Bhati Gate is one of the historic thirteen gates of the Walled City of Lahore in Lahore, Pakistan. Bhati Gate serves as a union council located in the Ravi Zone; the gate is similar in design to Kashmiri Gate. Bhati Gate entrance is located on the Western wall of the Old City, it is one of the two oldest entry points into the Walled City which controlled the only major north-south thoroughfare during Ghaznavid period. The gate is said to be named after the Bhati Clan of Rajputs; when the Emperor Akbar expanded the city eastward and divided it into nine districts or guzars, Bhati Gate and its bazar marked the boundary between Guzar Mubarak Khan in the east, Guzar Talwarra in the west. The famed poet Alama Iqbal lived in a house near Bhati gate between 1901 and 1905. Bhati Gate is known as a centre for arts and literature in Old Lahore; the area inside the gate is well known throughout the city for its food. Just outside Bhati Gate is the mausoleum of the Sufi saint Ali Hajweri; every Thursday evening musicians used to gather here to perform Qawwali music, though these are sometimes replaced with Naats and religious sermons.
The gate serves as the starting point for Lahore's Hakiman Bazaar, is located near the Fakir Khana Museum. Near the gate is located the Old City's Oonchi Mosque. Bhati Gate serves as Union Council 29 in Tehsil Ravi of Lahore City District. Lahore Lahore Fort Walled City of Lahore Badshahi Mosque Walled City Has thirteen gates Islamic Web Sites About Hazrat Data Ganj Bakhsh
K. L. Saigal
Kundanlal Saigal abbreviated as K. L. Saigal, was an Indian singer and actor, considered the first superstar of the Hindi film industry, centred in Kolkata during Saigal's time, but is centred in Mumbai. Saigal's unique voice quality, a mixture of baritone and soft tenor was the benchmark for most of the singers who followed him. In fact it remains the gold standard today shining through a early and primitive recording technology. Saigal was born on 11 April 1904 in Nawashehr, where his father Amarchand Saigal was a tehsildar at the court of the Raja of Jammu and Kashmir, his mother Kesarbai Saigal was a religious Hindu lady, fond of music. She used to take her young son to religious functions where bhajan and shabad were sung in traditional styles based on classical Indian music. Saigal was the fourth-born child of five and his formal schooling was brief and uneventful; as a child he played Sitar in the Ramlila of Jammu. Saigal started earning money by working as railway timekeeper, he worked as a typewriter salesman for the Remington Typewriter Company, which allowed him to tour several parts of India.
His travels brought him to Lahore, where he became friends with Mehrchand Jain at the Anarkali Bazaar. Mehrchand and Kundan remained friends when they both moved to Calcutta and had many a mehfil-e-mushaira. In those days Saigal was a budding singer. Saigal remarked that he was what he was because of Mehrchand's encouragement and early support, he briefly worked as a hotel manager. Meanwhile, his passion for singing became more intense with the passage of time. In the early 1930s, classical musician and music director Harishchandra Bali brought K. L. Saigal to Calcutta and introduced him to R. C. Boral. R. C. Boral took an instant liking to his talents. Saigal was hired by B. N. Sircar's Calcutta-based film studio New Theatres on a contract of Rs. 200 per month. There he came into contact with contemporaries like Pankaj Mullick, K. C. Dey and Pahari Sanyal. Meanwhile, Indian Gramophone Company had released Saigal's record containing a couple of Punjabi songs, composed by Harishchandra Bali. In this way, Bali became Saigal's first music director.
The first film in which Saigal had a role was the film Mohabbat Ke Ansu, followed by Subah Ka Sitara and Zinda Lash, all released in 1932. However, these films did not do well. Saigal used the name Saigal Kashmiri for his first three films and used his own name Kundan Lal Saigal from Yahudi Ki Ladki. In 1933, four bhajans sung by Saigal for the film Puran Bhagat created a sensation throughout India. Other films that followed were Yahudi Ki Ladki, Chandidas and Karwan-E-Hayat; as a youngster, Lata Mangeshkar is alleged to have said that she wanted to marry K. L. Saigal after seeing his performance in Chandidas. In 1935, Saigal played the role that would come to define his acting career: that of the drunken title character in Devdas, based on Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay's novel of the same name and directed by P. C. Barua, his songs in the film Devdas, "Balam Aaye Baso Moray Man Mein" and "Dukh Ke Ab Din Beetat Naahi", became popular throughout the country. Saigal picked up Bengali well and acted in seven Bengali films, produced by New Theatres.
Rabindranath Tagore first heard Saigal before giving consent for the first time to a non-Bengali singing his songs. Saigal endeared himself to the whole of Bengal through his 30 Bengali songs. Saigal's association with New Theatres continued to bear fruit in the successful films Didi, President in 1937, Desher Mati, Dharti Mata in 1938, Street Singer in 1938, Jiban Maran and Zindagi in 1940, with Saigal in the lead. There are a number of songs of this era. In Street Singer, Saigal rendered the song "Babul Mora Naihar Chhooto Jaye" live in front of the camera though playback was becoming the preferred method of singing songs in films. In December 1941, Saigal moved to Mumbai to work with Ranjit Movietone. Here he sang in a number of successful films. Bhakta Surdas and Tansen were hits during this period; the latter film is still remembered for Saigal's performance of the song "Diya Jalao" in Raga Deepak. Gaa-o Saba Guni Jan". In 1944, he returned to New Theatres to complete My Sister; this film contained the songs "Do Naina Matware" and "Ae Qatib-e-Taqdeer Mujhe Itna Bata De".
By this time, alcohol had become a predominant factor in Saigal's life. His dependence on alcohol had begun affecting his health, it was said. He survived ten years of drinking. However, before his death, he was able to churn out three more hits under the baton of Naushad Ali for the film Shahjehan; these are "Mere Sapnon Ki Rani", "Ae Dil-e-Beqaraar Jhoom" and "Jab Dil Hi Toot Gaya". Parwana was his last film, released after his death, in which he sang under the baton of Khawaja Khurshid Anwar; the four songs which Saigal sang in Parwana are: "Toot gaye sab sapne mere", "Mohabbat mein kabhi aisi bhi haalat", "Jeene ka dhang sikhaae ja", "Kahin ulajh na jaana". Saigal was survived by his wife Asha Rani.
Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, the historical home of the Sindhi people. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, Punjab province to the north. Sindh borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh. Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy, while its provincial capital Karachi is Pakistan's largest city and financial hub, hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a large portion of Pakistan's industrial sector and contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports, Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port; the remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, produces fruit, food consumer items, vegetables for the consumption other parts of the country.
Sindh is known for its distinct culture, influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus and Muslims in the province. Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees. Sindh's capital, Karachi, is Pakistan's most ethnically diverse city, with Muhajirs, or descendants of those who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1947 and throughout the 1950s and 1960s, making up the majority of the population. Karachi and other urban centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions. Sindh is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Historical Monuments at Makli, the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro; the word Sindh is derived from the Sanskrit term Sindhu, a reference to Indus River. The official spelling "Sind" was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly; the Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus.
The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind. Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh; this culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivalled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in size and scope, numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems; the primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji. This was one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world, it flourished between the 25th century BCE and 1500 BCE in the Indus valley sites of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. The people had a high standard of art and craftsmanship and a well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which remains un-deciphered.
The ruins of the well planned towns, the brick buildings of the common people, public baths and the covered drainage system suggest a organized community. According to some accounts, there is no evidence of large palaces or burial grounds for the elite; the grand and holy site might have been the great bath, built upon an artificially created elevation. This indigenous civilization collapsed around 1700 BCE; the cause may have been a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River. Skeletons discovered in the ruins of Moan Jo Daro were thought to indicate that the city was attacked and the population was wiped out, but further examinations showed that the marks on the skeletons were due to erosion and not of violence; the ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center. Sindh finds mention in the Hindu epic Mahabharata as being part of Bharatvarsha. Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC.
In the late 4th century BC, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. Alexander described his encounters with these trans-Indus tribes of Sindh: "I am involved in the land of lions and brave people, where every foot of the ground is like a well of steel, confronting my soldier. You have brought only one son into the world, but everyone in this land can be called an Alexander." The region remained under control of Greek satraps for only a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BC. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh. Mauryan rule ended in 185 BC with the overthrow of the last king by the Shunga Dynasty. In the disorder that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of the northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
Under the reign of Menander I, many Indo-Greeks converted to Buddhism. In the late 2nd century BC, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the P
Kasur District or Qasur District, is one of the districts in the province of Punjab, Pakistan It came into existence on 1 July 1976. Earlier it was part of Lahore District; the district capital is Kasur city, the birth city of the Sufi poet Bulleh Shah, well known in that region as well as in the whole of Pakistan. The total area of the district is 4,796 square kilometres. In ancient time, Kasur was known for its fish; the history of Kasur is more than 1,000 years. Kasur region was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization; the Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that migrated from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Kaikayas, Yaudheyas and Kurus migrated and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000; the Kasur region was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.
In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire ruled the region; the Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of the Punjab region. The Mughal Empire ruled Kasur for 200 years. After and during the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikhs took over the Kasur District; the agriculture lands were given to supporters of the Sikh army. In 1825, it was conquered by Nawab Shariyaar Khan. Most of the Punjab region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849, was one of the last areas of the South Asia to fall under British colonial rule. During the British Raj, the irrigation canals were built that irrigated large areas barren lands of the Kasur District; the predominantly Muslim population supported Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Kasur District.
According to the 1998 census, Punjabi is the most spoken first language, whereas Urdu was the first language of 6.2% of the population. The district is unusual in that Urdu accounts for a greater proportion of speakers in rural than in urban areas; the Bambawali-Ravi-Bedian Canal was built in Kasur district increasing the agricultural development of the area. There has been commercial and industrial development but the area remain agricultural. Pakistan Army built Cantonment area for an infantry brigade in the district; the district is administratively subdivided into 4 tehsils and 141 Union Councils: The district is bounded by the Ravi River in the north-west and river Sutlej in the south-east. Whereas the old course of Beas River bifurcates the district into two equal parts locally known as Hither and Uthar or Mithan Majh. Both of the areas have a height differential of 5.5 meters. The natural surface elevation of the district is 198 meters above the sea level, having a general slope from north-east to south- west.
Whereas the east and west ends of the district comprise the flood plains of the rivers Satluj and Ravi, characterized by breaching of looping river Channels braided around meander bars. Kasur district is attached with Lahore from east, attached with Nankana Sahib from north, attached with Faisalabad from west and attached with Okara and India from south. Topographically speaking, Kasur District lies between the river Satluj which flows along its boundaries with India and river Ravi which flows its boundary with Nankana Sahib District; the districts may be divided into two parts, a low lying or riverine area along the two bordering rivers and upland, away from the rivers. The riverine area is inundates during monsoon season; the water level in this area is higher than in the upland. The soil is sandy; the upland is flat plains sloping from north-west to south-west. The general height of the area is from 150 to 200 meters above the sea level. Flora of the district has been modified by human agency of the old open forests of small trees and shrubs.
Amongst trees the most important are Kikar, Shisham or Tahli, Toot, Dharek and Nim, Piple are planted for shade. The growth in Rakhs is composed of three kinds of trees Jand and van or Jal. Pelu and Farash are found. Pilchi is found on moist sandy soil along the rivers and is used for wicker-work, basket making etc. Wolf and jackal are the only wild animals of any importance; the former being met with in the low land wastes of Chunian Tehsil but jackal are found every where. Changa Manga reserve a thick forest is the only area in which a few Nelgai, pig and here are found. Kasur is adjacent to the border, it is a major tourist attraction because of the famous guard changing ceremony. Kasur is famous for Kasuri Methi Kasuri Fish Kasuri Andrasy; the city is the resting place of Sufi poet Bulleh Shah. Kasur is famous for its tasty fish, a sweet dish called Andrassay and Kasuri Methi. Phool Nagar industrial area Pattoki is the 7th dense industrial area of Pakistan Chunian is famous for its sugar mills.
Abdullah sugar mill is the la
Holi (1940 film)
Holi is a 1940 Hindi/Urdu social drama film directed by A. R. Kardar. Holi was produced by Ranjit Movietone and had music composed by Khemchand Prakash with lyrics by D. N. Madhok, it had Khursheed and Motilal starring in the lead with Sitara Devi, Keshavrao Date, Dixit and Manohar Kapoor. With two love stories as a format, the film pits the rich against the poor, in the shape of two pairs of lovers; the film showed Motilal as a villain. The film starts with the people being drenched in colour. Sunder is a poor man who lives with his sister Kokila. Champa, an artist, is the daughter of a wealthy Seth. Champa and Sunder fall in love. Chand from a rich family lusts after Kokila. Sunder is framed by the evil Chand and his father on a robbery charge and he is caught by the police and put in jail. While he's behind bars his sister is kidnapped by Chand; when Sunder is released from jail he is told about his sister being kidnapped. However, love for Kokila has reformed him, he is due to marry Kokila. Suraj, unaware of the change and the impending marriage, stabs Chand.
Chand is rushed to the hospital. While he's battling for his life, the court procedures begin against Sunder. Chand turns up in court aided by Champa, to prove he's alive; the film ends with the two pairs of lovers uniting. Khursheed as Kokila Motilal as Chand Sitara Devi as Champa Ishwarlal as Sunder Keshavrao Date as Mangaldas Dixit Ghory Manohar Kapoor Tarabai Lala Yakoob as the Judge Mirza Musharraf Baburao Patel, editor of Filmindia, in his review of Holi, called the film a "little harmless entertainment, bereft of common sense", while commending the actor Ishwarlal for doing a good job. Keshavrao Date was criticised for accepting a meaningless role. Patel stated; the music director was Khemchand Prakash, with lyrics by D. N. Madhok; the notable songs were "Phagun Ki Rut Aayi Re" sung by Sitara Devi and Amritlal Nagar, "Oonchi Nigahon Ke Teer" sung by Kalyani Das. Holi on IMDb
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River 75 kilometres west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port; the city is regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, is nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in 1690, the area was developed by the Company into an fortified trading post. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah occupied Calcutta in 1756, the East India Company retook it the following year.
In 1793 the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat, assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until 1911, when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Following Indian independence in 1947, once the centre of modern Indian education, science and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation; as a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, film and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods and freestyle intellectual exchanges.
West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Among professional scientific institutions, Kolkata hosts the Agri Horticultural Society of India, the Geological Survey of India, the Botanical Survey of India, the Calcutta Mathematical Society, the Indian Science Congress Association, the Zoological Survey of India, the Institution of Engineers, the Anthropological Survey of India and the Indian Public Health Association. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports; the word Kolkata derives from the Bengali term Kôlikata, the name of one of three villages that predated the arrival of the British, in the area where the city was to be established. There are several explanations about the etymology of this name: The term Kolikata is thought to be a variation of Kalikkhetrô, meaning "Field of Kali".
It can be a variation of'Kalikshetra'. Another theory is. Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila, or "flat area"; the name may have its origin in the words khal meaning "canal", followed by kaṭa, which may mean "dug". According to another theory, the area specialised in the production of quicklime or koli chun and coir or kata. Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation; the discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Kolkata's recorded history began in 1690 with the arrival of the English East India Company, consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was credited as the founder of the city.
The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata and Sutanuti. Kalikata was a fishing village, they were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor. These rights were transferred to the East India Company in 1698. In 1712, the British completed the cons
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region