Captain George Vancouver was a British officer of the Royal Navy best known for his 1791–95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of what are now the American states of Alaska and Oregon, as well as the province of British Columbia in Canada. He explored the Hawaiian Islands and the southwest coast of Australia. Vancouver Island and the city of Vancouver, British Columbia are named for him, as is Vancouver, Washington. Mount Vancouver of Yukon and Alaska, on the Canadian-American border and New Zealand's sixth highest mountain, are named for him. George Vancouver was born in the seaport town of King's Lynn on 22 June 1757 as the sixth, youngest, child of John Jasper Vancouver, a Dutch-born Deputy Collector of Customs, Bridget Berners. In 1771, at the age of 13, Vancouver entered the Royal Navy as a "young gentleman," a future candidate for midshipman, he was selected to serve as a midshipman aboard HMS Resolution, on James Cook's second voyage searching for Terra Australis.
He accompanied Cook's third voyage, this time aboard Resolution's companion ship, HMS Discovery, was present during the first European sighting and exploration of the Hawaiian Islands. Upon his return to Britain in October 1780, Vancouver was commissioned as a lieutenant and posted aboard the sloop HMS Martin on escort and patrol duty in the English Channel and North Sea, he accompanied the ship. On 7 May 1782 he was appointed fourth Lieutenant of the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Fame, at the time part of the British West Indies Fleet and assigned to patrolling the French-held Leeward Islands. Vancouver returned to England in June 1783. In the late 1780s the Spanish Empire commissioned an expedition to the Pacific Northwest; the 1789 the Nootka Crisis developed, Spain and Britain came close to war over ownership of the Nootka Sound on contemporary Vancouver Island, of greater importance, the right to colonise and settle the Pacific Northwest coast. Henry Roberts had taken command of the survey ship HMS Discovery, to be used on another round-the-world voyage, Roberts selected Vancouver as his first lieutenant, but they were diverted to other warships due to the crisis.
Vancouver went with Joseph Whidbey to the 74-gun ship of the line HMS Courageux. When the first Nootka Convention ended the crisis in 1790, Vancouver was given command of Discovery to take possession of Nootka Sound and to survey the coasts. Departing England with two ships, HMS Discovery and HMS Chatham, on 1 April 1791, Vancouver commanded an expedition charged with exploring the Pacific region. In its first year the expedition travelled to Cape Town, New Zealand and Hawaii, collecting botanical samples and surveying coastlines along the way, he formally claimed at Possession Point, King George Sound Western Australia, now the town of Albany, Western Australia for the British. Proceeding to North America, Vancouver followed the coasts of present-day Oregon and Washington northward. In April 1792 he encountered American Captain Robert Gray off the coast of Oregon just prior to Gray's sailing up the Columbia River. Vancouver entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between Vancouver Island and the Washington state mainland on 29 April 1792.
His orders included a survey of every inlet and outlet on the west coast of the mainland, all the way north to Alaska. Most of this work was in small craft propelled by both oar. Vancouver named many features for his officers, friends and his ship Discovery, including: Mount Baker – after Discovery's 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker, the first on the expedition to spot it Mount St. Helens – after his friend, Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1st Baron St Helens Puget Sound – after Discovery's 2nd lieutenant Peter Puget, who explored its southern reaches. Mount Rainier – after his friend, Rear Admiral Peter Rainier. Port Gardner and Port Susan, Washington – after his former commander Vice Admiral Sir Alan Gardner and his wife Susannah, Lady Gardner. Whidbey Island – after naval engineer Joseph Whidbey. Discovery Passage, Discovery Island, Discovery Bay and Port Discovery. Vancouver was the second European to enter Burrard Inlet on 13 June 1792, naming it for his friend Sir Harry Burrard, it is the present day main harbour area of the City of Vancouver beyond Stanley Park.
He surveyed Jervis Inlet over the next nine days. On his 35th birthday on 22 June 1792, he returned to Point Grey, the present-day location of the University of British Columbia. Here he unexpectedly met a Spanish expedition led by Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayetano Valdés y Flores. Vancouver was "mortified" to learn they had a crude chart of the Strait of Georgia based on the 1791 exploratory voyage of José María Narváez the year before, under command of Francisco de Eliza. For three weeks they cooperatively explored the Georgia Strait and the Discovery Islands area before sailing separately towards Nootka Sound. After the summer surveying season ended, in August 1792, Vancouver went to Nootka the region's most important harbour, on contemporary Vancouver Island. Here he was to receive any British buildings and lands returned by the Spanish from claims by Francisco de Eliza for the Spanish crown; the Spanish commander, Juan Francisco Bodega y Quadra, was cordial and he and Vancouver exchanged the maps they had made, but no agreement was reached.
At this time, they decided to name t
Sir Robert Barrie KCB, KCH was a British officer of the Royal Navy noted for his service in the War of 1812. He was helped early in his naval career by the patronage of his uncle, Sir Alan Gardner, who arranged for him to take part in the Vancouver Expedition; when the Pacific Coast was explored, he had served as a midshipman with Captain Vancouver in 1791. He served in European waters from 1801 to 1811, he was mentioned in dispatches for his gallant conduct in a fight with a French squadron when, as First Lieutenant of Bourdelais, "though dangerously wounded, he had disdained to quit the deck". Barrie commanded a number of ships during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. In 1804 he had been promoted Captain commanded Brilliant at 24-guns and in 1806 he went to Pomone at 38-guns. On 5 June 1807, he attacked a convoy of seventeen ships, sank three men-of-war, captured fourteen other warships and store ships, he captured a privateer commanded by the Adjutant-General of France. In 1809, he captured five transports.
In 1811 he captured three French men-of-war. In 1811, he captured several important French prisoners, including Napoleon's brother Lucien Bonaparte on a French ship, he was active during the War of 1812, carrying out several successful attacks on American towns and shipping in the Penobscot River region, helping to destroy the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla. From 1813 to 1815 he served in the Dragon in American waters, here again he made many captures. In 1813 Barrie collected runaway slaves from the Virginia shores. After a brief period spent living in France Barrie took up the post of Acting Commissioner of the Quebec Dockyard 1817-1818. By 1819, he served as Commissioner of the dockyard at Kingston, he was active in a number of areas and expanding the dockyard and promoting important hydrographic surveys and the construction of canals. Between 1819 and 1820 Captain Barrie, as Flag Officer of the Great Lakes, built the Stone Frigate in Kingston Royal Navy Dockyard to house the gear of the warships of 1812 laid up in Navy Bay.
His instructions were to expedite the repair of the vessels at the bases in case of any emergency. From December 1820, the command of Flag Officer of the Great Lakes disappeared from the Navy List. In March 1824 Barrie was listed as "Acting Resident Commissioner, Upper Canada" and his headquarters was shown to have been transferred to Kingston, he cultivated friendships with several important political figures, on his return to England in 1834 received a number of honours. Barrie was born at St. Augustine, Florida on 5 May 1774, the son of Scottish surgeon Dr Robert Barrie of Sanquhar and his wife, Dorothea Gardner, the sister of Sir Alan Gardner, his mother returned to England on the death of her husband in 1775, settled in Preston, Lancashire. In 1784 she remarried George Clayton, a textile manufacturer, while her son was schooled at Neston, at Dedham. Between 1784 and 1788, he was carried on the books of HMS Europa as a servant to the captain but most his first shipboard service was as a junior midshipman on HMS Goliath.
Gardner arranged for Barrie to serve as a midshipman aboard HMS Discovery from December 1790 until 1795, during George Vancouver's voyage of diplomacy and exploration along the Pacific coast of North America. Many of his letters home survive, describing his experiences of adventure, punctuated by periods of boredom after he exhausted the books on the ships. Barrie gained an acting promotion to Lieutenant on the expedition, commanded a survey party on the northern coast of what is now British Columbia, he was formally promoted to Lieutenant upon the return to England in October 1795. In 1800 Barrie served in the West Indies under Thomas Manby, who had taken part in the Vancouver expedition. On 23 October 1801 Barrie received a promotion to commander, seven months was advanced to post-captain while commanding the 16-gun sloop Calypso. Barrie took command of the frigate HMS Pomone in June 1806, serving off the French coast and in the Mediterranean, he captured two significant Frenchmen during this period, the adjutant general of France, Chevalier Charles de Boissi, in June 1809, Napoleon's brother Lucien Bonaparte, in October 1810, while Lucien was attempting to escape to America from Italy.
On 1 May 1811 with two other ships, he entered the Gulf of Sagone, sank three ships and destroyed its fortifications. He was ordered to bring the British ambassador to Persia back to England, but Pomone was sunk while approaching Portsmouth; the subsequent court-martialled for the loss of the ship acquitted Barrie of misconduct but did censure the pilot. Barrie took command of the 74-gun third-rate HMS Dragon in October 1812, sailed to America during the War of 1812, he participated in the blockade of Chesapeake Bay. He served as the commodore of the squadron for several months, captured over 85 vessels, his squadron blockaded the Patuxent River between August. In September 1814 he joined Sir John Coape Sherbrooke's forces for the attack on the Penobscot River region in the American state of Maine. Barrie commanded a joint expedition that defeated American militia in the Battle of Hampden and looting the towns of Hampden and Bangor and destroying the frigate USS Adams. Barrie's rough treatment of the captured towns in central Maine earned the British lasting resentment in that region.
Forces under Barrie went on to destroy the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla. In November 1813, ten of Whittington's slaves escaped to the British frigate Dragon under Commodore John Barrie.3 The ship had dropped anchor off St. George's Island near the Maryland shore of
The killer whale or orca is a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family, of which it is the largest member. Killer whales have a diverse diet, although individual populations specialize in particular types of prey; some feed on fish, while others hunt marine mammals such as seals and other species of dolphin. They have been known to attack baleen whale calves, adult whales. Killer whales are apex predators. A cosmopolitan species, they can be found in each of the world's oceans in a variety of marine environments, from Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas, absent only from the Baltic and Black seas, some areas of the Arctic Ocean. Killer whales are social, their sophisticated hunting techniques and vocal behaviours, which are specific to a particular group and passed across generations, have been described as manifestations of animal culture. The International Union for Conservation of Nature assesses the orca's conservation status as data deficient because of the likelihood that two or more killer whale types are separate species.
Some local populations are considered threatened or endangered due to prey depletion, habitat loss, capture for marine mammal parks, conflicts with human fisheries. In late 2005, the southern resident killer whales, which swim in British Columbia and Washington state waters, were placed on the U. S. Endangered Species list. Wild killer whales are not considered a threat to humans, but there have been cases of captive orcas killing or injuring their handlers at marine theme parks. Killer whales feature in the mythologies of indigenous cultures, with their reputation ranging from being the souls of humans to merciless killers. Orcinus orca is the only recognized extant species in the genus Orcinus, one of many animal species described by Linnaeus in 1758 in Systema Naturae. Konrad Gessner wrote the first scientific description of a killer whale in his Piscium & aquatilium animantium natura of 1558, part of the larger Historia animalium, based on examination of a dead stranded animal in the Bay of Greifswald that had attracted a great deal of local interest.
The killer whale is one of 35 species in the oceanic dolphin family, which first appeared about 11 million years ago. The killer whale lineage branched off shortly thereafter. Although it has morphological similarities with the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale and the pilot whales, a study of cytochrome b gene sequences by Richard LeDuc indicated that its closest extant relatives are the snubfin dolphins of the genus Orcaella. Although the term "orca" is used, English-speaking scientists most use the traditional name "killer whale". Indeed, the genus name Orcinus means "of the kingdom of the dead", or "belonging to Orcus". Ancient Romans used orca for these animals borrowing Greek ὄρυξ, which referred to a whale species. Since the 1960s, "orca" has grown in popularity; the term "orca" is euphemistically preferred by some to avoid the negative connotations of "killer", because, being part of the family Delphinidae, the species is more related to other dolphins than to whales. They are sometimes referred to as "blackfish", a name used for other whale species.
"Grampus" is a former name for the species, but is now used. This meaning of "grampus" should not be confused with the genus Grampus, whose only member is Risso's dolphin; the three to five types of killer whales may be distinct enough to be considered different races, subspecies, or even species. The IUCN reported in 2008, "The taxonomy of this genus is in need of review, it is that O. orca will be split into a number of different species or at least subspecies over the next few years." Although large variation in the ecological distinctiveness of different killer whale groups complicate simple differentiation into types, research off the west coast of Canada and the United States in the 1970s and 1980s identified the following three types: Resident: These are the most sighted of the three populations in the coastal waters of the northeast Pacific. Residents' diets consist of fish and sometimes squid, they live in complex and cohesive family groups called pods. Female residents characteristically have rounded dorsal fin tips.
They visit the same areas consistently. British Columbia and Washington resident populations are amongst the most intensively studied marine mammals anywhere in the world. Researchers have named over 300 killer whales over the past 30 years. Transient: The diets of these whales consist exclusively of marine mammals. Transients travel in small groups of two to six animals, have less persistent family bonds than residents. Transients vocalize in less complex dialects. Female transients are characterized by more triangular and pointed dorsal fins than those of residents; the gray or white area around the dorsal fin, known as the "saddle patch" contains some black colouring in residents. However, the saddle patches of transients are uniformly gray. Transients roam along the coast. Transients are referred to as Bigg's killer whale in honor of cetologist Michael Bigg; the term has become common and may replace the transient label. Offshore: A third population of killer whales in the northeast Pacific was discovered in 1988, when a humpback whale researcher ob
The Tsimshian are an indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Their communities are in coastal British Columbia and far southern Alaska, around Terrace and Prince Rupert in British Columbia, Alaska's Annette Islands; the Tsimshian people consist of 10,000 members of seven First Nations. The Tsimshian are one of the largest First Nations peoples in northwest British Columbia; some Tsimshian migrated to Annette Island, where their descendants in the Metlakatla Indian Community number about 1450. Similar to numerous Native American peoples, the Tsimshian have a matrilineal kinship system, with a societal structure based on a clan system, properly referred to as a moiety. Descent and property are figured through the maternal line. Early anthropologists and linguists had classified the Gitksan and Nishga as Tsimshian because of apparent linguistic affinities; the three were all referred to as "Coast Tsimshian," though some communities were not coastal. These three groups, identify as separate nations.
Tsimshian translates to "Inside the Skeena River." At one time the Tsimshian lived on the upper reaches of the Skeena River near present-day Hazelton, British Columbia. The majority of Tsimshian still live in the lower Skeena River watershed near Kitimat, as well as northern coastal BC. There are distinct groups of Tsimshian native peoples: the Nishga, the Gitksan, the Coast Tsimshian, the Southern Tsimshian; the southern Tsimshian language had more prestige than the others and was used ceremonially by the Nishga and the Gitksan. According to southern Tsimshian lore, after a series of disasters befell the people, a chief led a migration away from the cursed land to the coast, where they founded Kitkatla Village, the first of three Southern Tsimshian villages. Kitkatla is still considered to be the most conservative of the Tsimshian villages; the Nishga and Gitksan remained in the upper Skeena region near the Nass River and forks of the Skeena but other Tsimshian chiefs moved down the river and occupied all the lands of the lower Skeena valley.
Over time, these groups developed a new dialect of their ancestral language and came to regard themselves as a distinct population, the Tsimshian-proper. They continued to share the rights and customs of those who are known as the Gitxsan, their kin on the upper Skeena. In late prehistoric times, the Coastal Tsimshian moved their winter villages out to the islands of Venn, they returned to their summer villages along the lower Skeena River. Archaeological evidence shows 5,000 years of continuous inhabitation in the Prince Rupert region. Kitkatla was the first Tsimshian village contacted by Europeans when Captain Charles Duncan and James Colnett arrived in 1787. Although Captain George Vancouver sailed up the Portland Canal into Nishga territory in 1793, the Gitksan were not subject to settlement pressure until the confluence of the Skeena and Bulkley Rivers the site of the Tsimshian village of Kitanmaks, became the new European settlement of Skeena Forks; when the Hudson's Bay Company moved their fort to modern-day Port Simpson in 1834, nine Tsimshian villages moved to the surrounding area.
Many of the Tsimshian peoples in Canada still live in these regions. Throughout the second half of the 19th century, epidemics of infectious disease contracted from Europeans ravaged their communities, as the First Nations had no acquired immunity to these diseases. In 1862 a smallpox epidemic killed many of the Tsimshian people. Altogether, one in four Tsimshian died in a series of at least three large-scale outbreaks. In 1835, the total population of the Tsimshian peoples was estimated at 8,500. By 1885, the population had dropped to 4,500. In the 1880s the Anglican missionary William Duncan, along with a group of the Tsimshian, left Metlakatla, British Columbia and requested settlement on Annette Island from the U. S. government. After gaining approval, the group founded New Metlakatla on Annette Island in southern Alaska. Duncan appealed to Congress to grant the community reservation status, which it did in the late 19th century. In 1895, the BC Tsimshian population stood at 3,550, while the Alaska Tsimshian population had dropped to 465 by 1900.
After this low-water point, the Tsimshian population began to grow again to reach modern numbers comparable to the 1835 population estimate. However, the numbers of the inland Tsimshian peoples are now higher than they were while those of the Southern and Coastal Tsimshian are much lower. In the 1970s, the Metlakatla Indian Community voted to retain their rights to land and water, opted out of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act; the residents of Arctic Village and Venetie accepted free and simple title to the land within the Venetie reservation boundaries, while all other tribes participated in ANCSA. The Metlakatla Tsimshian maintained their reservation status and holdings exclusive of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, they do not have an associated Native Corporation, although Tsimshian in Alaska may be shareholders of the Sealaska Corporation. The Annette Islands Reserve is the only location in Alaska allowed to maintain fish traps according to their traditional treaty rights.
The use of these were otherwise banned when Alaska became a state in 1959. The traps are used to gather fish for food for people living on the reservation; the community was required to use the traps at least once every
The humpback whale is a species of baleen whale. One of the larger rorqual species, adults range in length from 12–16 m and weigh around 25–30 metric tons; the humpback has a distinctive body shape, with a knobbly head. It is known for breaching and other distinctive surface behaviors, making it popular with whale watchers. Males produce a complex song lasting 10 to 20 minutes, its purpose is not clear. Found in oceans and seas around the world, humpback whales migrate up to 25,000 km each year, they feed in polar waters, migrate to tropical or subtropical waters to breed and give birth and living off their fat reserves. Their diet consists of krill and small fish. Humpbacks have a diverse repertoire of feeding methods, including the bubble net technique. Like other large whales, the humpback was a target for the whaling industry. Once hunted to the brink of extinction, its population fell by an estimated 90% before a 1966 moratorium. While stocks have recovered to some 80,000 animals worldwide, entanglement in fishing gear, collisions with ships and noise pollution continue to impact on the species.
Humpback whales are rorquals, members of the Balaenopteridae family that includes the blue, Bryde's, sei and minke whales. The rorquals are believed to have diverged from the other families of the suborder Mysticeti as long ago as the middle Miocene era. However, it is not known. Though related to the giant whales of the genus Balaenoptera, the humpback is the sole member of its genus. Recent DNA sequencing has indicated the humpback is more related to certain rorquals the fin whale and the gray, than it is to others such as the minke; the humpback was first identified as baleine de la Nouvelle Angleterre by Mathurin Jacques Brisson in his Regnum Animale of 1756. In 1781, Georg Heinrich Borowski described the species, converting Brisson's name to its Latin equivalent, Balaena novaeangliae. In 1804, Lacépède shifted the humpback from the family Balaenidae. In 1846, John Edward Gray created the genus Megaptera, classifying the humpback as Megaptera longipinna, but in 1932, Remington Kellogg reverted the species names to use Borowski's novaeangliae.
The common name is derived from the curving of their backs. The generic name Megaptera from the Greek mega-/μεγα- "giant" and ptera/πτερα "wing", refers to their large front flippers; the specific name means "New Englander" and was given by Brisson due to regular sightings of humpbacks off the coast of New England. Genetic research in mid-2014 by the British Antarctic Survey confirmed that the separate populations in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and Southern Oceans are more distinct than thought; some biologists believe that these should be regarded as separate subspecies and that they are evolving independently. Humpbacks can be identified by their stocky body, obvious hump, black dorsal coloring and elongated pectoral fins; the head and lower jaw are covered with knobs called tubercles, which are hair follicles and are characteristic of the species. The fluked tail, which rises above the surface when diving, has wavy trailing edges. Humpbacks have 270 to 400 darkly colored baleen plates on each side of their mouths.
The plates measure from 18 in in the front to about 3 ft in the back, behind the hinge. Ventral grooves run from the lower jaw to the umbilicus, about halfway along the underside of the body; these grooves are less numerous than in other rorquals, but are wide. The female has a hemispherical lobe about 15 cm in diameter in her genital region; this visually distinguishes females. The male's penis remains hidden in the genital slit. Grown males average 13–14 m. Females are larger at 15–16 m; the largest humpback on record, according to whaling records, was a female killed in the Caribbean. The largest measured by the scientists of the Discovery Committee were a female 14.9 m and a male 14.75 m, although this was out of a sample size of only 63 whales. Body mass is in the range of 25–30 metric tons, with large specimens weighing over 40 metric tons. Newborn calves are the length of their mother's head. At birth, calves measure 6 m at 2 short tons, they nurse for about six months mix nursing and independent feeding for six months more.
Humpback milk is 50 % pink in color. Females reach sexual maturity at age five. Males reach sexual maturity around seven years of age; the long black and white tail fin can be up to a third of body length. Several hypotheses attempt to explain the humpback's pectoral fins, which are proportionally the longest fins of any cetacean; the higher maneuverability afforded by long fins and the usefulness of the increased surface area for temperature control when migrating between warm and cold climates supported this adaptation. The varying patterns on the tail flukes distinguish individual animals. A study using data from 1973 to 1998 on whales in the North Atlantic gave researchers detailed information on gestation times, growth rates and calving periods, as well as allowing
The Vancouver Expedition was a four-and-a-half-year voyage of exploration and diplomacy, commanded by Captain George Vancouver of the Royal Navy. The British expedition made contact with five continents; the expedition at various times included between two and four vessels, up to 153 men, all but six of whom returned home safely. Several previous voyages of exploration including those of Ferdinand Magellan and James Cook, the Spanish Manila-Acapulco galleons trade route active since 1565, had established the strategic and commercial value of exploring and claiming the Pacific Ocean access, both for its wealth in whales and furs and as a trade route to'the Orient' – Asia. Britain was interested in improving its knowledge of the Southern Pacific whale fisheries, in particular the location of the strategically positioned Australia, New Zealand, the legendary Isla Grande, the Northwest Passage. A new ship was purchased, fitted out, named HMS Discovery after one of Cook's ships, her captain was Vancouver his 1st Lieutenant.
