As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803; the concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War, the policy of the government was one of assimilation; the term Indian Reserve describes lands the British government set aside for indigenous tribes between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River in the time before the American Revolutionary War. Indian Territory came to refer to an unorganized territory whose general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834, was the successor to the remainder of the Missouri Territory after Missouri received statehood; the borders of Indian Territory were reduced in size as various Organic Acts were passed by Congress to create incorporated territories of the United States.
The 1907 Oklahoma Enabling Act created the single state of Oklahoma by combining Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, ending the existence of an Indian Territory. Indian Territory known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans. Therefore, it was not a traditional territory for the tribes settled upon it; the general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. The territory was located in the Central United States. While Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians. Treaties with the tribes restricted entry of non-Indians into tribal areas; the region never had a formal government until after the American Civil War.
After the Civil War, the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the Midwestern United States. These re-written treaties included provisions for a territorial legislature with proportional representation from various tribes. In time, the Indian Territory was reduced to; the Organic Act of 1890 reduced Indian Territory to the lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes and the Tribes of the Quapaw Indian Agency. The remaining western portion of the former Indian Territory became the Oklahoma Territory; the Oklahoma organic act applied the laws of Nebraska to the incorporated territory of Oklahoma Territory, the laws of Arkansas to the still unincorporated Indian Territory. The concept of an Indian territory is the successor to the British Indian Reserve, a British North American territory established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that set aside land for use by the Native American people.
The proclamation limited the settlement of Europeans to Crown-claimed lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. The territory remained active until the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War, land was ceded to the United States; the British administration reduced the land area of the Indian Reserve – the United States further reduced it after the American Revolutionary War – until it included only lands west of the Mississippi River. At the time of the American Revolution, many Native American tribes had long-standing relationships with British who were loyal to the British Empire, but they had a less-developed relationship with the Empire's colonists-turned-rebels. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country and were twice defeated, they defeated the Indian Western Confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and imposed the Treaty of Greenville, which ceded most of what is now Ohio, part of present-day Indiana, the lands that include present-day Chicago and Detroit, to the United States federal government.
The period after the American Revolutionary War was one of rapid western expansion. The areas occupied by Native Americans in the United States were called Indian country, not an unorganized territory, as the areas were established by treaty. In 1803 the United States of America agreed to purchase France's claim to French Louisiana for a total of $15 million. President Thomas Jefferson doubted the legality of the purchase. However, the chief negotiator, Robert R. Livingston believed that the 3rd article of the treaty providing for the Louisiana Purchase would be acceptable to Congress; the 3rd article stated, in part: the inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States, admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights and immunities of citizens of the United States. Which committed the US government to "the ultimate, but not to the immediate, admission" of the territory as multiple states, "postponed its incorporation into the Union t
Delaware Tribe of Indians
The Delaware Tribe of Indians, sometimes called the Eastern Delaware, based in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, is one of three federally recognized tribes of Delaware Indians in the United States, along with the Delaware Nation based in Anadarko and the Stockbridge-Munsee Community of Wisconsin. More Lenape or Delaware people live in Canada; the new Principal Chief elected 1 Nov 2014 is Chester "Chet" Brooks. They have no tribal jurisdictional area, their housing program covers Washington, Rogers and Part of Tulsa Counties. Their annual tribal economic impact is $2 million; the Delaware Tribe of Indians is located at 165 NE Barbara, in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, 74006. Tribal membership is limited to descendants of Delaware people on the 1906 tribal rolls from Indian Territory, they based enrollment on lineal descent. The Council of Lenape Elders works to sustain traditional dances and the tribal language and works with the Delaware Gourd Society; the tribe maintains a Delaware Center, on a 80-acre parcel land in Bartlesville.
Delaware artists are known for their wood carving and ribbon work skills. The Algonquian-speaking Delaware refer to themselves as Lenni Lenape. At contact, in the early 17th century, the tribe lived along the Delaware River, named for Lord de la Warr, territory in lower present-day New York state and eastern New Jersey, western Long Island, New York; the Delaware nation was the first to sign a treaty with the new United States. They signed the treaty on the 17th September 1778. Despite the treaty, the Delaware were forced to cede their Eastern lands and moved first to Ohio Indiana, Missouri and Indian Territory; the ancestors of the Delaware Nation, following a different migration route, settled in Anadarko. Other Delaware bands moved north with the Iroquois after the American Revolutionary War to form two reserves in Ontario, Canada. Traditionally the Delaware were divided into the Munsee and Unalachtigo, three social divisions determined by language and location. After dealing with the United States on a government-to-government basis, the ancestors of the Delaware Tribe of Indians agreed in 1867 to relocation to Oklahoma, to live within the Cherokee Nation.
The Delaware Tribe of Indians operated autonomously within the lands of the Cherokee Nation. Following passage of the 1972 Appropriations Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs reviewed the 1958 Bylaws of the Delaware Tribe of Indians, it recommended that the tribe adopt membership criteria to comply with the distribution requirements of the Act. In a General Council meeting, the Delaware Tribe amended its bylaws to include such criteria, the BIA approved the amendments on September 30, 1974. In 1975, the BIA certified that the Delaware Tribe's amended bylaws provided "the legal entity which in the judgment of the Secretary of Interior adequately protects the interest of the Delaware Tribe of Indians pursuant to the." Due to suit filed by the Kansas Delaware, a non-recognized tribe, BIA reviewed all federally recognized Delaware tribes' legal documents. In 1979, BIA revoked the Delaware Tribe of Indians' status, citing that the removal to Oklahoma in 1879 with the Cherokees placed the tribe under the authority of the Cherokee Nation.
The BIA had determined that the Department of the Interior would engage in government-to-government relations with the Delaware Tribe only through Cherokee Nation, that the Department would engage in direct relations with the Delaware Tribe with respect to the Tribe's claims against the United States. The Delaware Tribe of Indians regained their federal recognition by the Secretary of the Interior in 1991, when the BIA rescinded their 1979 decision. However, the Cherokee Nation disagreed with the decision and filed suit against the BIA and the Secretary of their decision; the Cherokee Nation's position was upheld in court, leading to the Delaware Tribe's loss of federal recognition in 2004. After years of negotiations, the two tribes resolved their differences through an agreement in October 2008. Delaware voters approved the agreement and voted to reorganize in May 2009, under the authority of the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act. On July 28, 2009, The United States Department of the Interior notified the tribal office in Bartlesville, that the Delaware are again a federally recognized tribe.
Nora Thompson Dean, traditionalist and language instructor Lenape Delaware Nation Stockbridge-Munsee Community Delaware Tribe of Indians, official website Eastern Delaware, Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
Broken Arrow is a city located in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Oklahoma in Tulsa County but with a section of the city in western Wagoner County. It is the largest suburb of Tulsa. According to the 2010 census, Broken Arrow has a population of 98,850 residents and is the fourth-largest city in the state. However, a July 2017, estimate reports that the population of the city is just under 112,000, making it the 280th-largest city in the United States; the city is part of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area. The Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad sold lots for the town site in 1902 and company secretary William S. Fears named it Broken Arrow; the city was named for a Creek community settled by Creek Indians, forced to relocate from Alabama to Oklahoma along the Trail of Tears. Although Broken Arrow was an agricultural community, its current economy is diverse; the city has the third-largest concentration of manufacturers in the state. The city's name comes from an old Creek community in Alabama.
Members of that community were expelled from Alabama by the United States government, along the Trail of Tears in the 1830s. The Creek founded a new community in the Indian Territory, named it after their old settlement in Alabama; the town's Creek name was Rekackv. The new Creek settlement was located several miles south of present-day downtown Broken Arrow. In 1902 the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad planned a railroad through the area and was granted town site privileges along the route, they sold three of the as-yet-unnamed sites to the Arkansas Valley Town Site Company. William S. Fears, secretary of that company, was allowed to name one of the locations, he selected a site about 18 miles southeast of Tulsa and about five miles north of the thlee-Kawtch-kuh settlement and named the new town site Broken Arrow, after the Indian settlement. The MKT railroad, completed in 1903, ran through the middle of the city, it still exists today and is now owned by Union Pacific which uses it for freight.
For the first decades of Broken Arrow's history, the town's economy was based on agriculture. The coal industry played an important role, with several strip coal mines located near the city in the early 20th century; the city's newspaper, the Broken Arrow Ledger, started within a couple of years of the city's founding. Broken Arrow's first school was built in 1904; the city did not grow much during the first half of the 1900s. During this time Broken Arrow's main commercial center was along Main Street. Most of the city's churches were located on or near Main Street as well. A 1907 government census listed Broken Arrow's population at 1383; the Haskell State School of Agriculture opened in the Broken Arrow, Oklahoma Opera House on November 15, 1909. The school closed in 1917 for lack of funding, the building was used as Broken Arrow High School; the building was razed in 1987. Only a marker, shown here, remains at 808 East College Street in Broken Arrow; the front of cornerstone reads, "Haskell State School / Of Agriculture / J. H. Esslinger Supt. / W. A. Etherton Archt.
/ Bucy & Walker Contr." The side of cornerstone reads "Laid by the Masonic Fraternity / May 25, A. D. 1910, A. L. 5810. / George Huddell G. M. / Erected by The State Board of Agriculture / J. P. Conners Pres. / B. C. Pittuck Dean.". The school is commemorated on the National Register of Historic Places. In the 1960s, Broken Arrow began to grow from a small town into a suburban city; the Broken Arrow Expressway was constructed in the mid-1960s and connected the city with downtown Tulsa, fueling growth in Broken Arrow. The population swelled from a little above 11,000 in 1970 to more than 50,000 in 1990, more than 74,000 by the year 2000. During this time, the city was more of a bedroom community. In recent years, city leaders have pushed for more economic development to help keep more Broken Arrowans working and relaxing in town rather than going to other cities. Broken Arrow is located in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma; the city is part of the state's Green Country region known for its green vegetation and lakes.
Green Country is the most topographically diverse portion of the state with seven of Oklahoma's 11 eco-regions. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 45.6 square miles, of which 45.0 sq mi is land and 0.6 sq mi is water. Broken Arrow has the typical eastern and central Oklahoma humid subtropical climate with uncomfortably hot summers and variable winters that can range from warm to cold depending on whether the air mass comes from warmed air over the Rocky Mountains or cold polar anticyclones from Canada. According to the 2010 census, there were 98,850 people, 36,141 households, 27,614 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,200 people per square mile. There were 38,013 housing units at an average density of 602.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.3% White, 4.3% African American, 5.2% Native American, 3.6% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, 5.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino were 6.5%.
There were 36,141 households, out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.4% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.6% were non-families. Of all households, 19.2% were made up of individuals and 6.3% h
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
Fort Sill Apache Tribe
The Fort Sill Apache Tribe is the federally recognized Native American tribe of Chiricahua Warm Springs Apache in Oklahoma. The Fort Sill Apache Tribe is headquartered in Oklahoma. Tribal member enrollment, which requires a 1⁄16 minimum blood quantum, stands at 650; the tribe continues to maintain close connections to the Chiricahua Apache who were moved to the Mescalero Apache Reservation in the late 19th century. Jeff Houser is the elected tribal chairman; the tribal jurisdictional area, as opposed to a reservation, spans Caddo and Grady Counties in Oklahoma. A private landholder returned four acres of sacred land in Cochise County, Arizona to the tribe, it is included in their trust lands. In 2011, the tribe won the right to establish a reservation in New Mexico, they now control 30 acres near New Mexico. The tribe operates its own housing program, Fort Sill Apache Industries, the Fort Sill Apache Casino in Lawton; the tribe's 2008 economic impact was $10 million. Working with the US Environmental Protection Agency, in 2007 the Fort Sill Tribe began to set up an environmental protection office: to abate illegal dumping, encourage recycling, train certified water operators, to educate the public about environmental issues.
The Fort Sill Apache Tribe is composed of Chiricahua Apache, who were made up of 4 bands: Chihende Chukunende Nde’ndai Bidánku The Apache are southern Athabaskan-speaking peoples who migrated many centuries ago from the subarctic to the southwestern region of what would become the United States. The Chiricahua settled in southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico of the present-day United States, northern Sonora, northern Chihuahua of present-day Mexico. By the late 19th century, the Chiricahua Apache territory encompassed an estimated 15 millions acres. In 1886 to break up the Apache Wars and resistance to European-American settlement, the US federal government took the Chiricahua into custody as prisoners of war and seized their land; the Army forcibly removed 400 members of the tribe from the Fort Apache and San Carlos Reservations in present-day Arizona, transported them to U. S. Army installations in Alabama and Florida; some warriors were held at Fort Pickens in Florida. Their ledger drawings are held in a collection by the Smithsonian Institution.
Many of the Apache Scouts who serve in the capture of Geronimo were arrested by the order of General Miles forced on the same train as Geronimo was on, the Apache Scouts came from the Tonto, Aravaipa, Apache Pecks, San Carlos, White Mountain Apache bands, some of the Apache Scouts where Apache chiefs were from different Apache bands. In 1894, the US Congress passed a special provision to allow the Chiricahua to be relocated to Indian Territory, they were the last Indian tribe to be relocated into. When the Chiricahua arrived at Fort Sill, they had been promised the lands surrounding the fort as theirs to settle. Local non-Indians resisted Apache settlement, the tribe was pressured to leave. Many wanted to return to their traditional lands in the Southwest, the Mescalero Apache offered them land on their reservation. A third of the Chiricahua stayed in Indian Territory, demanding that the US fulfill its promise to give them the Fort Sill lands; as a compromise, the government gave the remaining Chiricahua land which it had classified as surplus after allotment of tribal lands to individual households under the Dawes Act, on the nearby Kiowa-Comanche-Apache Reservation.
In 1914, the US government released 84 individuals from prisoner status and granted them household allotment lands around Fletcher and Apache, Oklahoma. The Fort Sill Apache struggled for survival in the ensuing years in the economically depressed areas of southwestern Oklahoma; the tribe seized the opportunity afforded by Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936. Persevering through the difficulty of satisfying documentation requirements for tribal continuity, they were recognized by the federal government as a tribe in 1976; the first chairperson, elected in 1976, was Mildred Cleghorn, one of the last Chiricahua Apache born under "prisoner of war" status. She was an educator and traditional doll maker, was regarded as a cultural leader among the elders, she served as tribal chairperson until 1995 and focused on sustaining history and traditional Chiricahua culture. Allan Houser was the first Fort Sill Apache child to be born free, he became one of the most celebrated Native American sculptors of the 20th century.
His sons, Bob Haozous and Philip Haozous, are successful sculptors today and are both enrolled members of the tribe. Mildred Cleghorn, first chairperson of the tribe, one of the first women elected as tribal chairperson in the United States Bob Haozous, post-modern sculptor Allan Houser, modernist sculptor and painter Geronimo, tribal leader prior to imprisonment Fort Sill Apache Tribe-Chiricahua Warm Springs Apache, official website Fort Sill Apache Industries "Constitution and By-Laws", Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma