهرستان فسا‎) is a county in Fars Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Fasa. At the
Kazerun County [videos]
Kazerun County (Persian: شهرستان کازرون‎) is a county in Fars Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Kazerun.
Moshir Bridge on Dalaki river
Darab [videos]
Darab (Persian: Dārāb‎, also Romanized as Dārāb) — formerly Darábghird, or Darábgerd — is a city in and the capital of
Drawing of Darab during the Qajar period by Eugène Flandin
Eqlid [videos]
Eqlid (Persian: اقليد‎, also Romanized as Eqlīd, Eklīd, and Iqlīd) is a city in and the capital of Eqlid County, Fars
Image: Eghlid
Firuzabad (Persian: فيروزآباد‎ also Romanized as Fīrūzābād; Middle Persian: Gōr or Ardashir-Khwarrah, literally "The
Image: Relief Ardachir Ist (Firuzabad II) V1
Jahrom [videos]
Jahrom (Persian: جهرم‎, also known as Jahrūm) is a city in and the capital of Jahrom County, Fars Province, Iran. At
from left to right : Jahrom bazaar-a palm garden-ghadamgah-sangshekanan cave-south star twin towers-a Panoramic view of the city
Khonj [videos]
Khonj (Persian: خنج‎, also known as Khunj and Khunji) is a city in and the capital of Khonj County, Fars Province,
Dargah (Gate) this is a gate to Shaykh Haji Mohammad complex including the mosque and the shrine
Nujin [videos]
Nujin (Persian: نوجین‎) is a city in the Central District of Farashband County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006
Image: نوجین4
Image: نوجین2
Image: نوجین3
Image: نوجین
Provinces of Iran [videos]
Iran is subdivided into thirty one provinces (Persian: استان‎ Ostān, plural استان‌ها Ostānhā), each governed from a
Iran population broken down by province
Iran's GDP contribution broken down by province
Provinces of Iran by population in 2014
Provinces of Iran by population density in 2013
Sedeh [videos]
Sedeh (Persian: سده‎, also known as Sehdeh) is a city in and the capital of Sedeh District, in Eqlid County, Fars
Image: سده فارس
Counties of Iran [videos]
The counties of Iran, called shahrestan (Persian: شهرستان‎ šahrestân), are administrative divisions of larger provinces
Counties of Iran
Counties of Alborz
Counties of Ardabil
Counties of Bushehr
Romanization [videos]
Romanization (also spelled romanisation: see spelling differences), in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a
Languages can be romanized in a number of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese