Dō. It is often used in Japanese Buddhism as a suffix in the name of some of the many buildings that can be part of a Japanese temple compound; the prefix can be the name of a deity associated with it or express the building's function within the temple's compound. Some words ending in -dō are Butsu-dō, hō-dō, hon-dō, jiki-dō, kaisan-dō, kō-dō, kon-dō, kyō-dō, mandara-dō, miei-dō, mi-dō, sō-dō, Yakushi-dō and zen-dō. With some exceptions, for example the words hondō, hokke-dō and kon-dō, these terms do not indicate any particular structure; the suffix is used sometimes in a lay context, as for example in the word shokudō. A dō's size is measured in ken, where a ken is the interval between two pillars of a traditional-style building. A kon-dō for example is a 9x7 ken; the word is translated in English as "bay" and is better understood as an indication of proportions than as a unit of measurement. Amida-dō – a building that enshrines a statue of Amida. Daishi-dō – lit. "great master hall". A building dedicated to Dengyō Daishi.
Hattō* – lit. Dharma hall". A building dedicated to lectures by the chief priest on Buddhism's scriptures. Hō-dō – see hattō. Hokke-dō* – lit. "Lotus Sūtra hall". In Tendai Buddhism, a hall whose layout allows walking around a statue for meditation; the purpose of walking is to seek the ultimate truth. Hon-dō* – lit. "main hall", it is the building that houses objects of cult. The term is thought to have evolved to avoid the term kon-dō used by six Nara sects for their main halls. Structurally similar, but its inner less defined. Jiki-dō* – a monastery's refectory. Kaisan-dō – founder's hall at a Zen temple. Building enshrining a statue, portrait or memorial tablet of the founder of either the temple or the sect it belongs to. Jōdo sect temples call it miei-dō. Kō-dō* – lecture hall of a non-Zen garan. Kon-dō* – lit. "golden hall", housing the main object of worship. Unlike a butsuden, it is a true two-story building which measures 9x7 bays. kyō-dō – see kyōzō. Kyōzō – lit. "scriptures deposit". Repository of sūtras and books about the temple's history.
Called kyō–dō. Mandara-dō – lit. "hall of mandalas", but the name is now used only for Taimadera's Main Hall in Nara. Miei-dō* – lit. "image hall". Building housing an image of the temple's founder, equivalent to a Zen sect's kaisan-dō. Mi-dō – a generic honorific term for a building which enshrines a sacred statue. Rokkaku-dō – a hexagonal temple building. An example of this type of structure gives its nickname to Kyoto's Chōhō-ji, better known as Rokkaku-dō. Shaka-dō – lit. Shakyamuni hall. A building enshrining a statue of Buddha. Sō-dō* – lit. "monk hall". A building dedicated to the practice of zazen, it used to be dedicated to all kinds of activities, from eating to sleeping, centered on zazen. Soshi-dō – lit. "patriarchs hall". A building dedicated to important teachers and priests. Yakushi-dō* – a building that enshrines a statue of Yakushi Nyorai. Zen-dō* – lit. "hall of Zen". The building where monks practice zazen, one of the main structures of a Zen garan
Japanese Buddhist architecture
Japanese Buddhist architecture is the architecture of Buddhist temples in Japan, consisting of locally developed variants of architectural styles born in China. After Buddhism arrived the continent via Three Kingdoms of Korea in the 6th century, an effort was made to reproduce original buildings as faithfully as possible, but local versions of continental styles were developed both to meet Japanese tastes and to solve problems posed by local weather, more rainy and humid than in China; the first Buddhist sects were Nara's six Nanto Rokushū, followed during the Heian period by Kyoto's Shingon and Tendai. During the Kamakura period, in Kamakura were born the Jōdo and the native Japanese sect Nichiren-shū. At the same time Zen Buddhism arrived from China influencing all other sects in many ways, including architecture; the social composition of Buddhism's followers changed radically with time. In the beginning it was the elite's religion, but it spread from the noble to warriors, merchants and to the population at large.
On the technical side, new woodworking tools like the framed pit saw and the plane allowed new architectonic solutions. Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines share their basic characteristics and differ only in details that the non-specialist may not notice; this similarity is because the sharp division between Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines is recent, dating to the Meiji period's policy of separation of Buddhism and Shinto of 1868. Before the Meiji Restoration it was common for a Buddhist temple to be built inside or next to a shrine, or for a shrine to include Buddhist sub-temples. If a shrine housed a Buddhist temple, it was called a jingū-ji. Analogously, temples all over Japan used to adopt tutelary kami (chinju and built shrines within their precincts to house them. After the forcible separation of temples and shrines ordered by the new government, the connection between the two religions was severed, but continued nonetheless in practice and is still visible today. Buddhist architecture in Japan during the country's whole history has absorbed much of the best available natural and human resources.
Between the 8th and the 16th centuries, it led the development of new structural and ornamental features. For these reasons, its history is vital to the understanding of not only Buddhist architecture itself, but of Japanese art in general. Buddhist architecture in Japan is not native, but was imported from China and other Asian cultures over the centuries with such constancy that the building styles of all Six Dynasties are represented, its history is as a consequence dominated by Chinese and other Asian techniques and styles on one side, by Japanese original variations on those themes on the other. Due to the variety of climates in Japan and the millennium encompassed between the first cultural import and the last, the result is heterogeneous, but several universal features can nonetheless be found. First of all is the choice of materials, always wood in various forms for all structures. Unlike both Western and some Chinese architecture, the use of stone is avoided except for certain specific uses, for example temple podia and pagoda foundations.
The general structure is always the same: columns and lintels support a large and curved roof, while the walls are paper-thin movable and in any case non-carrying. Arches and barrel roofs are absent. Gable and eave curves are gentler than in columnar entasis limited; the roof is the most visually impressive component constituting half the size of the whole edifice. The curved eaves extend far beyond the walls, covering verandas, their weight must therefore be supported by complex bracket systems called tokyō; these oversize eaves give the interior a characteristic dimness, which contributes to the temple's atmosphere. The interior of the building consists of a single room at the center called moya, from which sometimes depart other less important spaces, for example corridors called hisashi. Inner space divisions are fluid, room size can be modified through the use of screens or movable paper walls; the large, single space offered by the main hall can therefore be altered according to the need.
The separation between inside and outside is itself in some measure not absolute as entire walls can be removed, opening the temple to visitors. Verandas appear to be part of the building to an outsider, but part of the external world to those in the temple. Structures are therefore made to a certain extent part of their environment; the use of construction modules keeps proportions between different parts of the edifice constant, preserving its overall harmony. In cases as that of Nikkō Tōshō-gū, where every available space is decorated, ornamentation tends to follow, therefore emphasize rather than hide, basic structures. Being shared by both sacred and profane architecture, these architectonic features made it easy converting a lay building into a temple; this happened for example at Hōryū-ji, where a noblewoman's mansion was transformed into a religious building. Buddhism is not a Japanese native religion, its architecture arrived from the continent via Korea together with the first Buddhists in the 6th century.
Adopted in the wake of the Battle of Shigisan in 587, after that date Buddhist temples began to be constructed. Because of the hostility of supporters of local kami beliefs towards Buddhism, no temple of that period survives, so we don't know what they were like
Hiyoshi-zukuri or hie-zukuri called shōtei-zukuri / shōtai-zukuri or sannō-zukuri is a rare Shinto shrine architectural style presently found in only three instances, all at Hiyoshi Taisha in Ōtsu, hence the name. They are the Sessha Usa Jingū Honden, it is characterized by a hip-and gable roof with verandas called hisashi on the sides. It has a hirairi structure, that is, the building has its main entrance on the side which runs parallel to the roof's ridge; the building is composed of a 3x2 ken core called moya surrounded on three sides by a 1-ken wide hisashi, totaling 5x3 ken. The three-sided hisashi is typical of this style; the gabled roof extends in small porticos on the two gabled sides. The roof on the back has a characteristic shape
Tsumairi or Tsumairi-zukuri is a Japanese traditional architectural structure where the building has its main entrance on one or both of the gabled sides. The kasuga-zukuri, taisha-zukuri, sumiyoshi-zukuri Shinto architectural styles all belong to this type
Okayama is the capital city of Okayama Prefecture in the Chūgoku region of Japan. The city was founded on June 1, 1889; as of February 2017, the city has an estimated population of 720,841 and a population density of 910 persons per km². The total area is 789.88 square kilometres. The city is the site of Kōraku-en, known as one of the top three traditional gardens in Japan, Okayama Castle, ranked among the best 100 Japanese castles; the city is famous as the setting of the Japanese fable "Momotarō". Before the Muromachi period, Okayama was one corner of a farm region and included a small castle built by the Kanemitsu. In the Sengoku period, Ukita Naoie attacked Okayama and attacked the castle for the transportation resources and extensive farmland in the region. Naoie remodeled the castle, built the old Sanyo road to the central part of the castle town, called in craftsmen both from inside and outside of Bizen Province. Okayama became the economical capital of Bizen Province. In 1600, Ukita Hideie, the son of Naoie and the lord of Okayama, lost at the Battle of Sekigahara.
The next year, Kobayakawa Hideaki became the feudal lord of Okayama Domain. Hideaki died in 1602, ending the Kobayakawa line. Ikeda Tadatugu, the feudal lord of Himeji Domain, became the next lord of Okayama. After this time, Okayama was ruled by the Ikedas until the latter part of the 19th century. Continuing its economic development, Okayama became one of the ten best large castle towns in Japan in the 18th century; the Korakuen Garden was developed by Ikeda Tsunamasa. On August 29, 1871, the new Meiji government of the Empire of Japan replaced the traditional feudal domain system with centralized government authority. Okayama became the capital of Okayama Prefecture. In 1889, Okayama City was founded. In the Meiji period, a railroad was built in Okayama city that enhanced the development of the city. For example, the Sixth Higher Middle School and Okayama Medical College were established in Okayama City. Okayama became one of the most important places in western Japan for education; when World War II began, Okayama city had a Japanese Army base camp.
On June 29, 1945, the city was attacked by the US Army Air Forces with incendiary bombs. All the city was burned, more than 1700 people were killed. Okayama suffered terrible damage in the war. During Japan's economic boom of the 1960s, Okayama developed as one of the most important cities in the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions. In 1972, the Sanyō Shinkansen began service between Okayama stations. Two years Shinkansen service was extended to Hakata. In 1988, the Seto-Ōhashi Bridge was opened, connected Okayama with Shikoku directly by rail and road; the city became a core city in 1996 and a designated city on April 1, 2009. The city of Okayama is located in the southern part of Okayama Prefecture, which in turn is located in western part of the island of Honshū; the city is bounded on the south by the Inland Sea. Asahi River crosses Okayama. Since Okayama became a designated city in 2009, the city has been divided into four wards. On March 22, 2005 - the town of Mitsu, the town of Nadasaki were merged into Okayama.
On January 22, 2007 - the town of Takebe, the town of Seto were merged into Okayama. Kojima and Akaiwa Districts have all since been dissolved as a result of these mergers. Okayama has a mild climate in comparison to most of Japan; the city is ranked as the fourth sunniest city in the Chūgoku region. The climate is classified under the Köppen climate classification as humid subtropical; the local climate is warm enough throughout the year to support olive trees. Okayama is called "The Sunny Country" because of its low rainfall; the city is located in the Okayama Plain, where rice and white Chinese chives are notable products. White peaches and grapes are cultivated in the northern part of the city. In 2005, the city's gross domestic product was 800 billion yen, nearly 10% of the GDP of Okayama Prefecture. Greater Okayama, Okayama Metropolitan Employment Area, has a GDP of US$63.1 billion as of 2010. The main industries are machine tools, chemicals and printing. Kōnan, a district in the southern part of the city, is the most developed industrial zone.
Okayama is the core of the Okayama metropolitan area, which includes the cities of Kurashiki and Sōja. The main commercial district is Omotechō, near Okayama Castle and Kōraku-en, the area surrounding Okayama Station. Omotechō has many covered shopping arcades; the headquarters of Aeon Corporation, a private English language school with more than 3,000 employees, is located in Okayama. Okayama Castle and Kōraku-en are Okayama's most notable attractions. Okayama Castle was constructed in 1597 by a Japanese feudal lord, it was destroyed by bombing in 1945 during World War II but reconstructed in 1966. Kōraku-en, known as one of the three best traditional gardens in Japan, lies south of the castle grounds. Kōrakuen was constructed by Ikeda Tsunamasa over 14 years, completed in 1700. Sōgen-ji, a large Buddhist monastery belonging to the Rinzai sect, is located near the center of the city. Several of the abbots of major monasteries in Kyoto are from Sōgen-ji; every August since 1994 Okayama has seen the Momotarō Matsuri, an amalgam of three different festivals, including the ""Uraja"" festival, a kind
Minka are vernacular houses constructed in any one of several traditional Japanese building styles. In the context of the four divisions of society, minka were the dwellings of farmers and merchants; this connotation no longer exists in the modern Japanese language, any traditional Japanese-style residence of an appropriate age could be referred to as minka. Minka are characterised by their roof structure and their roof shape. Minka developed through history with distinctive styles emerging in the Edo period; the term minka means "houses of the people". It covers houses that accommodated a wide variety of people from farmers to village headmen and low level samurai. Minka come in a wide range of styles and sizes as a result of differing geographic and climatic conditions as well as the lifestyle of the inhabitants, they fall into one of four classifications: farmhouses nōka town houses machiya, fishermen's dwellings gyoka and mountain dwellings sanka. Unlike other forms of Japanese architecture, it is the structure rather than the plan, of primary importance to the minka.
Minka are divided up with primary posts that form the basic framework and bear the structural load of the building. Despite the wide variety of minka, there are eight basic forms. The'inverted U' consists of two vertical posts fixed at the top with a horizontal beam; the beam can be fixed to the top of the post either by resting upon it or via a mortise and tenon joint. This latter method is found in minka on the island of Shikoku. The'ladder' has post and beam units connected with larger beams including beams that are closer to the foundation level; this form of structure originated in townhouses of the Edo period. The system allows the irregular placement of posts and, allows flexibility in the plan. With the'umbrella' style, four beams radiate out from a central post; these posts sit at the centre of the square rather than the corners. Minka of this type are found in Shiga Prefecture. The'cross' has two beams at right angles to one another with the posts in the centre of the sides, it is used for small minka that have no other posts erected in the space or for large minka in the earth-floored area.
The style is most found in Shiga and Fukui prefectures.'Parallel crosses' are found in Shizuoka Prefecture and cover an area 5 metres by 10 metres. This system doubles up the ` cross' structure with eight posts; the ` box' structure connects four or more beam units to create a box-like structure. It can be found in Toyama and Ishikawa prefectures. The'interconnected box' can be found in Kyoto and Osaka.'Rising beams' is a form that enables better use of the second storey. It uses beams that rise from the posts to a secondary ridge, below the one formed by the rafters. Thatched roof farmhouses based upon the'rising beam' structure can be further classified into four major types; the yojiro-gumi and the wagoya are rare. The latter of these, the wagoya, is popular for machiya houses. Far more common are the odachi types; the odachi style has rafters and short vertical posts to support the ridge. These posts would have extended to the ground resulting in a row of posts extending down the centre of the house and dividing it.
Although these could be accommodated in the layout of the main house, they were impractical in the earth-floored entrance area—so they were omitted and a special beam structure used instead. This style was in wide use until the Edo period; the sasu style is a simpler triangular shape with a pair of rafters joined at the top to support the ridge pole. The ends of these rafters were sharpened to fit into mortice holes at either end of crossbeam; as this system does not rely on central posts it leaves a more unobstructed plan than the odachi style. There were two main methods for setting out the floor plan of the minka; the kyoma method uses a standard size of tatami mat, whereas the inakama method is based upon column spacing. The kyoma method works well for minka without central columns as the mats and the sliding partitions can be based on a standard size, it was used in minka in eastern Japan. The method has its disadvantages if used with posts because variations in post width can make the prefabrication of the sliding partitions difficult.
The inakama method is based upon the distance between centre of one post and centre of the post adjacent to it and it was used on the eastern side of Japan. The size and decoration of a minka was dependent upon its location and social status of its owner. Minka were influenced by local building techniques and were built with materials that were abundant in the immediate locality. For example, minka in Shizuoka used abundant bamboo for roofs, eaves and floors; when miscanthus reeds were difficult to obtain for thatched roofs, shingles were used instead. Climate had a bearing on construction: In Kyoto in the late Heian and Muromachi periods, roofs were clad in thin wooden shingles so owners would put stones on top to prevent the shingles from flying away in the wind; the social status of the minka owner was indicated by the complexity of the building. For thatched roof minka the nu
In Japanese architecture a mokoshi "skirt storey" or "cuff storey", is a decorative pent roof surrounding a building below the true roof. Since it does not correspond to any internal division, the mokoshi gives the impression of there being more floors than there are, it is a ken deep and is most seen in Buddhist temples and pagodas. The mokoshi covers a hisashi, a walled aisle surrounding a building on one or more sides, but can be attached directly to the core of the structure, in which case there is no hisashi; the roofing material for the mokoshi can be the different as in the main roof. The name derives from the fact that it surrounds and hides the main building like the cuff of a pair of pants, its purpose was in fact to hide the thick sustaining pillars of the structure, making it look lighter and simpler. It has been used extensively by the Zen sects in various structures of its temple complexes. Another name for a mokoshi is yuta, hence the name yuta-zukuri given to the style of a building featuring it.
This name started being used during the Middle Ages, stems from the idea that its presence offered protection from snow. The three storied east pagoda of Yakushi-ji seems to have six stories because of the presence of a mokoshi between each story; the first of the kon-dō's two stories at Hōryū-ji has a mokoshi, added in the Nara period with extra posts. These were needed to hold up the original first roof, which extended more than four meters past the building. Hōryū-ji's is the oldest extant example of mokoshi; the butsuden of a Zen temple has a mokoshi, therefore looks like a two-story building, although in fact it is not. The following structures all have a mokoshi