Plans changed when the adventurer John Meares reported that the Spanish had impounded his ship and hundreds of thousands of pounds' worth of goods at Nootka Sound. Although it is now known that his claims of loss were somewhat exaggerated, Britain had beaten Spain at war and seemed ready to resume hostilities. Roberts and Vancouver left Discovery to serve in the Channel Fleet while Discovery became a depot ship for processing victims of the press gang; the Spanish capitulated in the Nootka Sound Convention, whose terms resulted in inconsistent instructions for the British and Spanish officers sent to implement them. Vancouver returned to Discovery as the expedition's commander. Vancouver understood from the discussions he had with ministers and officials in London prior to his departure that his task was to receive back from the Spanish commander at Nootka Sound land and property, confiscated from the English fur traders in July 1789 and of establishing a formal British presence there to support and promote the fur trade.
Proposals to establish a British colony on the North West Coast had been discussed in commercial and official circles in the 1780s, encouraged by the success of the project to colonize Botany Bay and Norfolk Island. During the war crisis with Spain that resulted from the arrest of the English fur traders at Nootka Sound, plans were made for a small party of convicts and marines to be sent from New South Wales to make a subsidiary settlement on the North West Coast: one of the ships to be used for this task was to have been the Discovery, which Vancouver afterwards commanded during his expedition, he believed that once he had accepted restitution of Nootka Sound its and associated territory he was to make preparations for founding a British colony there that, at least would have had a close connection with the New South Wales colony. Supplies and materials for establishing the colony were sent on the Daedalus storeship, he was instructed "to receive back in form a restitution of the territories on which the Spaniards had seized, to make an accurate survey of the coast, from the 30th degree of north latitude northwestward toward Cook's River.
These explorations were in part to discover water communication into the North American interior and to facilitate the researches of the expedition's politically well-connected botanist, Archibald Menzies. A change to a more conciliatory British policy toward Spain after he left England in April 1791, a result of challenges arising from the French Revolution, not communicated to him, left him in an embarrassing situation in his negotiations with the Spanish commander at Nootka. Although Vancouver and Bodega y Quadra were friendly with one another, their negotiations did not go smoothly. Spain desired to set the Spanish-British boundary at the Strait of Juan de Fuca, but Vancouver insisted on British rights to the Columbia River. Vancouver objected to the new Spanish post at Neah Bay. Bodega y Quadra insisted on Spain retaining Nootka Sound. In the end the two agreed to refer the matter to their respective governments. Following the mutiny on the Bounty, the Admiralty had ordered the precaution that ships not make such long voyages alone.
The chartered merchant ship, would rendezvous at Nootka Sound a year with supplies. The expedition was supposed to take three years; the Muster of the expedition lists 153 men. Most were naval officers or sailors, many of whom would distinguish themselves in future service, including Peter Puget, Joseph Baker, Joseph Whidbey, William Broughton, Zachary Mudge, Thomas Manby, Robert Barrie. There was a large detachment of Marines. Two 16-year-old aristocrats, the Honorable Thomas Pitt and the Honorable Charles Stuart, were brought aboard as able seamen. Among the supernumeraries were Menzies and his servant John Ewin. A Hawaiian man named Towereroo, whom Captain Charles Duncan had brought to England, was put on Discovery that he might return home; the Muster includes a Widow's Man, rated able seaman, but in fact an accounting fiction. On 1 April 1791 Discovery and Chatham set sail, they reached Santa Cruz in
Lax-Kw'alaams called Port Simpson, is an Indigenous village community in British Columbia, not far from the city of Prince Rupert. It is located on Port Simpson Indian Reserve No. 1, shared with other residential communities of the Tsimshian Nation. The Nine Allied Tribes are: Giluts'aaw, Ginaxangiik, Gispaxlo'ots, Gitlaan, Gits'iis and Gitzaxłaał. Lax-Kw'alaams derives from Laxłgu'alaams formerly spelled Lach Goo Alams, which means "place of the wild roses," It is an ancient camping spot of the Gispaxlo'ots tribe. In 1834 the Hudson's Bay Company set up a trading post there called Fort Simpson Port Simpson; the facility was named after Capt. Aemilius Simpson, superintendent of the HBC's Marine Department, who in 1830 had established the first, short-lived, Fort Simpson, on the nearby Nass River with Peter Skene Ogden; the HBC set up Fort Simpson in order to undermine American dominance of the Maritime Fur Trade along the Pacific Coast. The first HBC factor at the new Fort Simpson was Dr. John Frederick Kennedy.
He married the daughter of chief Ligeex of the Gispaxlo'ots, as part of the diplomacy which established the fort on Gispaxlo'ots territory. Kennedy served at Fort Simpson until 1856. In 1857 an Anglican lay missionary named. But, feeling that the dissipated fort atmosphere was bad for the souls of his Tsimshian followers, he relocated with more than 800 of his flock to Metlakatla, at Metlakatla Pass just to the south, they moved to Annette Island, where he gained authority from the US Congress for an Indian reservation. Lax Kw'alaams was without missionaries until 1874, when Rev. Thomas Crosby of the Methodist church arrived; the community is still predominantly Methodist. Crosby's wife, Emma Crosby, founded the Methodist-affiliated Crosby Girls' Home in the community in the 1880s, it became part of B. C.'s Indian residential school system in 1893 and operated until 1948. In 1931 the Native Brotherhood of British Columbia was founded in Port Simpson as the province's first Native-run rights organization.
Its four founders included the Tsimshian ethnologist William Beynon and hereditary Chief William Jeffrey. Duncan estimated. 500 died in a smallpox epidemic shortly after Duncan's departure. Today Lax Kw'alaams is the largest of the seven Tsimshian village communities in Canada, its population in 1983 was 882. As of 2009 the Lax-kw'alaams First Nation has 3,219 members. In 2011, there were 678 individuals living on the reserve. There are about 10,000 Tsimshian in British Columbia; the legal and political interests of the people of Lax Kw'alaams vis à vis the provincial and federal governments are represented by the Allied Tsimshian Tribes Association, which represents the hereditary chiefs of the Nine Tribes. The Tsimshian have a matrilineal kinship system, with property and descent passed through the maternal lines. Hereditary chiefs come from the maternal lines. In November 2016, a study published in Nature Communications linked the genome of 25 Indigenous people who inhabited modern-day Prince Rupert, British Columbia 1000 to 6000 years ago with their descendants in the Lax-Kw'alaams community.
Frederick Alexcee, artist William Beynon, hereditary chief and ethnologist Alfred Dudoward, hereditary chief Bill Helin, artist Chief William Jeffrey, hereditary chief and activist Odille Morison and artifact collector Rev. William Henry Pierce and memoirist Terry Starr, artist Henry W. Tate, oral historian Arthur Wellington Clah, hereditary chief and diarist Bolt, Clarence Thomas Crosby and the Tsimshian: Small Shoes for Feet Too Large. Vancouver: UBC Press. Garfield, Viola "Tsimshian Clan and Society," University of Washington Publications in Anthropology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 167–340. Hare and Jean Barman Good Intentions Gone Awry: Emma Crosby and the Methodist Mission on the Northwest Coast. Afterword by Caroline Dudoward. Vancouver: UBC Press. Inglis, Gordon B. et al. "Tsimshians of British Columbia since 1900." In Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 7: Northwest Coast, pp. 285–293. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Large, R. Geddes The Skeena: River of Destiny. Sidney, B. C.: Gray's Publishing.
Meilleur, Helen A Pour of Rain: Stories from a West Coast Fort. Vancouver: Raincoast Books. Neylan, Susan The Heavens Are Changing: Nineteenth-Century Protestant Missions and Tsimshian Christianity. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Calvin Helin - Tsimshian Lax Kw'alaams "Dancing with dependency," "Out of poverty through self-reliance" "First Nation Community of Lax Kw'alaams - official web site". Retrieved 2010-01-26. Photos "Lax Kw'alaams". BC Geographical Names